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    Форум » Дж.Р.Р. Толкин » Произведения Толкина » The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 14:03 | Сообщение # 76
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    APPENDIX F

    For drafts and history of Appendix F, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 19-84.
    THE LANGUAGES AND PEOPLES OF THE THIRD AGE
    1127 (III: 405): Of the Eldarin tongues
    1127 (III: 405). Of the Eldarin tongues two are found in this book - On
    25 April 1954 Tolkien wrote to Naomi Mitchison:
    Two of the Elvish tongues appear in this book. They have some sort of existence, since I have composed them in some sort of completeness, as well as their history and account of their relationship. They are intended (a) to be definitely of a European kind in style and structure (not in detail); and (b) to be specially pleasant. The former is not difficult to achieve; but the latter is more difficult, since individuals' personal predilections, especially in the phonetic structure of languages, varies widely, even when modified by the imposed languages (including their so-called 'native' tongue).
    I have therefore pleased myself. The archaic language of lore is meant to be a kind of 'Elven-latin', and by transcribing it into a spelling closely resembling that of Latin (except that y is only used as a consonant, as y in E[nglish] Yes) the similarity to Latin had been increased ocularly. Actually it might be said to be composed on a Latin basis with two other (main) ingredients that happened to give me 'phonaesthetic' pleasure: Finnish and Greek. It is however less consonantal than any of the three. This language is High-elven or in its own terms Quenya (Elvish).
    The living language of the Western Elves {Sindarin or Grey-elven) is the one usually met, especially in names. This is derived from an origin common to it and Quenya; but the changes have been deliberately devised to give it a linguistic character very like (though not identical with) British-Welsh: because that character is one that I find, in some linguistic moods, very attractive; and because it seems to fit the rather 'Celtic' type of legends and stories told of its speakers. [Letters, pp. 175-6]
    1127, n. 1 (III: 405, n. 1): In Lorien at this period
    1127, n. 1 (III: 405, n. 1). In Lorien at this period ... adapted to Sindarin.
    - This footnote was added in the second edition (1965).





    738 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION

    1128 (III: 406): The Exiles, dwelling
    1128 (III: 406). the Lady Galadriel of the royal house of Finarfin and sister of Finrod Felagund, King of Nargofhrond - As first published this passage read: 'the Lady Galadriel of the royal house of Finrod, father of Felagund, lord of Nargofhrond'. In the second edition (1965) it was altered to: 'the Lady Galadriel of the royal house of Finarphir and sister of Finrod Felagund, King of Nargofhrond'. By the ninth printing (1978) of the Allen & Unwin second edition 'Finarphir' was changed by Christopher Tolkien to 'Finarfin', as in The Silmarillion. See also note for p. 1137.
    1128-9 (HI: 406): The Dunedain alone of all races
    1128 (HI: 406). The Dunedain alone of all races of Men knew and spoke an Elvish tongue - On 17 December 1972 Tolkien wrote to Richard Jeffery:
    At the time of the L.R.... Quenya had been a 'dead' [language] (sc. not one inherited in childhood, but learnt) for many centuries (actu­ally] about 6,000 years). The 'High-Elves' or exiled Noldor had, for reasons that the legend of their rebellion and exile from Valinor explains, at once adopted Sindarin, and even translated their QJuenya] names into S[indarin] or adapted them. ... It may be noted that at the end of the Third Age there were prob[ably] more people (Men) that knew QJuenya], or spoke S[indarin], than there were Elves that did either! Though dwindling, the population of Minas Tirith and its fiefs must have been much greater than that of Lindon, Rivendell, and Lorien. (The Silvan Elves of Thranduil's realm did not speak S[indarin] but a related language or dialect.) In Gondor the generally used language was 'Wes-tron', a lang[uage] about as mixed as mod[ern] English, but basically derived from the native lang[uage] of the Niimenoreans; but Sindarin was an acquired polite language and used by those of more pure N[umenorean] descent, especially] in Minas Tirith, if they wished to be polite (as in the cry Ernil i Pheriannath ... and Master Perian ...). [Letters, p. 425]
    1128, n. 1 (III: 406, n. 1): Quenya, for example
    1128, n. 1 (III: 406, n. 1). Most of the names of the other men and
    women___Some few are of mixed forms, as Boromir. - As first published
    these sentences read: 'The names of other lords of the Dunedain, such as Aragorn, Denethor, Faramir, are of Sindarin form, being often the names of Elves or Men remembered in the songs and histories of the First Age.' They were revised in the second edition (1965).
    1131 (III: 409): So it was that in the Third Age
    1131 (III: 409). less unlovely than Orkish. In this jargon tark, 'man of Gondor', was a debased form of tarkil, a Quenya word used in Westron





    APPENDIX F 739

    for one of Numenorean descent; see p. 906 [see III, 182]. - The sentence following 'Orkish' was added in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1131-2 (III: 409-10): It is said that the Black Speech
    1131 (III: 409). the Black Speech - Tolkien commented to Naomi Mitchison on 25 April 1954: 'The Black Speech was used only in Mordor.... It was never used willingly by any other people, and consequently even the names of places in Mordor are in English (for the C.S. [Common Speech]) or Elvish' (Letters, p. 178).
    1132 (III: 410). Sharku in that tongue means old man. - This sentence was added in the second edition (1965), originally with the name spelt 'Sharku'. Tolkien later emended the macron to a circumflex in a check copy of The Return of the King. (Cf. Appendix E, p. 1116, III: 393-4: 'In Sindarin long vowels in stressed monosyllables are marked with the circumflex, since they tended in such cases to be specially prolonged'.)
    ON TRANSLATION
    1133 (III: 411): The Common Speech
    1133 (HI: 411). The Common Speech ... has inevitably been turned into modern English. - On 25 April 1954 Tolkien wrote to Naomi Mitchison that the issue of translation had given him much thought.
    It seems seldom regarded by other creators of imaginary worlds, how­ever gifted as narrators (such as [E.R.] Eddison [author of The Worm Ouroboros, etc.]). But then I am a philologist, and much though I should like to be precise on other cultural aspects and features, that is not within my competence. Anyway 'language' is the most important, for the story has to be told, and the dialogue conducted in a language; but English cannot have been the language of any people at that time. What I have, in fact done, is to equate the Westron or wide-spread Common Speech of the Third Age with English; and translate every­thing, including names such as The Shire, that was in the Westron into English terms, with some differentiation of style to represent dialectal differences. Languages quite alien to the C.S. [Common Speech] have been left alone. Except for a few scraps in the Black Speech of Mordor, and a few names and a battle-cry in Dwarvish, these are almost entirely Elvish (Eldarin).
    Languages, however, that were related to the Westron presented a special problem. I turned them into forms of speech related to English. Since the Rohirrim are represented as recent comers out of the North, and users of an archaic Mannish language relatively untouched by the influence of Eldarin, I have turned their names into forms like (but not identical with) Old English. The language of Dale and the Long Lake





    740 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION
    would, if it appeared, be represented as more or less Scandinavian in character; but it is only represented by a few names, especially those of the Dwarves that came from that region. These are all Old Norse Dwarf-names. [Letters, pp. 174-5]
    In The Peoples of Middle-earth Christopher Tolkien comments that, as it seems from the available evidence, the idea of 'translation' in The Lord of the Rings 'evolved gradually, as the history, linguistic and other, was consolidated and became increasingly coherent' (p. 70). See further, The Peoples of Middle-earth, Chapter 2.
    1134 (III: 412-13): The name of the Shire
    1134 (III: 412). The name of the Shire (Suza) - In Nomenclature Tolkien comments, in regard to Shire and words in other languages with the meaning 'district', that 'the Old Norse and modern Icelandic sysla (Swedish syssla, Danish syssel, now obsolete in sense amt, but occurring in place-names) was in mind when I said that the real untranslated name of the Shire was Suza....'
    1136-7 (III: 415): The still more northerly language
    1137 (III: 415). Naugrim - The Sindarin name ('the stunted people') for the Dwarves.
    1137 (III: 415-16): Elves has been used
    1137 (III: 416). They were tall, fair of skin and grey-eyed, though their locks were dark, save in the golden house of Finarfin - As first published, 'Finarfin' read 'Finrod'. In the Allen & Unwin three-volume paperback edition (1974) 'Finrod' was changed to 'Finarphir' (first and second print­ings), then to 'Finarphin' (third printing, 1975), and finally 'Finarfin' (fourth printing, 1976), as Christopher Tolkien determined the name to be used in The Silmarillion (1977).
    In context, these words seem to apply to the Eldar as a whole. In The Book of Lost Tales, Part One, pp. 43-4 (compare The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 76-7), however, Christopher Tolkien quotes a draft for the final para­graph of Appendix F in which it is said that 'the Noldor belonged to a race high and beautiful, the elder Children of the world, who now are gone. Tall they were, fair-skinned and grey-eyed, and their locks were dark, save in the golden house of Finrod.' Christopher explains:
    Thus these words describing characters of face and hair were actually written of the Noldor only, and not of all the Eldar: indeed the Vanyar had golden hair, and it was from Finarfin's Vanyarin mother Indis that he, and Finrod Felagund and Galadriel his children, had their golden hair that marked them out among the princes of the Noldor. But I am unable to determine how this extraordinary perversion of meaning arose, [p. 44]





    APPENDIX F 741

    In the edition of 2004 a footnote by the present authors was added to p. 1137 ('These words describing characters of face and hair in fact applied only to the Noldor: see The Book of Lost Tales, Part One, p. 44') to explain the distinction, in preference to rewriting Tolkien's words, within a finely cadenced paragraph.


     
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 14:03 | Сообщение # 77
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    EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER BY J.R.R. TOLKIEN
    TO MILTON WALDMAN, ?LATE 1951,
    ON THE LORD OF THE RINGS
    As mentioned already in our 'Brief History', when Tolkien had completed The Lord of the Rings in 1949 (excepting final revisions and the Appendices) he greatly desired to see it published in conjunction with 'The Silmarillion', though only parts of the latter yet existed in fair copy. Because George Allen & Unwin had earlier rejected 'The Silmarillion' as a successor to The Hobbit, Tolkien now felt that he should change his publisher; and around this time Milton Waldman, an editor with the London firm Collins, expressed an interest in publishing both 'The Silmarillion' and The Lord of the Rings, which Allen & Unwin judged impractical due to their com­bined length, given costs and the continued rationing of paper after the Second World War.
    Probably in late 1951 Tolkien wrote a long letter to Milton Waldman to demonstrate the relationship of the two works, which Tolkien considered interdependent, 'one long Saga of the Jewels and the Rings' (as he wrote to Waldman in earlier correspondence, Letters, p. 139). Most of this text was published in Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, pp. 143-61, but parts were omitted, in particular a summary of The Lord of the Rings, a work already well known to the intended audience of the collection. (A short extract later appeared in Sauron Defeated, pp. 129,132.) It seems appropriate, however, to include that omitted text in the present book as further documentation of the history of The Lord of the Rings, together with related preceding and following paragraphs. The making and nature of the One Ring belong to the Second Age, and are described in Letters pp. 152-4. At the time of this letter Tolkien still intended to include an Epilogue at the end of Book VI.
    For the present text we have followed a copy kindly supplied to us by Christopher Tolkien of that part of the typescript made by order of Milton Waldman from Tolkien's original manuscript letter (apparently not extant). Except for a few silent corrections of minor typographical errors, we have retained capitalization, punctuation, etc. as found. Other portions of the letter are given as published in Letters. (An independent edition of the portion omitted from Letters was published, together with the complete letter to Waldman translated into French and with notes by Michael Devaux, in Tolkien: Les racines du legendaire, La Feuille de la Compagnie Cahier d'etudes tolkieniennes 2 (Geneve: Ad Solem), autumne 2003, pp. 19— 81. Devaux earlier published the complete letter in French, with commen­tary, as 'Lettre a Milton Waldman: L'horizon de la Terre du Milieu' in Conference 12 (Printemps 2001), pp. 707-56.)





    FROM A LETTER BY J.R.R. TOLKIEN TO MILTON WALDMAN 743

    The sequel [to The Hobbit], The Lord of the Rings, much the largest, and I hope also in proportion the best, of the entire cycle [including also 'The Silmarillion'], concludes the whole business - an attempt is made to include in it, and wind up, all the elements and motives of what has preceded: elves, dwarves, the Kings of Men, heroic 'Homeric' horsemen, ores and demons, the terrors of the Ring-servants and Necromancy, and the vast horror of the Dark Throne, even in style it is to include the colloquialism and vulgarity of Hobbits, poetry and the highest style of prose. We are to see the overthrow of the last incarnation of Evil, the unmaking of the Ring, the final departure of the Elves, and the return in majesty of the true King, to take over the Dominion of Men, inheriting all that can be transmitted of Elfdom in his high marriage with Arwen daugh­ter of Elrond, as well as the lineal royalty of Numenor. But as the earliest Tales are seen through Elvish eyes, as it were, this last great Tale, coming down from myth and legend to the earth, is seen mainly through the eyes of Hobbits: it thus becomes in fact anthropocentric. But through Hobbits, not Men so-called, because the last Tale is to exemplify most clearly a recurrent theme: the place in 'world politics' of the unforeseen and unfore­seeable acts of will, and deeds of virtue of the apparently small, ungreat, forgotten in the places of the Wise and Great (good as well as evil). A moral of the whole (after the primary symbolism of the Ring, as the will to mere power, seeking to make itself objective by physical force and mechanism, and so also inevitably by lies) is the obvious one that without the high and noble the simple and vulgar is utterly mean; and without the simple and ordinary the noble and heroic is meaningless.
    It is not possible even at great length to 'pot' The Lord of the Rings in a paragraph or two.... It was begun in 1936 [sic, for 1937], and every part has been written many times. Hardly a word in its 600,000 or more has been unconsidered. And the placing, size, style, and contribution to the whole of all the features, incidents, and chapters has been laboriously pondered. I do not say this in recommendation. It is, I feel, only too likely that I am deluded, lost in a web of vain imaginings of not much value to others - in spite of the fact that a few readers have found it good, on the whole.* [* But as each has disliked this or that, I should (if I took all the criticisms together and obeyed them) find little left, and am forced to the conclusion that so great a work (in size) cannot be perfect, nor even if perfect, be liked entirely by any one reader.] What I intend to say is this: I cannot substantially alter the thing. I have finished it, it is 'off my mind': the labour has been colossal; and it must stand or fall, practically as it is.
    The Lord of the Rings opens on the same scene as The Hobbit some sixty years later. It begins with a chapter, somewhat similar in style, that in title (A Long-expected Party) and content is a deliberate parallel to the first chapter of the earlier book. Bilbo is now 111 years old - old age for a





    744 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION
    hobbit* [* The normal span of hobbits is represented as being roughly in the proportion of 100 to our 80.] He has adopted as his heir his favourite kinsman of a younger generation, Frodo. He is generally envied for his wealth and apparendy unaging health; but conversation between Bilbo and Gandalf reveals that all is not well with the old hobbit: he is finding life 'thin' and wearisome. Gandalf shows a certain anxious curiosity about his ring.
    The introduction ends with the sudden disappearance in the midst of his own birthday-party of the Hobbit, Bilbo, never to be seen in the Shire again. It is his last use of the ring. Gandalf induces him to leave it behind with his heir, Frodo. All his other trophies of the old adventure he takes with him, and departs - to an 'unknown destination' (but of course to the House of Elrond and peaceful memory of the past).
    Some seventeen years elapse. Frodo is now of the age that Bilbo was when he went on his Quest. He also preserves his youth, but is afflicted with resdessness. Rumours of troubles in the great world outside reach the Hobbits, especially of the rise again of the Enemy or Dark Lord. Gandalf, after long absences on perilous journeys of search, returns and reveals that Bilbo's ring is The Ring, the One; and that the Enemy is aware of its existence, and probably through the treachery of Gollum knows where it is. Something of the history of the Ring is sketched (mainly how it came into the 'accidental' keeping of Gollum).
    Frodo makes plans to fly in secret - to the House of Elrond. A tryst is made for the autumn, but Gandalf fails to keep it*, and Frodo and his hobbit-servant Sam and two younger kinsmen go off alone into the wild - in the nick of time, just as the Black Riders of Mordor (the Nine Ring-slaves in disguise) reach the Shire. [* It is later revealed that this is owing to the treason of Saruman, chief wizard, who attempts to imprison Gandalf and force him to join the Enemy party.] Over all the 400 miles to Elrond they are pursued by the terror, and are brought through only by the help of a strange man met in an inn, known to some as Strider. His stature and power are only slowly manifested. Frodo receives a desperate wound from the Captain of the Black Riders, and is at Death's door, when at last the fugitives escape and come to Elrond. The First Book ends with the destruction of the Black Riders (in that form) and the reception of the Ring-bearer by Elrond.
    The Second Book - which must, as explained before, begin with a pause, before a complete change of direction, after healing and refreshment and the gaining of wisdom - begins with the healing of Frodo, the meeting of Frodo and Bilbo again, the council of die Wise, and the making of the plan for the Final Quest: the unmaking of the Ring. At the end of the year in the mid-winter (the most unlooked-for time) the Company of the Ring sets out, in the most unlooked-for direction: towards the land of the Enemy.
    The Company of Nine, as counterpart to the Nine Riders, and as





    FROM A LETTER BY J.R.R. TOLKIEN TO MILTON WALDMAN 745
    representing all the chief elements of resistance to the Dark Power, contains Gandalf, the four Hobbits, Boromir, a lord of Gondor; Strider, now revealed as Aragorn, heir of Isildur, and hidden claimant to the Ancient Crown; an Elf; and a Dwarf. Their adventures start on a plane and in a style resembling that of The Hobbit but rise steadily to a higher level. All the characters are slowly revealed in their nature and in their change [sic, apparently a typist's error, omitting a word or words].
    There is a sense throughout of a hidden watch on their movements, a constant hostility even of beasts and inanimate things. The Company is driven to attempt the passage of the ominous Mines of Moria, and there Gandalf falls into an abyss in the act of saving them from a trap. Aragorn leads them on through Lorien, a guarded Elvish land - at which point I make the perilous and difficult attempt to catch at close quarters the air of timeless Elvish enchantment; and they proceed down the Great River, until they pass the water-gate into the old realm of Gondor. At last halting at the vast Falls of Rauros they are almost in sight of the Black Land east, and of the last City of Gondor westward. Decision what to do, long put off, must now be faced, for with the loss of Gandalf much of his plans and purpose remain unknown even to Aragorn.
    The Second Book ends in disaster, and the breaking up of the Company (owing to the secret working of the Ring, that excites the lust of Boromir of Gondor). Frodo and Sam go off east alone on their desperate mission to bring the Ring to the Enemy's own country, and cast it in the Fire. Aragorn is placed in a dilemma. He may go after Frodo with small hope of finding him, or even so of helping him, and abandon the two hobbits that have been captured by Ores, the enemies' soldiers. Or he may rescue the Hobbits, and leave Frodo and Sam to their hopeless errand. All through the book hints of the watchfulness of spies have multiplied. Also it becomes at last clear that Gollum himself has picked up their trail and is dogging the footsteps of the Ringbearer. At the last the Black Riders reappear in still more terrible form, winged riders in the air. The book ends with the death of Boromir fighting the Ores in an effort to redeem himself for his fall - he had tried to take the Ring from Frodo by force.
    The Third Book deals with the fate and adventures of all the Companions save Frodo and Sam, who have passed beyond knowledge and aid. It treats of the adventures of the two young hobbits captured by Ores, and their rise to heroism; and of the desperate effort of Aragorn and the Elf and Dwarf to overtake them and rescue them. But it also introduces one to the greater politics of the defence of the West, and to the preparations for the last war and battle with Sauron. It is crossed by the lesser war with Saruman chief of the Wise who has turned himself to evil, and seeks for domination, playing into the hands (more or less wittingly) of the Dark Lord. We meet the noble Riders of Rohan, the Rohirrim, and their King in his Golden Hall; and the book ends with the destruction of Saruman's stronghold in Isengard and the reunion of all the Companions (save Frodo and Sam).





    746 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION
    Gandalf reappears - changed and more evidentiy superhuman after his combat in the abyss. The book ends with the appearance of a great Nazgul (Black Rider of the Air), a signal that the major and final war is about to open. A great darkness spreads from Mordor over all the lands. Gandalf with one hobbit rides like the wind to Gondor.
    The Fourth Book deals with the perils and labours of Frodo and Sam. Gollum reappears, and is 'tamed' by Frodo: that is by the power of the Ring he is cowed to a Caliban-like servitude at first, but slowly Frodo awakes his long-buried better self: he begins to love Frodo as a good and kind master. This regeneration is constantly hindered by the suspicion and dislike of the faithful Sam. It is finally frustrated by an impatient and impulsive rebuke of Sam's at a critical moment, when Gollum was poised on the brink of repentance. Gollum relapses into hatred and treachery. But he is essential: only by his guidance could the hobbits even approach the Black Land. They pass the Dead Marshes. They come to the desolation before the Black Gates of Mordor. They are impassable. Gollum leads them away southward to a secret pass in the western walls of the land. They meet and are aided by Faramir, Boromir's brother, of Gondor, who is conducting perilous forays upon the Forces of Sauron. They pass at last into the Mountains of Shadow, and here are delivered into a trap by the treachery of Gollum. The Book ends in apparent disaster. Frodo stricken down by the monstrous Spider - guardian of the pass, lies as dead. Sam now begins his rise to supremely heroic stature. He fights the Spider, rescues his master's body, assumes the ghastly burden of the Ring, and is preparing to stagger on alone in an attempt to carry out the impossible errand. But at the last moment, Ores come, carry off his beloved Master's body, and his primary loyalty to [his] master triumphs. He pursues them, learns that Frodo is only poison-drugged, and flings himself senseless and in despair against the brazen door of the Ores, as it closes. So the book ends.
    The Fifth Book returns to the precise point at which Book Three ended. Gandalf on his great horse (with the Hobbit Peregrin Took) passing along the great 'north-road', South to Gondor. Now we come to the half-ruinous Byzantine City of Minas Tirith, and meet its grim lord, the old proud wizard-like Steward, Denethor. He prepares for war and hopeless siege. The last levies from the remaining fiefs march in. The great darkness comes. The Nazgul ride the air, cowing all hearts. Slowly the assault begins and mounts in fire and terror. Denethor commits suicide. The Sorcerer-King, Captain of the Black Riders, overthrows the 'unbreakable' gates of the City. Gandalf alone is left to face him.
    The siege is raised at the last moment by the coming at last of the Riders of Rohan, led by their ancient king Theoden. The charge of their horsemen saves the field. Then the great battle of the Pelennor Fields is joined. Theoden falls. Victory turns towards the Enemy, but Aragorn appears in the Great River with a fleet, coming as the Numenoreans of old


     
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 14:03 | Сообщение # 78
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    NOMENCLATURE OF THE LORD OF THE RINGS
    The first translations of The Lord of the Rings were those in Dutch (In de ban van de ring) and Swedish (Sagan om ringen), published in 1956-7 and 1959-61 respectively. In each instance Tolkien objected strongly to the work while in progress, especially in regard to the alteration of names as he had written them. On 3 July 1956 he wrote to Rayner Unwin concerning the version in Dutch:
    In principle I object as strongly as is possible to the 'translation' of the nomenclature at all (even by a competent person). I wonder why a translator should think himself called on or entitled to do any such thing. That this is an 'imaginary' world does not give him any right to remodel it according to his fancy, even if he could in a few months create a new coherent structure which it took me years to work out.
    The correct way to translate The Lord of the Rings, he felt, 'is to leave the maps and nomenclature alone as far as possible, but to substitute for some of the least-wanted Appendices a glossary of names (with meanings but no ref[erence]s.). I could supply one for translation. May I say at once that I will not tolerate any similar tinkering with the personal nomenclature. Nor with the name/word Hobbif (Letters, pp. 249-51). But he was only partly successful in turning the Dutch translator to his point of view, despite lengthy correspondence. Later he had a similar experience with the Swedish The Lord of the Rings, all the more distressing because the transla­tor of the first Swedish Hobbit (Hompen, 1947) had also taken liberties with the text. On 7 December 1957 Tolkien wrote to Rayner Unwin: T do hope that it can be arranged, if and when any further translations are negotiated [after the Dutch and Swedish], that I should be consulted at an early stage.... After all, I charge nothing, and can save a translator a good deal of time and puzzling; and if consulted at an early stage my remarks will appear far less in the light of peevish criticisms' (Letters, p. 263).
    At length Tolkien himself took the initiative. He continued to prefer that The Lord of the Rings in translation preserve the essential Englishness of many of its personal and place-names; but he came to accept that other translators were likely to take a line similar to those of the Dutch and Swedish editions, who had sometimes misunderstood their source, and instead of insisting on no translation of nomenclature, he attempted to influence the translator through an explanatory document. On 2 January 1967 he wrote to Otto B. Lindhardt, of the Danish publisher Gyldendals Bibliotek, who were planning to publish The Lord of the Rings in Danish, that 'experience in attempting to help translators or in reading their ver-





    NOMENCLATURE OF THE LORD OF THE RINGS 751

    sions has made me realize that the nomenclature of persons and places offers particular difficulty', but is important 'since it was constructed with considerable care, to fit with the supposed history of the period described. I have therefore recently been engaged in making, and have nearly com­pleted, a commentary on the names in this story, with explanations and suggestions for the use of a translator, having especially in mind Danish and German' (Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins).
    Tolkien's 'commentary' for many years was photocopied by Allen & Unwin and sent to translators of The Lord of the Rings as an aid to their work. After Tolkien's death it was edited by his son Christopher and published in A Tolkien Compass (1975) as Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings. For the present book it has been newly transcribed from the professional typescript as corrected by Tolkien, with reference also to an earlier version in manuscript and typescript. For the sake of a more general audience, we have slightly edited the work for clarity and consistency of form, most often by the addition or emendation of articles, conjunctions, and marks of punctuation (thus also by Christopher Tolkien for A Tolkien Compass); but to convey the flavour of the original, we have retained (for the most part, but have regularized) Tolkien's abbreviations of language names, etc., and have restored the original title of the work. Citations by Tolkien to the Prologue in the first edition of The Lord of the Rings (1954) have been silendy emended to the pagination of the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966). Significant insertions by the editors are indicated by [square brackets].
    Notes removed by Tolkien from the final Nomenclature are quoted earlier in this book, in annotations for pp. 5 (on Angmar), 296 (on Barad-dur), 330 (on Anor), 392 (on Argonath), and 548 (on Aglarond). Other notes from the same source are cited or quoted below.
    All names not in the following list should be left entirely unchanged in any language used in translation (LT), except that inflexional s, es should be rendered according to the grammar of the LT.
    It is desirable that the translator should read Appendix F, and follow the theory there set out. In the original text English represents the Common Speech (CS) of the supposed period. Names that are given in modern English therefore represent names in the CS, often but not always being translations of older names in other languages, especially Sindarin (Grey-elven, G.). The LT now replaces English as the equivalent of the CS; the names in English form should therefore be translated into the LT according to their meaning (as closely as possible).
    Most of the names of this type should offer no difficulty to a translator, especially not to one using a LT of Germanic origin, related to English: Dutch, German, and the Scandinavian languages; e.g. Black Country, Battle Plain, Dead Marshes, Snowmane, etc. Some names, however, may prove





    752 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION
    less easy. In a few cases the author, acting as translator of Elvish names already devised and used in this book or elsewhere, has taken pains to produce a CS name that is both a translation and also (to English ears) a euphonious name of familiar English style, even if it does not actually occur in England. Rivendell is a successful example, as a translation of G. Imladris 'Glen of the Cleft'. It is desirable to translate such names into the LT, since to leave them unchanged would disturb the carefully devised scheme of nomenclature and introduce an unexplained element without a place in the feigned linguistic history of the period. But of course the translator is free to devise a name in the LT that is suitable in sense and/ or topography: not all the CS names are precise translations of those in other languages.
    A further difficulty arises in some cases. Names (of places and persons) occur, especially in the Shire, which are not 'meaningless', but are English in form (sc. in theory the author's translation of CS names), and contain elements that are in the current language obsolete or dialectal, or are worn-down and obscured in form. (See Appendix F.) From the author's point of view it is desirable that translators should have some knowledge of the nomenclature of persons and places in the LT, and of words that occur in them that are obsolete in the current LT, or only preserved locally. The notes I offer are intended to assist a translator in distinguishing 'inventions', made of elements current in modern English, such as Riven­dell, Snow-mane, from actual names in use in England, independendy of this story, and therefore elements in the modern English language that it is desirable to match by equivalents in the LT, with regard to their original meaning, and also where feasible with regard to their archaic or altered form. I have sometimes referred to old, obsolescent, or dialectal words in the Scandinavian and German languages which might possibly be used as the equivalents of similar elements in the English names found in the text. I hope that these references may be sometimes found helpful, without suggesting that I claim any competence in these modern languages beyond an interest in their early history.
    Abbreviations
    CS = Common Speech, in original text represented by English.
    LT = the language used in translation, which must now replace English as representing CS.
    E. = English.
    G. or S. = Grey-elven or Sindarin, the Elvish language to which most of the names (outside the Shire) belong.
    Q. = Quenya, the archaic Elvish language in which 'Galadriel's Lament' (I 394) [PP- 377-8 in the 2004 edn., in Book II, Chapter 8].
    R. = Rohan: the language used in Rohan, related to that used by Hobbits before their migration.





    NOMENCLATURE OF THE LORD OF THE RINGS 753
    [Also: cf. = Latin confer 'compare'; Dan. = Danish; e.g. = exempli gratia 'for example'; Fr. = French; Ger. = German; Icel. = Icelandic; ME = Middle English; MHG = Middle High German; mod. = modern; N.B. = nota bene 'take notice'; Norw. = Norwegian; OE = Old English; OHG = Old High German; ON = Old Norse; O.Swed. = Old Swedish; pi. = plural; q.v. = quod vide 'which see'; sb. = substantive (noun); sc. = scilicet 'that is'; Scand. = Scandinavian; Swed. = Swedish; The H. = The Hobbit, The L.R. = The Lord of the Rings]
    Persons, Peoples, Creatures
    Appledore. Old word for 'apple-tree' (survives in E. place-names). Should be translated by the equivalent in the LT of apple-tree (i.e. by a dialectal or archaic word of same meaning). In Germanic languages this may be a word of the same origin: e.g. Ger. (MHG) aphalter; Icel. apuldur; Norw., O.Swed. apald.
    Baggins. Intended to recall bag - cf. Bilbo's conversation with Smaug in The H. [Chapter 12] - and meant to be associated (by hobbits) with Bag End (sc. the end of a 'bag' or 'pudding bag' = cul-de-sac), the local name for Bilbo's house. (It was the local name for my aunt's farm in Worcestershire, which was at the end of a lane leading to it and no further.) Cf. also Sackville-Baggins. The LT should contain an element meaning 'sack, bag'.
    Banks. Clearly a topographical name containing bank in the sense 'steep slope or hill-side'. It should be represented by something similar.
    Barrow-wights. Creatures dwelling in a barrow 'grave-mound'. (See Barrow under Places.) It is an invented name: an equivalent should be invented. The Dutch [edition] has grafghest 'grave-ghast'; Swed. Kummel-gast 'gravemound-ghost'.
    Beechbone. This is meant to be significant (being a translation into CS of some Entish or Elvish equivalent). It should be translated similarly (e.g. as Buchbein or probably better BixchenbeinX).
    Big Folk, Big People. Translate.
    Black Captain. Translate.
    Black One. Translate.
    Black Riders. Translate.
    Bolger. See Budgeford [under Places].
    Bounders. Evidently intended to mean 'persons watching the bounds (sc. boundaries)'. This word exists in E. and is not marked as obsolete in dictionaries, though I have seldom heard it used. Probably because the





    754 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION

    late nineteenth-century slang bounder-'an offensively pushing and ill-bred man' - was for a time in very general use and soon became a term of contempt equivalent to 'cad'. It is a long time since I heard it, and I think it is now forgotten by younger people. [Max] Schuchart [the Dutch translator] used Poenen 'cads', probably because a well-known dictionary only gives patser 'bounder, cad' as the meaning of bounder (labelled as slang). In the text the latter sense is meant to be recalled by English readers, but the primary functional sense to be clearly understood. (This slender jest is not, of course, worth imitating, even if possible.)
    Bracegirdle. A genuine English surname. Used in the text, of course, with reference to the hobbit tendency to be fat and so to strain their belts. A desirable translation would recognize this by some equivalent meaning: Tight-belt, or Belt-tightener/strainer/stretcher. (The name is a genuine Eng­lish one; a compound of the Romance type with verbal element first, as Drinkwater — Boileau; but it is not necessary that the representation should be a known surname in the language of translation.) Would not Gurtel-spanner do?
    Brandybuck. A rare E. name which I have come across. Its origin in E. is not concerned. In The L.R. it is obviously meant to contain elements of the Brandywine River (q.v.) and the family name Oldbuck (q.v.). The latter contains the word buck (animal); either OE bucc 'male deer' (fallow or roe), or bucca 'he-goat'.
    N.B. Buckland (see Places) is also meant to contain the same animal name (Ger. Bock), though Buckland, an English place-name, is frequently in fact derived from 'book-land', land originally held by a written charter.
    Brockhouse. Brock is an old word (in OE) for the badger (Dachs) still widely current in country-speech up to the end of the nineteenth century and appearing in literature, and hence in good dictionaries, including bilinguals. So there is not much excuse for the Dutch and Swedish transla­tors' having misrendered it.* It occurs in numerous place-names, from which surnames are derived, such as Brockbanks. Brockhouse is of course feigned to be a hobbit-name, because the 'brock' builds complicated and well-ordered underground dwellings or 'setts'. The Ger. rendering should be Dachsbau, I think. In Danish use Grcevling.
    *Dutch Broekhuis (not a misprint since repeated in the four places where this name occurs) seems absurd: what is a 'breech-house'? Swed. Galthus 'wild-boar house' is not much better, since swine do not burrow! The translator evidently did not know or look up brock, since he uses Grdvlingar for the name Burrows (Swed. graflingar, grafsvin 'badgers').
    Butterbur. So far as I know, not found as a name in England. Though Butter is so used, as well as combinations (in origin place-names) such as Butterfield. These have in the tale been modified, to fit the generally botanical names of Bree, to the plant-name butterbur {Petasites vulgaris).


     
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    CHANGES TO THE EDITIONS OF 2004-5
    As generally described in the Preface and 'Brief History' earlier in this volume, numerous emendations were made to The Lord of the Rings for the 2004 (fiftieth anniversary one-volume) edition, using the 2002 revised typesetting by HarperCollins as the copy-text. Many of these were correc­tions to errors introduced at various points, most frequently the 'second printing' of The Fellowship of the Ring (1954) and the resetting of 1994. Further errors, old and new (introduced in the 2004 setting), having been discovered in the course of writing this book, additional emendations were made in the reprint edition of 2005, which also includes a new, expanded index by the present authors. Excepting only a few corrections of spacing, indentation, and misaligned marks of punctuation, all of the emendations of the 2002 copy-text in 2004, and of the 2004 edition in 2005, are docu­mented below in two parts, with page citations to the new edition as published by HarperCollins, London, and the Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. Emendations marked with an asterisk (*) are explained in notes in the present book.
    2004 EDITION THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING
    FOREWORD
    rriii 1 forced myself to tackle > I forced myself to tackle [numeral 1 > capital I]
    PROLOGUE
    2 Bandobras Took (Bullroarer), son of Isengrim the Second, > Ban-dobras Took (Bullroarer), son of Isumbras the Third, ['Isengrim the Second' > 'Isumbras the Third'] *
    3 The Stoors were broader, heavier in build; their feet and hands were larger, and they preferred > The Stoors were broader, heavier in build; their feet and hands were larger; and they preferred [comma after 'larger' > semi-colon]
    They moved westward early, and roamed over Eriador as far as Weathertop while the others were still in the Wilderland. > They moved westward early, and roamed over Eriador as far as





    784 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION

    Weathertop while the others were still in Wilderland. ['in the Wilderland' > 'in Wilderland']
    9 The Thain was the master of the Shire-moot, and captain of the
    Shire-muster and the Hobbitry-in-arms, but > The Thain was the master of the Shire-moot, and captain of the Shire-muster and the Hobbitry-in-arms; but [comma after 'arms' > semi-colon]
    11 It was the one thing he loved, his 'precious', > It was the one thing he loved, his 'Precious', ['precious' > 'Precious'] *
    12 He was hungry now, and angry, and once his 'precious' was with him > He was hungry now, and angry, and once his 'Precious' was with him [ 'precious' > 'Precious']
    The light in his eyes was like a green flame as he sped back to murder the hobbit and recover his 'precious'. > The light in his eyes was like a green flame as he sped back to murder the hobbit and recover his 'Precious'. [ 'precious' > 'Precious']
    For just as he ran > For as he ran ['just as' > 'as']
    Warily Bilbo followed him, as he went along, cursing, and talking to himself about his 'precious'; > Warily Bilbo followed him, as went along, cursing, and talking to himself about his 'Precious'; ['precious' > 'Precious']
    13 It was suggested to Bilbo ... for Gollum did, in fact, call the ring-"" his 'birthday present', > It was suggested to Bilbo ... for Gollum did, in fact, call the ring his 'birthday-present', [ 'birthday present'
    > 'birthday-present'] *
    BOOK I
    23 But I reckon it was a nasty shock > But I reckon it was a nasty knock ['shock' > 'knock'] *
    24 Crazy about stories of the old days he is, > Crazy about stories of the old days, he is, [added comma after 'days']
    At the end of the second week in September a cart came in through Bywater from the direction of the Brandywine Bridge > At the end of the second week in September a cart came in through Bywater from the direction of Brandywine Bridge [deleted 'the' before 'Brandywine Bridge']
    25 [bold black dot following the elf-rune >full stop of a more appropriate size]
    They knew him by sight ... they now belonged to the legendary





    CHANGES TO THE EDITIONS OF 2004-5 785

    past. > They knew him by sight ... they now belonged to a legendary past, ['the legendary past' > 'a legendary past']
    27 Actually in Hobbiton and Bywater every day in the year it was somebody's birthday, > Actually in Hobbiton and Bywater every day in the year was somebody's birthday, [ 'it was' > 'was']
    28 Some of these were only very distantly connected with Bilbo, and some of them had hardly ever been in Hobbiton before, > Some of these were only very distantly connected with Bilbo, and some had hardly ever been in Hobbiton before, ['some of them' > 'some']
    The purchase of provisions... but as Bilbo's catering had depleted the stocks of most stores, cellars and warehouses for miles around, > but as Bilbo's catering had depleted the stocks of most of the stores, cellars and warehouses for miles around, ['most stores' > 'most of the stores']
    29 Seizing a horn from a youngster near by, > Seizing a horn from a youngster nearby, [ 'near by' > 'nearby'] *
    30 Many of his guests, and especially the Sackville-Bagginses, > Many of the guests, and especially the Sackville-Bagginses, ['his guests' > 'the guests']
    31 He walked briskly back to his hole, and stood for a moment listening with a smile to the din in the pavilion and > He walked briskly back to his hole, and stood for a moment listening with a smile to the din in the pavilion, and [added comma after 'pavilion']
    33 'It is mine, I tell you. My own. My precious. Yes, my precious.' > 'It is mine, I tell you. My own. My Precious. Yes, my Precious.' ['precious' > 'Precious', twice]
    34 I won't give my precious away, I tell you.' > I won't give my Precious away, I tell you.' [ 'precious' > 'Precious']
    After all that's what this party business was all about, really: to give away lots of birthday presents, > After all that's what this party business was all about, really: to give away lots of birthday-presents, ['birthday presents'> 'birthday-presents']
    36 Then without another word he turned away from the lights and
    voices in the fields and tents, > Then without another word he turned away from the lights and voices in the field and tents, ['fields'>'field'] *
    39 A little later Frodo came out of the study to see how things were
    going on and found her still about the place, investigating nooks and corners and tapping the floors. > A little later Frodo came





    786 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION

    out of the study to see how things were going on, and found her still about the place, investigating nooks and corners, and tapping the floors, [added commas after 'going on and 'corners']
    The legend of Bilbo's gold ... as every one knows, any one's for the finding > The legend of Bilbo's gold... as everyone knows, anyone's for the finding ['every one' > 'everyone', 'any one's' > 'anyone's'] *
    42 Frodo went tramping all over the Shire > Frodo went tramping
    over the Shire [deleted 'all']
    45 But I warrant you haven't seen them doing it; nor any one else in the Shire.' > But I warrant you haven't seen them doing it; nor anyone else in the Shire.' [ 'any one' > 'anyone']
    46 'Ah well eh?' said Gandalf. > 'All well eh?' said Gandalf. [ 'Ah' > 'All']
    Everything looked fresh, the new green of Spring > Everything looked fresh, the new green of spring [ 'Spring' > 'spring'] *
    47 And if he often uses the Ring ... walks in the twilight under the eye of the dark power that rules the Rings. > And if he often uses the Ring .. . walks in the twilight under the eye of the Dark Power that rules the Rings. [ 'dark power' > 'Dark Power'] *
    Yes, sooner or later ... the dark power will devour him.' > Yes, sooner or later ... the Dark Power will devour him.' [ 'dark power' > 'Dark Power']
    'Let me see - it was in the year that the White Council drove the dark power from Mirkwood, > 'Let me see - it was in the year that the White Council drove the Dark Power from Mirkwood, ['dark power' > 'Dark Power']
    48 Much like GoUum with his "birthday present". > Much like Gollum with his "birthday-present", ['birthdaypresent' > 'birthday-present']
    54 But as he lowered his eyes, he saw far above the tops of the Misty Mountains, > But as he lowered his eyes, he saw far ahead the tops of the Misty Mountains, [ 'above' > 'ahead']
    55 'Surely the Ring was his precious > 'Surely the Ring was his Precious ['precious' > 'Precious']
    56 For instance, he called the Ring his "birthday present", > For instance, he called the Ring his "birthday-present", [ 'birthday pre­sent' > 'birthday-present']
    The murder of Deagol haunted Gollum, and he had made up a defence, repeating it to his "precious" > The murder of Deagol haunted Gollum, and he had made up a defence, repeating it to his "Precious" ['precious' > 'Precious']





    CHANGES TO THE EDITIONS OF 2004-5 787
    57 It was his birthday present, > It was his birthday-present, [ 'birthday present' > 'birthday-present']
    But from hints dropped among the snarls I even gathered > But from hints dropped among the snarls I gathered ['even gathered'
    > 'gathered']
    58 But at last, when I had given up the chase and turned to other parts, > But at last, when I had given up the chase and turned to other paths, ['parts' > 'paths'] *
    65 To tell the truth, he was very reluctant to start, now that it had
    come to the point. Bag End > To tell the truth, he was very reluctant to start, now that it had come to the point: Bag End [ full stop after 'point' > colon]
    70 'No, you don't, Sam!' > 'No you don't, Sam!' [deleted comma after
    'No']
    71 It climbed away ... towards Woody-End, > It climbed away ... towards Woody End, [ 'Woody-End' > 'Woody End'] *
    79 They don't live in the Shire, but they wander into it in Spring and
    Autumn, > They don't live in the Shire, but they wander into it in spring and autumn, [ 'Spring' > 'spring', 'Autumn' > 'autumn']
    81 'Elen sila lumenn omentielvo, a star shines on the hour of our
    meeting,' he added in the high-elven speech. > 'Elen sila lumenn' omentielvo, a star shines on the hour of our meeting,' he added in the High-elven speech, ['high-elven' > 'High-elven']
    87 / am going with him, if he climbs to the Moon, and > I am going with him, if he climbs to the Moon; and [comma after 'Moon' > semi-colon]
    88 T will go along with you, Mr. Frodo,' said Sam (in spite of private misgiving > 'I will go along with you, Mr. Frodo,' said Sam (in spite of private misgivings [ 'misgiving' > 'misgivings']
    93 'Well, if that isn't queerer than ever?' > 'Well, if that isn't queerer
    than ever!' [question mark after 'ever' > exclamation mark]
    96 'It's going to be thick,' said Maggot; 'but I'll not light my lantern
    > 'It's going to be thick,' said Maggot; 'but I'll not light my lanterns ['lantern' > 'lanterns']
    99 They can go twenty miles north to Brandywine Bridge > They can
    go ten miles north to Brandywine Bridge ['twenty' > 'ten'] *
    104 To tell you the truth, I had been watching > To tell you the truth, I have been watching [ 'had been watching' > 'have been watching1]


     
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 14:04 | Сообщение # 80
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    WORKS CONSULTED

    WORKS BY J.R.R. TOLKIEN
    (In general, the citation is to the first edition of the work)
    Adventures in Unnatural History and Medieval Metres, being the Freaks of
    Fisiologus: (i) Fastitocalon, (ii) Iumbo, or ye Kinde of ye Oliphaunt.
    Stapledon Magazine 7, no. 40 (June 1927), pp. 123-7. The Adventures of Tom Bombadil. Oxford Magazine, 15 February 1934,
    pp. 464-5 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book.
    London: George Allen & Unwin, 1962. The Annotated Hobbit. Annotated by Douglas A. Anderson. Rev. and
    expanded edn. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. The Book of Lost Tales, Part One. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London:
    George Allen & Unwin, 1983. Vol. I of The History of Middle-earth. The Book of Lost Tales, Part Two. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London:
    George Allen & Unwin, 1984. Vol. II of The History of Middle-earth. Farmer Giles of Ham. Ed. by Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond.
    London: HarperCollins, 1999. Finn and Hengest: The Fragment and the Episode. Ed. by Alan Bliss. London:
    George Allen & Unwin, 1982. 'From The Shibboleth of Feanor'. Vinyar Tengwar 41 (July 2000), pp. 7-10. The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son. Essays and Studies 2953.
    Ed. by Geoffrey Bullough. London: John Murray, 1953. Pp. 1-18. Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden. Oxford Magazine, 4 March 1937, p. 473.
    An earlier version was published in The Gryphon, January 1923. The
    poem was revised as The Hoard in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
    and Other Verses from the Red Book (1962). The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection. New York: Caedmon, 2001. 4 compact
    discs. Tolkien's recordings of extracts from The Lord of the Rings were
    previously released (1975) on LP and cassette tape as J.R.R. Tolkien Reads
    and Sings His The Hobbit and The Fellowship of the Ring and J.R.R.
    Tolkien Reads and Sings His Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers/The
    Return of the King, augmented in the compact disc issue. J.R.R. Tolkien's Letters to Rhona Beare. St. Louis, Mo.: New England Tolkien
    Society, 1985. The Lays of Beleriand. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen
    & Unwin, 1985. Vol. Ill of The History of Middle-earth. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Sel. and ed. by Humphrey Carpenter, with





    814 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION

    the assistance of Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981.
    'Lettre a Milton Waldman: L'horizon de la Terre du Milieu'. Conference 12 (Printemps 2001), pp. 707-56. The complete letter to Waldman, ?late 1951, translated with commentary by Michael Devaux. Also published in Tolkien: Les racines du legendaire {La Peuille de la Compagnie Cahier d'etudes tolkieniennes 2), Geneve: Ad Solem, autumne 2003, pp. 19-81, again with notes by Devaux, and, in English, the previously unpublished portion concerning The Lord of the Rings.
    The Lord of the Rings. Various editions consulted, including: London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954-5; 2nd edn., New York: Ballantine Books, 1965; 2nd Allen & Unwin edition, 1966 and 1967 printings; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987; London: HarperCollins, 1994 (dated '1991'); London: HarperCollins, 2002 (illustrated by Alan Lee); London: HarperCollins, 2004 (also Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004).
    The Lost Road and Other Writings: Language and Legend before The Lord of the Rings. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987. Vol. V of The History of Middle-earth.
    The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983.
    Morgoth's Ring: The Later Silmarillion, Part One. Ed. by Christopher Tol­kien. London: HarperCollins, 1993. Vol. X of The History of Middle-earth.
    Osanwe-kenta ('Enquiry into the Communication of Thought'). Ed. with introduction, glossary, and additional notes by Carl F. Hostetter. Vinyar Tengwar 39 (July 1998), pp. 21-34.
    The Peoples of Middle-earth. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: Harper­Collins, 1996. Vol. XII of The History of Middle-earth.
    Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien. Foreword and notes by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979.
    Qenyaqetsa: The Qenya Phonology and Lexicon, together with the Poetic and Mythologic Words of Eldarissa. Ed. by Christopher Gilson, Carl F. Hostetter, Patrick Wynne, and Arden R. Smith. Published as Parma Eldalamberon 12 (1998).
    The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. Vol. VI of The History of Middle-earth.
    The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor. Excerpts from this work appeared in Unfinished Tales (see below). The remainder of the text was published in Vinyar Tengwar 42 (July 2001), pp. 5-34, ed. by Carl F. Hostetter with his notes on philological matters, and with additional commentary by Christopher Tolkien.
    The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle. Poems by J.R.R. Tolkien, music by Donald Swann. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967.





    WORKS CONSULTED 815

    Roverandom. Ed. by Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond. London:
    HarperCollins, 1998. Sauron Defeated: The End of the Third Age (The History of The Lord of the
    Rings, Part Four), The Notion Club Papers, and The Drowning of Ana-dune. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 1992. Vol. IX
    of The History of Middle-earth. The Shaping of Middle-earth: The Quenta, the Ambarkanta, and the Annals.
    Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1986. Vol.
    IV of The History of Middle-earth. The Silmarillion. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen &
    Unwin, 1977. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. by J.R.R. Tolkien and E.V. Gordon.
    Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo. Trans, by J.R.R.
    Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1975. Tolkien and Basil Bunting. London: BBC Cassettes, 1980. Includes 1964
    interview of Tolkien by Denys Gueroult. Additional audio material is
    held in the National Sound Archive, British Library. The Treason of lsengard: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part Two. Ed.
    by Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. Vol. VII of The
    History of Middle-earth. Tree and Leaf. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. Includes the lecture On
    Fairy-Stories. '[Two] Letters by J.R.R. Tolkien'. Mallorn 36 (November 1998), pp. 31-4. Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien.
    London: George Allen & Unwin, 1980. The War of the Jewels: The Later Silmarillion, Part Two: The Legends of
    Beleriand. Ed. by Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 1994.
    Vol. XI of The History of Middle-earth. The War of the Ring: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part Three.
    London: Unwin Hyman, 1990. Vol. VIII of The History of Middle-earth.
    WORKS BY OTHER AUTHORS
    Abbott, Joe. 'Tolkien's Monsters: Concept and Function in The Lord of the
    Rings: (Part I) The Balrog of Khazad-dum'. Mythlore 16, no. 1, whole
    no. 59 (Autumn 1989), pp. 19-26, 33. Allan, Jim, ed. An Introduction to Elvish. Hayes, Middlesex: Bran's Head
    Books, 1978. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Trans, and ed. by Michael Swanton. London:
    Phoenix Press, 2000. Armstrong, Helen. Letter to the Editor. Amon Hen 111 (August 1991), p. 17. ------ 'There Are Two People in This Marriage'. Mallorn 36 (November
    1998), pp. 5-12




    8l6 THE LORD OF THE RINGS COMPANION

    Auden, W.H. 'At the End of the Quest, Victory' (review of The Return of the King). New York Times Book Review, 22 January 1956, p. 5.
    Barnfield, Marie. 'The Roots of RivendelF. Pe Lyfe ant pe Auncestrye 3 (Spring 1996), pp. 4-18.
    Bartlett, Robert. England under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075-1225. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.
    The Battle of Maldon. Ed. by E.V. Gordon. London: Methuen, 1937.
    Baynes, Pauline. A Map of Middle-earth. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1970.
    Beach, Sarah. 'Specific Derivation'. Mythlore 12, no. 4, whole no. 46 (Sum­mer 1986), pp. 16, 36.
    Beare, Rhona. 'Tolkien's Calendar & Ithildin'. Mythlore 9, no. 4, whole no. 34 (Winter 1982), pp. 23-4.
    Beowulf and the Finnesburg Fragment. Trans, by John R. Clark Hall. Pre­fatory remarks by J.R.R. Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1940.
    Beowulf with the Finnesburg Fragment. Ed. by C.L. Wrenn. New edn., rev. by W.E Bolton. London: Harrap, 1973.
    The Bestiary: A Book of Beasts. Trans, by T.H. White. New York: Capricorn Books, i960.
    Blackburn, Bonnie, and Leofranc Holford-Strevens. The Oxford Com­panion to the Year. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Blackwelder, Richard E. 'Reflections on Literary Criticism and Middle-earth'. Unpublished paper, presented at the Marquette University Tol­kien Conference, 1983.
    Boenig, Robert. 'The Drums of Doom: H.G. Wells' First Men in the Moon and The Lord of the Rings'. Mythlore 14, no. 3, whole no. 52 (Spring 1988), pp. 57-8.
    Bosworth, Joseph. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary Based on the Manuscript Collections of the Late Joseph Bosworth. Ed. and enlarged by T. Northcote Toller. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898.
    Brace, Keith. 'In the Footsteps of the Hobbits'. Birmingham Post Midland Magazine, 25 May 1968.
    Bradfield, J.C. A Dictionary of Quenya. 2nd edn. Cambridge: J.C. Bradfield, 1983.
    Bratman, David. 'A Corrigenda to The Lord of the Rings'. Tolkien Collector 6, March 1994, pp. 17-25.
    Brewer, Derek S. "The Lord of the Rings as Romance'. J.R.R. Tolkien, Scholar and Storyteller. Ed. by Mary Salu and Robert T. Farrell. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1979. Pp. 249-64.
    Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 15th edn. Rev. by Adrian Room. London: HarperCollins, 1995.
    Briggs, Katharine. An Encyclopedia of Fairies: Hobgoblins, Brownies, Bogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976. First published as A Dictionary of Fairies.





    WORKS CONSULTED 817

    -------The Folklore of the Cotswolds. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield,
    1974-
    Brogan, Hugh. 'Tolkien's Great War'. Children and Their Books: A Celebra­tion of the Work oflona and Peter Opie. Ed. by Gillian Avery and Julia Briggs. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 351-67.
    Brown, Malcolm. The Imperial War Museum Book of the Somme. London: Pan Books, 2002.
    Burns, Marjorie. 'Gandalf and Odin'. Tolkien's Legendarium; Essays on The History of Middle-earth. Ed. by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2000. Pp. 219-31.
    -------Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in Tolkien's Middle-earth. Toronto:
    University of Toronto Press, 2005.
    Burt, William Henry. A Field Guide to the Mammals. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1952.
    Caldecott, Stratford. Secret Fire: The Spiritual Vision of J.R.R. Tolkien. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 2003.
    Campanella, Tommaso. The City of the Sun. Uncredited translation of Civitas Solis at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etextoi/tcotsio.txt.
    Carpenter, Humphrey. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1977.
    Castell, Daphne. 'The Realms of Tolkien'. New Worlds 50 (November 1966), pp. 143-54-
    Chaij, Kenneth. Sindarin Lexicon. Ed. by Richard Crawshaw. Telford: Tol­kien Society, 2001.
    Churchill, Winston S. The Gathering Storm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948.
    Clark, Stuart, and Rosie Clark. 'Oxonmoot '74 Report'. Amon Hen 13 (October 1974), pp. 6-13.
    Cleasby, Richard. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. Rev., enlarged, and com­pleted by Gudbrand Vigfusson. 2nd edn., with a supplement by Sir William A. Craigie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.
    Cofield, David. 'The Hands of a King'. Beyond Bree, September 1986,
    PP 2-3. -------'Harbinger of Fate: The Eclipse of 3019'. Beyond Bree, October 1993,
    PP 3-4 -------'The Size of the Shire: A Problem in Cartography'. Beyond Bree, July
    1994> PP 4-5
    Collingwood, R.G., and J.N.L. Myres. Roman Britain and the English Settle­ments. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1937 (1968 printing).
    Collins, Denis. Letter to the Editor. Amon Hen 123 (September 1993), p. 14.
    The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 10th edn., rev. Ed. by Judy Pearsall. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    Crabbe, Katharyn W. J.R.R. Tolkien. Rev. and expanded edn. New York: Continuum, 1988.
    Cremona, David. Letter to the Editor. Beyond Bree, June 1991, p. 10.

     
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    832 INDEX

    Akallabeth n, 84, 324, 436, 535, 628, 629, 630, 637, 682, 685, 686, 687, 700, 701-2; meaning of title 685
    Alda 385
    Aldalome 385
    Aldarion 568
    Aldarion and Erendis lxiv, lxv, 568
    Aldburg 368
    Alders 95
    Aldor, name 643
    Alfirin 398, 589
    All aboard 94
    All's well as ends Better 665
    Allan, Jim 404
    George Allen & Unwin xviii-xl, lv, lxiv, lxxi-lxxiv, lxxix, lxxxi-lxxxii, 127,129, 279-80, 353, 679-80; see also Rayner Unwin; Stanley Unwin
    Allured 472
    Alph 734
    Aman (Blessed Realm, Far West, Otherworld, True West, Undying Lands, Uttermost West, the West, World's End) 11, 75, 81, 86, 100, 138, 142, 171, 173, 202, 214, 216, 217, 218, 233, 287, 315, 317, 333, 337, 474, 492, 582, 628, 630, 648, 670, 672, 683, 685, 688, 701-2; name 202, 688; and immortality 688; dwellings of Mandos 287; invasion by King of Numenor 628; mortals allowed there eventually die 672; physically present in world 138; relation to Eldamar, Valinor (Valimar) 202; removed from physical world 11, 202, 474, 701-2; see also Eldamar; Valinor
    Amaze 531
    Ambarona, name 384-5
    Amon Amarth see Mount Doom
    Amon Din 510, 546, 554, 557; name 510
    Amon Hen 265, 319, 346, 350-1, 358-9; name 346; and Seat of Seeing 350-1, 358-9; compared to high seat of Odin 350; height 350
    Amon Lane, name 309-10; see also later name Dol Guldur
    Amon Lhaw 348, 361; name 348; drawn by Tolkien 361
    Amon Sul see Weathertop
    Amon Tirith see Hill of Guard
    Amon Uilos see Oiolosse Amroth Ixiv, 303-5, 311-12, 514, 588, 647; name 303-4; and Nimrodel, versions of story 304-5; as son of Amdir 304-5; as son of Galadriel and Celeborn 304, 647; flet of, on Cerin Amroth 311-12; last King of Lorien 514
    Amroth and Nimrodel 303
    Anarion 17, 32, 86, 231, 348, 436, 509, 633, 696
    Ancalagon the Black, name 89
    Andersen, Hans Christian, The Ugly Duckling 258
    Anderson, Douglas A. xl, xli, 1, 37, 52, 71, 240, 451, 498, 552-3, 622, 705, 708
    Andrast (Angast) lxiv-lxv, 18, 539, 704; name lxiv
    Andrath 145, 166
    Anduin (Great River) lxii, lxv-lxvi, 17, 30, 86, 153, 207, 232, 233, 237, 241, 242, 262, 271, 279, 285, 301, 307, 312, 323, 327. 330, 331. 332, 333, 336, 343, 343, 351, 360-1, 364, 369, 379, 387, 510, 513, 544-5, 570, 586, 587, 588, 590, 626, 695, 697, 703, 713; name 11; mouths, delta of (Ethir Anduin) lxii, lxiii, 18, 274, 284, 304, 350, 535, 587; mouths at about the latitude of Troy lxiii; shores of, bare banks or leafless trees 332; sources lxv; Undeeps (North and South Undeeps) lxv-lxvi, 336
    Anduin, Vale(s) of 11, 42, 207, 240, 241-3, 302, 372; Men of 42, 240
    Andunie, name 686; Lords of 568, 638, 686
    Anduril, name 263; see also Narsil
    Anemone 464
    Anfalas see Langstrand
    Angamaite, name 694
    Angast see Andrast
    Angband (halls of iron) 174,176, 177, 230, 260, 491, 500, 621; name 177; siege of 500
    Angbor, name 588
    Angerthas, mode of Erebor liii, 289, 292; Angerthas Daeron 288; Angerthas Moria liii, 289
    Angle (between Hoarwell and Loudwater) 14
    Angle (Egladil, in Lothlorien) 307, 332; name (Egladil) 307
    Anglo-Saxon Chronicles 367





    INDEX 833

    Anglo-Saxons, and the Rohirrim 398-9; decoration 400-1; military tactics 412-13; ruins 514
    Angmar 20,137,144,146,169; name 20
    Angmar, Mountains of lxvi
    Angren see Isen
    Angrenost see Isengard
    Annales Fuldenses 518
    Annals ofAman, The 138, 315, 637
    Ann-thennath 174-5
    Annuminas lxvi, 232, 437, 720; name 232; sceptre of 638, 696
    Anor, flame of (Sun) 297
    Anor-stone see Palantiri
    Anorien lxiv-lxv, 274, 336, 507, 508, 509, 513; 523, 541> 546; invasion by Sauron 546; names (Anorien) 509, (Sunlending) 541
    Appendices, and history of writing of LR xxiii, xxviii, xxxii, xxxiv, xxxv, box, lxxix, 227, 525) 679-80, 708; and later editions lxxix, lxxxii, 680, 681, 718; and proposed index lxxxi, lxxxii; and readers' queries xli, lxxx; and The Silmarillion lxxxi, 681; and verisimilitude lxi, 681; in translations of LR 680-1
    Apple 99
    Apple of one's eye 521
    Appledore, name 153
    Ar-Adunakhor 686
    Ar-Gimilzor 714
    Ar-Pharazon 436, 638, 687; and Sauron 687; invades Valinor 436
    Aragorn (King Elessar, Strider, etc.) 33, 41, 67, 88, 93, 106, 120,147,151,155-6, 159, 161, 162, 166, 167,168, 170, 177-8, 180-1, 185, 186-7, 194) 196) 200, 205, 209, 215, 220, 229, 232, 235, 237, 250, 254, 256, 266, 272, 275-6, 308, 310, 320, 323, 329, 330, 335, 337, 338, 339, 348, 35l> 358-9) 361, 362, 363. 365. 366, 367, 370-2, 374, 378, 390, 401, 405, 406, 411, 413. 424. 439, 443. 467, 470, 499. 507, 526, 528, 529, 531, 532, 533, 544, 547-8, 549> 551, 56l, 566, 568, 569, 572, 576, 580, 583-4, 586-90, 591, 594, 603, 608, 610, 627, 630, 632, 633-5, 636, 638, 639, 644, 659, 677, 681, 682, 690, 692, 69J, 698, 699-700, 701, 702, 705, 707, 710, 716, 717, 720, 722; name (Aragorn) 88, 338, (Elessar) 41, 338, (Elfstone, considered in draft) 339, (Envinyatar) 580, (Estel) 254, (Tarkil, considered in draft) 603, (Telcontar) 580, (Thorongil) 697; accepts Elrond's conditions for marriage to Arwen 699; age at coronation 633; and Arwen 178, 186-7, 209, 220, 266, 339, 351, 532, 639, 699-700, 702; and Arwen, hope of reunion beyond the world 702; and Arwen, indications of relationship 220; and Arwen, love only hinted at 178; and Arwen, wedding and festival 639; and Bilbo 170, 337; and Boromir 256, 361; and the Elendilmir 147, 568, 569; and Elrond 699; and Eowyn 406, 532, 627, 644; and Galadriel 337; and Gandalf 162, 698, 716; and Ioreth 335; and the palantir 529, 544, 591, 608; and Rangers 147; and Sauron 161, 544; and the sceptre of Annuminas 638; and the Star of the Diinedain 220; and those who surrender, contrasted with terms demanded by Mouth of Sauron 634; and Tom Bombadil 159; appearance 235; arrival at Edoras, compared to arrival of Beowulf at the Danish court 405; arrival with fleet at Minas Tirith 323; as Trotter the hobbit, in drafts 93, 120,155-6, 159, 275-6, 330, 499; as Trotter, and the Ringwraifhs 159; at 'last debate' 590; belief in higher power does not negate need to act 591; capture of Gollum and journey to Thranduil 717; capture of black fleet 547-8, 561, 580; character 699-700; choices of 348, 362, 443; claim to be of the race of the West unmingled 636; coronation 147, 470, 568; coronation compared to English ceremony 632; death 41, 551, 572, 701; descendant of Luthien 177, 583-4; descent from Numenoreans 200, 232; Elf-friend of the folk of Westernesse 106; entry into Bree 151; foresight, prophetic vision of 147, 276, 528; grows into role of military leader and future king 339; healing power 182, 200, 579, 581, 584; healing power not magic 583-4; height 167, 229, 272, 367; heir of Elendil 439, 526, 549; horse of 528;





    834 INDEX

    Aragorn — cont.
    humility at coronation, contrasted with Napoleon 470; journey to Minas Tirith 507, 531, 586-90; journey to Minas Tirith, difficulty of presenting account 586; leadership 308; 'leading man' 339; life-span 633, 636, 690, 692, 700, 710, 722; life-span, increased in second edition 636; meeting with Sam and family at Brandywine Bridge 677; not tempted by the Ring 161; on Amon Hen 358-9; pardons Easterlings and Haradrim 467; powers as King, how he governed 634-5; prepares himself for obligations as heir of Elendil 526; puts duty before his own desires 351; re-establishes Great Council of Gondor 635; renews the gift of Cirion 705; retort to Gimli, emended text 529; revealed in princely dignity 220; service in Gondor 187; service in Rohan, as Thorongil, the Eagle of the Star 187, 366, 371-2, 528, 576; shows mercy to defeated 467, 659; skills as tracker 390; son of Arathorn, patronymic 67; standard of, wrought by Arwen 220, 323, 566; tells story of Beren and Luthien, which echoes his own 177-8; thinks Ents only a legend 335; travels and labours 159, 187, 235, 528, 576; troth plighted on Cerin Amrofh 310; unknown to Tolkien before introduced into story 155; upbringing compared to that of King Arthur 698; visits to Arnor 677, 720; visit to Dunharrow 533; wrongly thinks he has made bad choices 443
    Arathorn, name 161
    Araw, wild kine of 264-5
    Archaeology 72
    Archaism, deliberate in LR 9,14, 238-9, 407-8, 410, 460, 572, 737
    Archet, name 150
    Archimedes, and military engines 549
    Arda 43, 44, 143, 156-7, 174, 217, 237, 247, 297. 391, 474, 519. 591. 647; and the Amur 519; cosmology 156-7; creation 474; history of 591; Marring of, and amending 143, 237, 647
    Argeleb 1169
    Argent 632 Argonath (Gate of Kings, Pillars of the Kings) 233, 327, 347, 362; name 347
    Arid 454
    Arien 157
    Ariosto, Ludovico lii-liii
    Arkenstone, name 706
    Armstrong, Helen 192, 703
    Arnor (North Kingdom, Northern Lands, realm in exile) lxv, lxvii, 4,17, 19, 31, 40, 86, 88, 144-5, 146, 150,151, 169, 178, 200, 229, 568, 570, 571, 580, 633, 646, 650, 682, 690; name 17; and Gondor (North and South Kingdoms), royal symbols of compared to those of Lower and Upper (North and South) Kingdoms of Egypt 633; and western Roman Empire 689; division of, and succession in Numenor and Middle-earth compared to primary world 690; insignia of rulers 696; kings and chieftains of 88, 568, 580; not a feudal state 646; sceptre the chief mark of royalty 638; visits by King Elessar 720
    Arod, name 372
    Arrows, poisoned 555
    Arthedain lxvii, 148, 150, 169, 690; name 690
    Arthur, King, and Aragorn 698; and Avalon 677; legends of 16, 230, 337, 677, 698
    Arvedui 20, 636; name 20
    Arveleg 1169
    Arvernien 214
    Arwen Undomiel 177-8, 187, 205, 209, 220, 310, 337, 338, 527, 528, 628, 633-4, 635, 638, 639, 640, 648, 683, 684, 697, 699-700, 701, 702-3, 716; name (Arwen Undomiel) 205, (Finduilas, in drafts) 628; accepts Elrond's conditions for marriage to Aragorn 699; alone in Lothorien 702-3; and Aragorn 209, 220, 310, 648, 699; and Elrond 699; and Luthien 177-8; arrival in Minas Tirith 638; choice of 699-700; date of return to Rivendell 716; death 701, 702-3; first to see signs of Frodo's disquiet 640; gift of horse to Aragorn 528; gifts to Frodo 640; grave on Cerin Amroth 703; in part shares Celeborn's fate, left alone on





    INDEX 835

    Aragorn's passing 648; knowledge of, by hobbits and readers 209; late addition to story 209; must abide the Doom (Gift) of Men 702; troth plighted on Cerin Amroth 310; Queen of Elves and Men 700; Queen of Gondor 205; standard made for Aragorn 220, 323, 566; tressure of 209, 697
    As easy as kiss your hand 488
    As old as the hills 99
    Asbjornsen, Peter Christen, and j0rgen Moe, Norske Folke Eventyr 224
    Asea aranion see Athelas
    Asfalofh, and Frodo 192; saddle 191-2
    Askance 693
    Asked no quarter 569
    Asphodel 464
    Assyrian reliefs 602
    At a pinch 90
    'At your service' 206
    Atan, Atani see Edain
    Atanatar Alcarin 633, 696
    Athelas (asea aranion, kingsfoil) 182, 183, 335> 580, 581, 584; names 183, 580; and song, used by Luthien to heal Beren 182; virtue of 581
    AtlakviSa 13
    Atlantis see Tolkien, J.R.R., dream of Great Wave
    Atomic bomb, Ring supposed to be a symbol of lxxvi
    Attila, funeral of 642
    Auden, W.H. xxxvi
    Aule 43, 240, 282, 286, 314, 327, 382; and Dwarves 382
    Aurochs 265
    Avallone, and Avalon 677
    Axiri 190
    Azanulbizar see Dimrill Dale
    Azog 226, 706
    Babel 498
    Backarraper 65
    Badgerfolk 134,140
    Bag End 43, 51, 62, 63, 91, 93, 94, 117, 147, 162, 209, 655, 656, 66i, 666, 671; name 51, 117; described 62; drawn by Tolkien
    63 Baggins family 117; name 51-2, 53 Baggins, Belladonna nee Took 54, 59 Baggins, Bilbo 1, 3, 7-8,10, 27, 36, 40, 51-2, 53, 54, 57, 58-9, 60, 61, 64, 66, 68-9. 70, 79, 93. 94. 96, 99. 103,123, 146, 185-6, 188,191, 207, 209, 210, 215, 237, 242, 247, 253, 259, 294, 297, 329, 337. 350, 447, 448, 449, 494, 598, 619, 638, 639, 651, 669-70, 671-2, 677, 708-9; name (Bilbo) 10; and company in The Hobbit 185-6; and food 52; and Gandalf's absence in The Hobbit 297; and The Quest ofErebor 708-9; and the Red Book of Westmarch 3, 39, 69, 669-70; birthday-party 64, 69; cloak 40, 69; departure for the West an 'Arthurian ending' 677; drawn by Tolkien 7-8; effects of Ring on 70, 639; an exceptional hobbit 253; feelings on leaving Bag End 96; friends from outside the Shire 64; height 3; in the Battle of Five Armies 598; in The Hobbit 52, 297, 598; journey into the West 639, 671-2, 677; manner of speech 58-9; pity for Gollum 449; poetry 210, 337, 651; reasons allowed to pass over Sea 671-2; relationship to Frodo 36; Translations from the Elvish 651; treasure brought back from his adventure 60; will eventually die 671
    Baggins, Bungo 59
    Baggins, Camellia 53
    Baggins, Frodo (Bearer, Ringbearer) 10, 29, 36, 53-4, 57, 58-9, 71, 74, 77, 92, 94, 96, 97, 99, 103, 104,106-7, 111-12, 113, 116, 117,119-20, 123, 135, 143, 155, 162,164,166, 168, 179, 180, 189, 192, t94, 195, !99, 205. 209, 220, 252, 253, 254, 258, 259, 263, 264, 271, 274, 286, 294, 297, 302, 308, 314, 317, 319, 323-4, 326, 330, 341-2, 350-1, 357, 358, 362, 365, 406, 443, 444, 447, 449-50, 450, 483, 484, 486-7, 488-9, 496, 499, 509, 537, 544, 546, 547-8, 564, 594, 597, 606, 608, 610, 611, 613-14, 615, 616, 617-19, 620, 623, 624, 625, 628, 629, 639, 640, 653, 656, 659, 660, 662, 663, 667-8, 670, 671, 675, 677, 682, 707, 718; name (Frodo) 10; name, in Sindarin (Daur) 624; adopted by Bilbo 53-4; affected by landscape 483; an exceptional hobbit 253; and Arwen's gift of jewel 640; and Asfaloth 192; and attack at





    836 INDEX

    Baggins, Frodo - cont.
    Weathertop 180; and Black Riders at the Ford 195; and Brandybuck family 57; and Buckland 29; and eucatastrophe 629; and Farmer Maggot 113; and Gandalf's absences 297; and Gollum 447, 449-50, 616, 619; and maps 263; and moon of 7/ 8 March 509; and Northern spirit 614; and Red Book of Westmarch 669-70; and the Ring 143, 156, 325, 350, 614, 616-17, 618, 619, 620, 666, 667; and Sam, in Emyn Muil 443; and Sam, march with ores, compared to Merry and Pippin 611; and Sauron, both lose ringer as well as Ring 619; and the Wheel of Fire 606; at centre of the tale 357; capture by ores 547-8; 'chosen', but free to accept or decline task 259; chosen by Gandalf 253; claims the Ring 616; cloak 608; compared to Bilbo 294; compared to Sam 77; comparison with Christ 264; courage 143, 594; delay in leaving Bag End 94; departure for the West an 'Arthurian ending' 677; difficulties of final approach to Mount Doom 614; dreams 119-20, 135,142, 166, 188; effect of Elvish song on 209; Elf-friend 106-7; example of 'ennoblement' 258; failure 617-19, 667; 'fame and honour' in Shire changed to 'little honour' 667-8; feelings on leaving Bag End 96; growing sense of guilt and disquiet 640; grows in character on road to Rivendell 199; height 365; hunted before he leaves the Shire 97; in song and story 487; incapable of destroying Ring 616-17; instrument of Providence 259; journey from Brandywine Bridge to Bag End 656; journey from Isenmouthe to 'dreadfall nightfall' 613-14; journey from Rivendell to Bree 653; journey into the dark 450; journey into the West 639, 640, 671, 672, 677; journey to Isenmouthe 610; manner of speech 58-9; martyrdom on journey through Mordor, most important part of work 615; no indication how he knows exact time and place to meet Elrond 668; on Anion Hen 350-1, 358, 392, 396; overcomes temptation to use the Ring 143; pacifism in 'Scouring of the Shire' 658-9, 662; pity for Gollum 449; poetry 670; poor opinion of Men 58; puts on Ring 326; relationship to Bilbo 36; relationship to Sam 111-12; relationships to Merry and Pippin 117; reluctance to wear a sword at Cormallen 625; saved by Gollum's betrayal 619; seeks to leave Minas Tirifh 639; sent over Sea for healing, as both a purgatory and a reward 671; shell-shock or post-traumatic stress syndrome 668; shows mercy even to Ruffians 659; suffers from wounds and burden, and self-reproach 667; token displayed by Mouth of Sauron 597; turns towards Mount Doom 613; visions in the Mirror of Galadriel 323-4; visions on Amon Hen 350-1; will eventually die 671; wounded by Witch-king 564; wrongly thinks he has made bad choices 443
    Baggins, Laura nee Grubb 66
    Baggins, Primula nee Brandybuck 57, 59; name 59
    Bagshot Row 56-7, 323, 660; name 56-7
    Balar, Isle of 230
    Baldor, son of Brego 533-4, 540, 643; name 540; and Paths of the Dead
    643
    Baldr (Baldur) 284, 564
    Baldric 224
    Baleful 491
    Balin Ixxiii, 206, 208, 259, 285, 288, 289, 290, 291, 313, 707; not genuine Common Speech name 289; tomb Ixxiii, 288, 289
    Ballantine Books xl, lxx, Ixxxix-lxxx
    Balrog(s) (Balrogs of Morgoth,
    Valaraukar) 37, 193, 225, 274, 281, 288, 294> 295_6, 298, 313, 395-6, 491; name 295; and Gandalf 395-6; and Sigelwara land 295-6; and whips 295; appearance 294, 295; as Maiar 295; Durin's Bane 274, 288; in 'The Silmarillion' and The Silmarillion 295; number of 295; winged, or not 296
    Baluster 551
    Bamfurlong (later Whitfurrows) 113, 657


     
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