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    Форум » Дж.Р.Р. Толкин » Произведения Толкина » The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:59 | Сообщение # 61
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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 430-2.
    883 (III: 159): Two days later
    883 (III: 159). Two days later - It is 18 March 1419.
    883 (III: 159). they had broken and fled - According to Scheme: 'March 17: Rohirrim destroy the Easterlings on the North Road.'
    883 (III: 159): At last the trumpets rang
    883 (III: 159). they wheeled - To wheel 'of a rank or body of troops: to turn, with a movement like that of the spokes of a wheel, about a pivot, so as to change front' {OED).
    884 (III: 160): Ere noon the army
    884 (III: 160). Ere noon the army came to Osgiliath. - It was twelve miles to the Causeway Forts in the Pelennor, which were probably close to Osgiliath, as there 'the wall overlooked the long flats to the river' (Book V, Chapter 1, p. 750, III: 22).
    884 (III: 160): The vanguard passed on
    884 (III: 160). Old Gondor - Osgiliath (Index).
    884 (III: 160). Five miles beyond Osgiliath they halted - The main host did not join the vanguard until the next day. It may have taken some time for all the men to cross the river.
    884 (III: 160): Now m their debate
    884 (III: 160). Now in their debate - Presumably on 16 March; a subject not mentioned in the previous chapter.
    884-5 (HI: 160-1): But against this Gandalf
    885 (III: 161). So the next day - It is 19 March.
    885 (III: 161): It was dark and lifeless
    885 (III: 161). they broke the evil bridge and set red flames in the noisome fields - 'From mead to mead the bridge sprang. Figures stood at its head, carven with cunning in forms human and bestial, but all corrupt and loathsome' (Book IV, Chapter 8, p. 704, II: 313). For the noisome fields see note for p. 253.


    885 (III: 161): The day after
    885 (III: 161). The day after - It is 20 March.
    885 (III: 161). it was some hundred miles by that way from the Cross­roads to the Morannon - They are close to the Morannon by the end of 24 March, but do not use the road for the last part of the journey so that they can approach the Morannon from the north-west.
    885 (III: 161). ghylls and crags - A ghyll (gill) is 'a deep cleft or ravine, usually wooded and forming the course of a stream' (OED). A crag is 'a steep or precipitous rugged rock' (OED).
    885 (III: 161-2): Nonetheless, though they marched
    885 (III: 161). It was near the end of the second day of their march from the Cross-roads - Near the end of 21 March.
    885 (III: 161). attempted to take their leading companies in ambush -
    This is clearly on 21 March, and unusually here Scheme does not agree with the published text, stating instead that the host halted twenty miles north of the Cross-roads on 20 March, forty-five miles north on 21 March, and sixty-five miles north on 22 March after defeating and scattering an ambush above Henneth Annun. For 23 March, however, both Scheme and The Tale of Years note that the host passed on that date out of Ithilien.
    886 (III: 162): But the victory did little
    886 (III: 162). feint - A pretended attack, to deceive the enemy.
    886 (III: 162): So time and the hopeless journey
    886 (III: 162). So time and the hopeless journey wore away - Paul H. Kocher comments: 'Much has been written, and justly, about the self-sacrificial courage of Frodo and Sam in the last stages of their journey through Mordor. But few or none have remarked on the equal if less solitary unselfish daring displayed by the mere seven thousand men whom Aragorn and his peers lead up to the Black Gate to challenge the ten times ten thousands inside' {Master of Middle-earth, p. 157).
    The leaders know the faint hope behind this desperate march, that somehow Frodo and Sam will be able to destroy the Ring before the army of the West is annihilated, or at the least, that the destruction of the army will distract Sauron long enough for the quest to be achieved, even if many do not live to see it. The men they lead know nothing of that slender hope, but follow on trust what must seem a hopeless undertaking.
    886 (III: 162). Upon the fourth day from the Cross-roads and the sixth from Minas Tirith - On 23 March.
    886 (III: 162). unmanned - 'Deprived of courage; made weak or timid' (OED).


    887 (III: 163): They advanced now slowly
    887 (III: 163). at nightfall of the fifth day of the march from Morgul Vale - At nightfall on 24 March.
    887 (III: 163). the waxing moon was four nights old - The moon had been new on 21 March; it is four nights old on the night of 24/25 March.
    887 (III: 163): It grew cold
    887 (III: 163). As morning came the wind began to stir again, but now it came from the North, and soon it freshened to a rising breeze.
    - This wind plays a notable part in the events of the day. In Book VI, Chapter 4 the eagles come 'from the northern mountains, speeding on a gathering wind' (p. 948, III: 226); the same wind takes the shadow of Sauron and blows it away (p. 949, III: 227); and it is the 'cold blast rising to a gale, which drove back the darkness and the ruin of the clouds' witnessed by Sam (p. 951, III: 229); while in Book VI, Chapter 5 it is the 'wind that had sprung up in the night ... blowing now keenly from the North' witnessed by Faramir and Eowyn on the walls of Minas Tirith (p. 961, III: 239).
    887 (III: 163): The two vast iron doors
    887 (III: 163). The two vast iron doors of the Black Gate under its frowning arch were fast closed. - As first published this sentence read: 'The three vast doors of the Black Gate under their frowning arches were fast closed.' It was revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition, to accord with the description of a single gate in Book IV, Chapter 3.
    888 (III: 164): There was a long silence
    888 (III: 164). the door of the Black Gate - Prior to the Houghton Mifflin edition of 1987 and the HarperCollins edition of 1994, these words read 'the middle door of the Black Gate'.
    888 (III: 164). braying of horns - They are making a loud, harsh, unpleasant sound.
    888 (III: 164): At its head there rode
    888 (III: 164). yet this was no Ringwraith but a living man. The Lieuten­ant of the Tower of Barad-dur he was, and his name is remembered in no tale; for he himself had forgotten it, and he said: T am the Mouth of Sauron.' - Paul H. Kocher comments that the Mouth of Sauron 'is firmly material. But he hideously resembles' the Ringwraiths
    in the extent to which he has become absorbed into his master's aims and methods.... He ends by being transformed into a replica of his

    teacher. 'Mouth of Sauron' he calls himself, a man without any name of his own, 'for he himself had forgotten it.' Considering the high value placed in Tolkien's Middle-earth upon real names as indices of identity - Treebeard and the whole race of dwarves refuse to reveal their names to anybody, and virtually nobody will even pronounce Sauron's aloud in the Black Speech - such namelessness is the acme of total surrender. [Master of Middle-earth, p. 67]
    It has been pointed out that Aragorn said that Sauron 'does not use his right name, nor permit it to be spelt or spoken' (Book III, Chapter i, p. 416, II: 18), but presumably that means, without his special approval.
    888 (III: 164). it is told that he was a renegade who came of the race of those that are named the Black Numenoreans; for they established their dwellings in Middle-earth during the years of Sauron's domination, and they worshipped him, being enamoured of evil knowledge. And he entered the service of the Dark Tower when it first rose again - In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien notes his father's various rejected ideas for the background of the Mouth of Sauron. In the draft manuscript it is said
    '.. . that he was a living man, who being captured as a youth became a servant of the Dark Tower, and because of his cunning grew high in the Lord's favour. ...' In the fair copy this was repeated, but was changed subsequently to: 'But it is said that he was a renegade, son of a house of wise and noble men in Gondor, who becoming enamoured of evil knowledge entered the service of the Dark Tower, and because of his cunning [and the fertile cruelty of his mind] [and servility] he grew ever higher in the Lord's favour .. .' (these phrases being thus bracketed in the original). [The War of the Ring, p. 431]
    In Appendix A it is said that in the Second Age the area around Umbar was Numenorean land, 'but it was a stronghold of the King's Men, who were afterwards called the Black Numenoreans, corrupted by Sauron, and who hated above all the followers of Elendil. After the fall of Sauron their race swiftly dwindled or became merged with the Men of Middle-earth, but they inherited without lessening their hatred of Gondor' (pp. 1044-5, III: 325, n. 1).
    According to The Tale of Years, Sauron began to rebuild Barad-dur in Third Age 2951.
    888 (III: 165): 'Is there anyone in this rout
    888 (III: 165). rout - In this sense, 'disorderly, tumultuous, or disreputable crowd of persons' (OED).
    888 (III: 165). Not thou at least - The use of the familiar thou is meant to be insulting. See note for p. 852.


    889 (III: 165): Aragorn said naught
    889 (HI: 165). I am a herald and ambassador, and may not be assailed!
    - Herald here has a similar meaning to ambassador, but refers especially to someone who carries messages between states or opposing sides in time of war, and who by custom may not be attacked or harmed while carrying out his duties.
    889 (III: 165): The Messenger put these aside
    889 (III: 165). the short sword that Sam had carried - As first published these words read 'a short sword such as Sam had carried'. They were revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition.
    890 (III: 166): No one answered him
    890 (III: 166). the Great Tower - Barad-dur.
    890 (III: 166): 'These are the terms
    890 (III: 166). These are the terms - Tom Shippey sees similarities in the terms offered by the Mouth of Sauron to those imposed on defeated France in the Second World War. He suggests that the demanded cession of the lands east of Anduin (Ithilien) is similar to the return of the disputed territory of Alsace-Lorraine to German sovereignty; while the area west of Anduin, tributary to Mordor, disarmed, nominally governing its own affairs but under the eye of Sauron's lieutenant at Isengard, 'is in effect. .. a demilitarized zone, with what one can only call Vichy status, which will pay war-reparations' (J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, p. 166). Vichy was the seat of Marshal Petain's government from 1940 to 1944, which operated with limited independence but took part in collecting the money, raw materials, and foodstuffs exacted by the occupying Germans.
    890 (III: 166): But Gandalf said
    890 (III: 166). This is much to demand for the delivery of one servant.... Where is this prisoner? - Gandalf has surely noticed that the Mouth speaks of only one 'imp', and although the tokens come from both Frodo and Sam, only one of each item is present, suggesting that only one of the hobbits has been captured. In an early synopsis looking forward to this scene, Tolkien described Gandalf's rejection of the terms and wrote: 'Gan­dalf explains that Frodo is probably not captive - for at any rate Sauron has not got the Ring. Otherwise he would not seek to parley' (The War of the Ring, p. 230). Gandalf surely knew enough of Sauron's ways to think that, even if Sauron had regained the Ring and was playing a cruel game with them before striking, he would surely have mentioned the Ring itself, to increase the anguish of his foes and reduce them to utter despair. And as the bearer of the Elven-ring Narya Gandalf again would have been aware that Sauron was still not in possession of the One.

    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:59 | Сообщение # 62
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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 18-30.
    897 (III: 173): Sam roused himself
    897 (III: 173). Sam roused himself - It is 14 March 1419. Frodo was captured in the late afternoon or evening of 13 March; Sam followed the ores and listened to their conversation at the under-gate late on the 13th.
    897 (III: 173-4): 'I wonder if they think of us at all'
    897 (HI: 173-4). I wonder if they think of us - As Book VI begins, Tolkien carefully ensures that his readers know the present date and time, and how the situation described in this chapter relates to events in the West.
    898 (III: 174): There he halted and sat down
    898 (III: 174). he drew out the Ring and put it on again - A reader pointed out to Christopher Tolkien that Sam put on the Ring at the end of Book TV, and now 'put it on again', but there is no intervening reference to him taking it off. Christopher agreed that 'this does seem to be a most remarkable case of the author nodding' (courtesy of Christopher Tolkien).
    899 (III: 175): Hard and cruel
    899 (III: 175). Morgai - '"Black Fence", an inner ridge much lower than [the] Ephel Duath and separated from it by a deep trough (shallower at either end): the inner ring of the fences of Mordor' (Index).
    899-900 (III: 176): In that dreadful light
    899 (III: 176). Its eastern face stood up in three great tiers from a shelf in the mountain-wall far below - In a draft manuscript of this chapter Cirith Ungol rose in four tiers, as shown in an accompanying drawing (Artist ana Illustrator, fig. 174). Later this was changed to three tiers, which projected 40. 30, and 20 yards from the cliff, with their heights 100,75, and 50 feet.
    /TTT ^\ A L. J * •*
    900 (III: 176): As he gazed at it
    900 (III: 176). Narchost and Carchost, the Towers of the Teeth - 'Carchosi "fang fort" eastern of 2 Towers of the Teeth'; 'Narchost bitter-biting fori ("narch") the western of the 2 Towers of the Teeth' (Index).
    901 (III: 177): In that hour of trial
    901 (III: 177). In that hour of trial it was the love of his master thai helped most to hold him firm; but also deep down in him lived stil

    unconquered his plain hobbit-sense - Sam has come to play an increas­ingly important role. From late in Book V, when Frodo falls unconscious and is captured, until the end of the quest at the Crack of Doom, the reader sees the story mainly from Sam's point of view rather than Frodo's. And Sam now becomes, as Tolkien wrote to Milton Waldman, the 'chief hero' (see note for p. 1024), unlikely though that seemed earlier in the book; and yet he retains his rustic outlook. In his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, Tolkien noted that Sam 'did not think of himself as heroic or even brave, or in any way admirable - except in his service and loyalty to his master. That had an ingredient (probably inevitable) of pride and possessiveness: it is difficult to exclude it from the devotion of those who perform such service' (Letters, p. 329).
    902 (III: 178): They were like great figures
    902 (III: 178). Each had three jointed bodies and three heads facing outward, and inward, and across the gateway. The heads had vulture-faces - Bird-headed gods were depicted in ancient Egypt, three-dimensional or in profile in low relief or painted, but always as individual figures. Some columns had a head on each face as part of the 'capital'. Hybrid figures also occur in the art of Mesopotamia and the Near East. At Sargon's palace, built c. 700 BC at Khorsabad in northern Iraq, winged human-headed bulls were carved in high relief at the entrance to the citadel, to represent protecting genii; they face outwards, while other winged human figures were carved on the walls of the gateway. Griffin-headed human figures representing genii or demons appear in other Assyrian reliefs.
    A diagrammatic sketch by Tolkien of the Two Watchers is reproduced in The Treason oflsengard, p. 348.
    905 (III: 181): All at once, when he felt
    905 (III: 181). There the stair was covered by a small domed chamber in the midst of the roof, with low doors facing east and west. - In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien notes that his father added the sentence 'Both were open.' following 'east and west' in the fair copy manuscript of this chapter, but that the words were omitted in the second manuscript, 'perhaps inadvertently' (p. 26). The words were not added to the 2004 edition, absent adequate proof of Tolkien's intent.
    905 (III: 181-2): 'You won't go again, you say?'
    905 (III: 182). I'll squeeze your eyes out, like I did to Radbug just now
    - Presumably the cause of the 'dreadful choking shriek' Sam has just heard (pp. 903-4. HI: 180).
    On 18 February 1956, in response to corrections suggested by a reader, Tolkien wrote to Rayner Unwin:


    As for [the reader's] pedantry about like I as [as in 'like I did to Radbug'], you may inform him, if you think there is any need to do so, that he is in my opinion being very silly. First of all, his ... examples are taken from 'reported speech'. Since this use of like has been current in English for many centuries, especially in the freer and more conver­sational styles, I see no reason why dramatic propriety should be sacri­ficed to [the reader's] prejudices. In any case, two of the speakers (Sam and an Ore!) are nowhere represented as using 'correct' English. However the notion that like is either 'vulgar' or incorrect as a conjunc­tion has no foundation either in the observed usage of so-called 'good writers'; nor in the history of English syntax. No doubt, like other pedantic 'rules' of correctness, it was invented by those ignorant of both. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins]
    905 (III: 182): 'Then you must go
    905 (III: 182). he [Gorbag] knifed me, the dung - Possibly by coincidence, one meaning of Old English gor is 'dung'.
    905 (III: 182). the Black Pits - 'Dungeons of torment under Barad-dur'
    906 (III: 182): 'Well, you put his back up
    906 (III: 182). put his back up - Annoyed, offended him.
    906 (III: 182). tarks - In Appendix F (as directed by the footnote, added in the Allen & Unwin second edition, 1966) it is said that 'in this jargon tark, "man of Gondor", was a debased form of tarkil, a Quenya word used in Westron for one of Numenorean descent' (p. 1139, III: 409). In The Treason of Isengard, p. 8, Christopher Tolkien comments that at one point his father gave the true name of Trotter as Tarkil. 'The Name Tarkil appears in the Etymologies in V.364 [The Lost Road and Other Writings, p. 364] . .. (stem KHIL "follow"): *tara-khil, in which the second element evidently bears the sense "mortal man" (Hildi "the Followers", an Elvish name for Men...).'

    907-8 (HI: 184): Softly Sam began to climb

    907 (HI: 184). the guttering torch - The verb gutter is usually used of a candle, to mean 'melting rapidly', the wax flowing down the sides, until the flame goes out. The latest Concise Oxford English Dictionary adds the definition '(of a flame) flicker and burn unsteadily'.

    908 (III: 184-5): His voice sounded thin

    908 (III: 185). And then suddenly new strength rose in him, and his voice rang out - This episode, in which Frodo reveals his location by responding to Sam's song, was surely inspired by the legend of King Richard I of England, taken prisoner while returning from the Crusades,

    6 04

    and his loyal minstrel Blondel de Nesle. According to one version, Blondel went from castle to castle, searching for the king who was held in an unknown location, and singing one of Richard's favourite songs. When he came to where Richard was imprisoned, the king joined in, revealing his presence. (See Tolkien's letter of 7 June 1965 to the composer Donald Swann, in the Marion E. Wade Center, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois, in which he refers to 'Richard Coeur de Lion and the minstrel', apparently in connection with Sam's song In Western Lands.)
    Tolkien used the same motif in The Silmarillion, where the Noldo Fingon sings to discover where Morgoth has imprisoned his cousin Maedhros: 'suddenly above him, far and faint his song was taken up, and a voice answering called to him. Maedhros it was that sang amid his torment' (p. no). Later in the same work, Luthien sings to discover if Beren is held prisoner in Sauron's Tol-in-Gaurhoth (Isle of Werewolves): 'In that hour Luthien came, and standing on the bridge that led to Sauron's isle she sang a song that no walls of stone could hinder. Beren heard.... And in answer he sang a song of challenge' (p. 174). A similar episode was also to feature in the (abandoned) sequel to Farmer Giles of Ham, with the pig boy Suet imitating the sounds of farm animals to discover where the giant Caurus held Giles' son George captive.
    909 (III: 186): You lie quiet
    909 (III: 186). keep your trap shut - Snaga is not referring to the trap-door by which he has just entered but using a slang phrase meaning 'Quiet, keep your mouth shut'.
    911-12 (III: 188): 'No, no!' cried Frodo
    912 (III: 188). bemused - Stupefied, bewildered.
    913 (III: 189): He opened the bundle
    913 (III: 189). stabbing-sword - A short sword used for close fighting; compare the gladius, one of the primary weapons of the Roman soldier along with the spear or javelin.
    913-4 (III: 190): 'Save me, but so I had!'
    914 (III: 190). I don't know when drop or morsel last passed my lips -
    The last time it is mentioned that Frodo and Sam ate or drank was Book IV, Chapter 8, when they 'took what they expected to be their last meal before they went down into the Nameless Land' (p. 711, II: 320), some time on 11 March. Presumably Sam must have sipped some water since then, as it is now early on 15 March.
    914 (HI: 190): No, they eat and drink
    914 (III: 190). The Shadow that bred them [ores] can only mock, it cannot make: not real new things of its own. I don't think it gave life


    to the ores, it only ruined them and twisted them - See note for p. 444. In a letter to W.H. Auden on 12 May 1965 Tolkien wrote:
    With regard to The Lord of the Rings, I cannot claim to be a sufficient theologian to say whether my notion of ores is heretical or not. I don't feel under any obligation to make my story fit with formalized Christian theology, though I actually intended it to be consonant with Christian thought and belief, which is asserted somewhere, Book Five [i.e. VI]. page 190, where Frodo asserts that ores are not evil in origin. We believe that, I suppose, of all human kinds and sorts and breeds, though some appear, both as individuals and groups to be, by us at any rate: unredeemable. [Letters, p. 355]

    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 14:00 | Сообщение # 63
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    Chapter 2

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 31-6.
    916 (III: 193): The eastern faces
    916 (III: 193). hue and cry - 'An early system for apprehending suspected criminals. Neighbours were bound to join in a hue and cry and to pursue a suspect to the bounds of the manor' (Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase ana Fable).
    916 (III: 193): The eastern faces of the Ephel Duath
    916 (III: 193). flying bridge - A bridge without any intermediate supports.
    917 (III: 194): 'Ore-mail doesn't keep
    917 (III: 194). jerkin - A close-fitting jacket or short coat.
    917 (III: 194): Day was coming again
    917 (III: 194). Day was coming - It is dawn on 15 March 1419. Scheme and The Tale of Years agree that Sam entered the Tower and found Frodo on 14 March, but that they did not escape from the Tower until 15 March.
    917 (III: 195): Sam scrambled to his feet
    917 (III: 195). It's a long time... since I had a proper sleep - It is not long after dawn on 15 March, and excluding the hours he was unconscious at the under-gate during the night of 13/14 March, Sam had last slept the night of 11/12 March and probably well into 12 March, before entering Shelob's lair.
    919 (III: 196): As Frodo and Sam stood
    919 (III: 196). a cry of woe and dismay - Presumably this is one of the surviving Nazgul bringing news of the destruction of the Witch-king.
    919 (HI: 196): 'Well no, not much, Sam'
    919 (III: 196). a great wheel of fire - This image, which recurs as Frodo nears the end of his quest, is known also in Classical and Christian myth­ology as a symbol of hellish torture. Perhaps its best-known expression is in the Greek myth of Ixion, who for his attempted seduction of Hera was bound everlastingly to a fiery wheel.
    920 (HI: 197): Sharing a wafer
    920 (III: 197). the narrows of Isenmouthe, the iron jaws of Carach Angren. - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that Isenmouthe is intended to


    represent a 'translation' into the Common Speech of Sindarin Carach Angren, but 'made at so early a date that at the period of the tale' it 'had become archaic in form' and its original meaning was obscured, '/sen is an old variant form in English of iron .. .; mouthe is a derivative of mouth, representing Old English mutha (from muth "mouth") "an opening", especially used of the mouths of rivers, but also applied to other openings (not parts of a body).. .. The Isenmouthe was so called because of the great fence of pointed iron posts that closed the gap leading into Udun, like teeth in jaws... .' In his unfinished index Tolkien describes the Isen­mouthe as a 'rampart and dike guarding [the] entr[ance] to Udun', and notes 'carach "jaws, rows of teeth"'.
    ,TtT D\ TU • U A
    921 (III: 198): The river-bed was now
    921 (III: 198). Marges - Poetic margins'.
    922 (III: 199): 'Now you go to sleep first
    922 (III: 199). I reckon this day is nearly over. - Scheme has 'sleep under brambles' at the end of the entry for 15 March.
    922 (III: 199): Frodo sighed and was asleep y v yyi & r
    922 (III: 199). Sam saw a white star twinkle for a while. The beauty of it smote his heart... and hope returned to him. For like a shaft... the thought pierced him that in the end the Shadow was only a small and passing thing: there was light and high beauty for ever beyond its reach.
    - A frequently quoted passage which stresses the importance of hope and suggests that there are limits to what Evil can achieve. When Earendil first sailed the sky as a star at the end of the First Age, the people of Middle-earth 'took it for a sign, and called it Gil-Estel, the Star of High Hope' (The Silmarillion, p. 250).
    922 (III: 199-200): They woke together
    yy 1 &
    922 (III: 199). They woke - It is 16 March 1419.
    922 (III: 200). screes - A scree is 'a mass of small loose stones that form or cover a slope on a mountain' {Concise OED).
    923 (III: 200): Still tar away
    923 (III: 200). forty miles at least - But Frodo and Sam will take a much longer route. In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien notes that this was a late change from shorter distances, and comments: 'On the large-scale map of Rohan, Gondor and Mordor the distance is somewhat under 60 miles, as Mount Doom was first placed; but when it was moved further to the west it became about 43 miles (under 40 in my redrawing of the map published in The Return of the King), with which the text of RK agrees' (PP- 34-5)-


    923 (III: 200). Ashen Mountains - The Ered Lithui; see note for p. 636.
    923 (III: 200). the Eye turned inward, pondering tidings of doubt and danger; a bright sword, and a stern and kingly face - According to Scheme, on the previous day, 15 March, 'news of escape of prisoners [sic] of Tower reaches Baraddur almost at same time as news of their capture', but evidently Sauron was more concerned with other matters. It is ten days since Aragorn revealed himself in the palantir, but since then Sauron has seen his army defeated on the Pelennor Fields and the Witch-king annihilated, and, according to Gandalf, probably thinks that Aragorn is now the wielder of the Ring.
    923 (III: 200): Frodo and Sam gazed out
    923 (III: 200). As far as their eyes could reach ... there were camps,
    some of tents, some ordered hke small towns____Barely a mile out into
    the plain it clustered ... with straight dreary streets of huts and long low drab buildings. - The description recalls some of the extensive army camps to which Tolkien was posted during the First World War, in particu­lar those situated in Staffordshire on Cannock Chase.
    925 (III: 202): 'Not much use are you
    925 (III: 202). snotty noses - Literally, stuffed with mucus and therefore unable to follow a scent, but snotty is also slang for 'dirty, paltry, con­temptible'.
    925 (III: 202): 'All right, all right!'
    925 (III: 202). gobbler with the flapping hands - Gollum. A gobbler swallows hurriedly and in a noisy fashion. In The Hobbit, Chapter 5 it is said that when Gollum 'said gollum he made a horrible swallowing noise in his throat. That is how he got his name.'
    925 (III: 203): 'Who to?
    925 (III: 203). Not to your precious Shagrat. He won't be captain any more. - Both The Tale of Years and Scheme state that on 17 March Shagrat brings Frodo's cloak, mail-shirt, and (Sam's) sword to Barad-dur. Scheme adds that he is slain by Sauron.
    925-6 (III: 203): The other halted
    925 (III: 203). peaching sneakthief - Peaching 'to give incriminating evi­dence, to inform against'.
    Sneakthief is here probably intended to have its slang meaning of 'informer, telltale'.

    925 (III: 203). Shriekers - The Two Watchers of Minas Morgul.


    926-7 (III: 204): It was difficult
    926 (III: 204). It was difficult and dangerous moving in the night -
    Frodo and Sam travel during the night of 16/17 March and rest during the day on 17 March.
    927 (III: 204): 'No, not any clear notion
    927 (III: 204). I only remember vaguely - Frodo reckons that he and Sam have covered about twelve of the twenty leagues from the bridge below the Tower to the Isenmouthe, from which point they would be about sixty miles from Orodruin. Therefore they still have some eighty-four miles to cover, which Frodo thinks will take about a week, about twelve miles a day. In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien comments that the distance from the Morgai bridge below Cirith Ungol to the Isenmouthe was less in early texts, but 'on the large-scale map it becomes 56 miles or just under 19 leagues, agreeing with the twenty leagues of [ The Return of the King]'. He also notes that
    Frodo's [original] estimation of the distance from the Isenmouthe to Mount Doom as about fifty miles likewise remained through all the texts until replaced at the very end by sixty. This distance is roughly 50 miles on the Second Map, about 80 on the Third Map, and 62 on the large-scale map as Mount Doom was first placed; when it was moved further west the distance from the Isenmouthe became 50 miles. The change of 50 to 60 at the end of the textual history of RK is thus strangely the reverse of the development of the map. [p. 35]
    927 (III: 205): It was not yet quite dark
    927 (III: 205). At the first hint of grey Ught - It is 18 March. Frodo and Sam have travelled through the night of 17/18 March.
    927-8 (III: 205): Slowly the light grew
    928 (HI: 205). the deep dale of Udun - 'Udun . .. name of the defile bet[ween] [the] arms of [Ephel] Diiath and [Ered] Lithui' {Index). This has the same name, but is not the same place, as that mentioned by Gandalf when confronting the Balrog: see note for p. 330.
    928 (III: 205). there now their Lord was gathering in haste great forces to meet the onslaught of the Captains of the West - In a Tolkien dis­cussion group report published in Beyond Bree for May 1982, pp. 5-6, the point is made that 'Frodo and Sam approached the Isenmouthe on the same day that the Captains of the West left Minas Tirith'.
    How, then, did the Dark Lord know to rush all his troops to the north - before the enemy had indicated their direction of attack? Perhaps the Black Gate was the only practical passage for a large army into Mordor.... Did the Dark Lord consider the natural defenses of the


    Nameless Pass so great that he did not even leave a guard there? Or was it because the only successful invasion of Mordor had been through the Black Gate - and both Sauron and Aragorn knew their history? Even so, it smacks of foreknowledge: perhaps the Dark Lord used the palantir.
    928 (III: 205): A few miles north
    928 (III: 205). Durthang - 'Dark press or oppression' {Index). 929-30 (III: 207): Mordor-dark had returned
    929 (III: 207). when the hobbits set out again - It is the evening of 18 March.
    930 (III: 207): After doing some twelve miles
    930 (III: 207). twelve miles - Of the twenty miles estimated to the Isen-mouthe. In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien notes that as late as the printer's typescript the length of the road to the Isenmouthe was about ten miles, the hobbits had been on it only for about an hour when they halted, and they were soon overtaken with about six miles yet to go.
    On the typescript my father emended 'ten miles' to 'twenty miles', and 'an hour' to 'three hours', but the final reading of [The Return of the King] was 'after doing some twelve miles, they halted.' On the large-scale map [of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor] the track of Frodo and Sam up the valley below the Morgai is marked, and the point where their track joined the road from Durthang is 20 miles from the Isenmouthe; the change in the text was thus very probably made to accommodate it to the map. The change whereby the hobbits had gone for three hours or twelve miles along the road before being overtaken clearly followed the increased distance to the Isenmouthe, in order to reduce the time that Frodo and Sam had to submit to the punishing pace set by the ores before they escaped, [pp. 35-6]
    930 (HI: 208): They did not have to wait long
    930 (III: 203). to hide their feet - Sam did not bring any footwear to Frodo in Cirith Ungol, so presumably both are barefoot as usual for hobbits, and their hairy feet are likely to betray the fact that they are not Ores.
    931 (III: 208): It was hard enough for poor Sam
    931 (III: 208). he bent all his will to draw his breath and to make his legs keep going - Sam's effort recalls that of the typical foot soldier - of any army. As an officer in France during the First World War, Tolkien was not expected to carry his kit during lengthy marches, but still had to cover the distance.

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    Chapter 3 MOUNT DOOM
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 37-43.
    933 (III;210): In the morning
    933 (III: 210). In the morning - It is 19 March 1419. 933-4 (III: 210-11): Sam tried to guess
    933 (III: 210). It looks every step of fifty miles - That is, from the opening of the Isenmouthe. Frodo had reckoned that it might be sixty miles from the point where the spur towards Isenmouthe jutted out of the Ephel Duath.
    934 (III: 211): 'So that was the job
    934 (III: 211). Rosie Cotton - This is the first mention of Rose Cotton, and the first hint of Sam's feelings for her. Nor did she appear in any extant drafts until this chapter.
    According to Nomenclature the name Cotton
    is a place-name in origin (as are many modern surnames): from cox 'a cottage or humble dwelling' + -ton, the usual English element in place-names, a shortening of town (Old English tun 'village'). ...
    It is a common English surname, and has of course in origin nc connexion with cotton the textile material; though it is naturally associ­ated with it at the present day. Hobbits are represented as using tobacco: and this is made more or less credible by the suggestion that the plant was brought over the Sea by the Men of Westernesse ...; but it is nol intended that 'cotton' should be supposed to be known or used at thai time.
    In Appendix F Tolkien attempts an 'internal' or Westron etymology for the name: 'Cotton .. . represents Hlothran, a fairly common village-name in the Shire, derived from Moth, 'a two-roomed dwelling or hole', and ran(u) a small group of such dwellings on a hill-side. As a surname it ma) be an alteration of hlothram(a) 'cottager'. Hlothram, which I have rendered Cotman, was the name of Farmer Cotton's grandfather' (p. 1138, III: 416). See also note for p. 22, on Gamgee, and further, J.S. Ryan, 'Wherefore the Surname Cotton?' Amon Hen 72 (March 1985).
    934 (III: 211). her brothers - Rose has four brothers; see note for p. 939.
    934 (III: 211). Marigold - Sam's younger sister, who will marry the eldesl of the Cotton brothers. Like Rose and many other female hobbits, she ha;


    a flower-name. Tolkien used Marigold 'because it is suitable as a name in English, and because, containing gold and referring to a golden flower, it suggests that there was a "Fallohide" strain ... in Sam's family - which, increased by the favour of Galadriel, became notable in his children: especially Elanor, but also Goldilocks (a name sometimes given to flowers of buttercup-kind), who married the heir of Peregrin Took' (Nomenclature).
    934 (III: 211): But even as hope died
    934 (III: 211). But even as hope died ... or seemed to die, it was turned
    to new strength___the will hardened in him - Another reference to the
    Northern spirit (see note for p. 736), combined with the Christian virtue, hope.
    934 (III: 211): With a new sense of responsibility
    934 (III: 211). The whole surface ... was pocked with great holes, as if while it was still a waste of soft mud, it had been smitten with a shower of bolts and slingstones. - In a letter to The Listener Graham Tayar, who like Tolkien had attended King Edward's School, Birmingham, wrote that Tolkien 'once told me that the physical setting [of Mordor] derived directly from the trenches of World War One, the wasteland of shell-cratered battlefields where he had fought in 1916', rather than from the industrial Birmingham of Tolkien's youth as Humphrey Carpenter had suggested ('Tolkien's Mordor', 14 July 1977).
    A bolt in this sense is an arrow.
    A slingstone is a stone cast by a slingshot or by some engine of war working on a similar principle.
    935 (III: 212): He was taking
    935 (III: 212). for the Captains of the West had passed the Cross-roads and set flames in the deadly fields of Imlad Morgul - The narrative, The Tale of Years, and Scheme all agree that the fields were burnt on 19 March.
    935-6 (III: 212-13): There came at last a dreadful nightfall
    935 (III: 212). Then came at last a dreadful nightfall; and even as the Captains of the West drew near to the end of the living lands.... Four days had passed since they had escaped from the ores - This is the night of 22 March. The Tale of Years and Scheme note that on 23 March the Host of the West will leave Ithilien. In The Tale of Years there is no intervening entry between that for 19 March, recording Sam and Frodo's escape and that they 'begin their journey along the road to Barad-dur', and for 22 March: 'The dreadful nightfall. Frodo and Samwise leave the road and turn south to Mount Doom.' In Sauron Defeated, p. 43, Christopher Tolkien notes that in the margins of the first complete manuscript his father wrote, against nightfall of the day Frodo and Sam escaped, '18 ends' (19 March in the published text), and against the words 'There came at last a dreadful


    evening' he wrote 'end of 22'. Christopher comments that the latter is the same date as in The Return of the King, 'and thus there follows in the original text "Five days had passed since they escaped the ores" (i.e. March 18-22), where RK has "Four" [19-22 March].'
    936 (III: 213): 'Water, water!' 936 (III: 213). cisterns - Water storage tanks.
    936-7 (HI: 213-14): The hateful night passed 936 (III: 213-14). such daylight as followed - It is 23 March.
    936 (III: 214): A wild light came
    936 (III: 214). I am almost in its power now. I could not give it up -
    Toikien prepares us for Frodo's failure at the Crack of Doom. In a draft letter to Miss J. Burn on 26 July 1956 he wrote: 'If you re-read all the passages dealing with Frodo and the Ring, I think you will see that not only was it quite impossible for him to surrender the Ring, in act or will, especially at its point of maximum power, but that this failure was adumbrated from far back' {Letters, p. 251).
    938-9 (HI: 216): At their last halt he sank down
    939 (III: 216). Jolly Cotton and Tom and Nibs - These are nicknames: Jolly's real name is Wilcome, Tom is Tolman, and Nibs is Carl. Here Sam omits the third Cotton son, Nick (actually Bowman).
    939 (HI: 216): He could not sleep
    939 (III: 216). he held a debate with himself - Sam's debate provides an interesting contrast with that of Smeagol/Gollum, between despair and hope, or between surrender and stubborn devotion to duty.
    939 (III: 217): The last stage of their journey
    •■ no \ & ' '
    939 (III: 217). The last stage of their journey to Orodruin came - It is
    24 March.
    939 (III: 217). it was a torment greater than Sam had ever thought he could bear.... And yet their wills did not yield, and they struggled on.
    - In 'The Lord of the Rings as Romance', J.R.R. Tolkien, Scholar and Story­teller: Essays in Memoriam (1979), Derek S. Brewer comments that
    in the last stages of the journey to the Crack of Doom Tolkien succeeds in creating the sense of physical difficulty and cost that romance sometimes fails to achieve. He realises most vividly the appalling landscape, the aching struggle towards the repellent yet desired objective, barely relieved by the blessed brief oblivion of exhausted sleep. This is a hopelessness which is not despair; an assertion of the will which denies the self. No doubt Tolkien's war-experience contributed to the imagery.... [p. 257]

    MOUNT DOOM 615
    In a letter to Forrest J. Ackerman, probably between 11 April and 5 May 1958, objecting to a proposed film treatment, Tolkien wrote that 'the most important part of the whole work, the journey through Mordor and the martyrdom of Frodo, has been cut in preference for battles; though it is the chief point of The Lord of the Rings that the battles were of subordinate significance' (Marquette Series 7/17/03).
    ,TTT , 940 (III: 217): I didnt ought to have
    940 (III: 217). the last day of their quest - It is 25 March.
    941 (III: 218): As Frodo clung upon his back
    941 (III: 218). pig-a-back - A ride on someone's back and shoulders, also called piggyback.
    941 (III: 218-19): He looked back
    941 (III: 218-19). The confused and tumbled shoulders of its great base rose for maybe three thousand feet above the plain, and above them
    was reared half as high again its tall central cone___As he looked up
    ... he saw plainly a path or road. It climbed like a rising girdle from the west and wound snakelike about the Mountain, until before it went round out of view it reached the foot of the cone upon its eastern side. - In Sauron Defeated, p. 40, Christopher Tolkien comments that his father's drawing of Mount Doom reproduced in Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien (2nd edn., no. 30) and Sauron Defeated (p. 42) 'seems to show the final concep­tion, with the cone "half as high again" in relation to the "base"; but in this drawing the door of the Sammath Naur is at the foot of the cone, whereas in all versions of the text the climbing road came "high in the upper cone, but still far from the reeking summit, to a dark entrance" [Book VI, Chapter 3, p. 942, III: 219].'
    942 (III: 219): The path was not
    942 (III: 219). Sammath Naur, the Chambers of Fire - The Sindarin name is followed by its meaning in the Common Speech. Curiously, Index describes the Sammath Naur as 'the cave at [the] base of the cone of Orodruin'; compare note for p. 941.
    942 (III: 219). Window of the Eye - 'In the topmost tower of Barad-dur' (Index).
    942 (III: 219): Sam drew a deep breath
    942 (III: 219). Suddenly a sense of urgency which he did not understand
    came to Sam. It was almost as if he had been called-----Frodo also
    seemed to have felt the call. - At this moment the Host of the West is facing the might of Sauron at the Morannon.


    943 (III: 220): Again he lifted Frodo
    943-5 (III: 220-2). There at the bend it was cut deep ... - A recording by Tolkien from these words to 'all other powers were here subdued' (in the paragraph beginning At first he could see nothing') is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    943 (III: 220-1): With a violent heave
    943 (III: 221). griping - Grasping, clutching.
    944 (III: 221): 'Begone, and trouble me
    944 (III: 221). Begone, and trouble me no more! If you touch me ever again, you shall be cast yourself into the Fire of Doom. - Some readers have argued that this is the Ring itself speaking, rather than Frodo, because the 'commanding voice' emanates from the 'wheel of fire' seen by Sam. To say so, however, is to argue for a sentience within the Ring beyond its ability, established early in the story, to 'look after itself with the aim of eventual return to Sauron. A simpler interpretation, borne out within two pages, is that the voice is Frodo's, and that he is on the brink of claiming the Ring for himself.
    944 (III: 221): 'Don't kill us'
    944 (III: 221). when Precious goes we'll die, yes, die into the dust - See
    note for p. 974.
    944 (III: 221-2): Sam's hand wavered
    944 (III: 222). there was something that restrained him ... now dimly he guessed the agony of Gollum's shrivelled mind and body - At the
    last, Sam expresses pity for Gollum, as Bilbo and Frodo had done before, thus ensuring the success of the quest.
    945 (III: 223): I have come, he said
    945 (III: 223). I do not choose now to do what I came to do. I will not do this deed. The Ring is mine! - In a draft of this chapter Frodo says, instead: T have come. But I cannot do what I have come to do. I will not do it. The Ring is mine.' Christopher Tolkien comments: T do not think that the difference [between the two texts] is very significant, since it was already a central element in the outlines that Frodo would choose to keep the Ring himself; the change in his words does no more than emphasize that he fully willed his act' (Sauron Defeated, p. 38).
    In his letter to Milton Waldman, ?late 1951, Tolkien comments: 'We reach the brink of the Fire, and the whole plan fails. The Ring conquers. Frodo cannot bear to destroy it. He renounces the Quest, and claims the Ring and puts it on his finger' [Waldman LR). Later, in his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, he wrote:

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    Chapter 4


    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 44-53.
    948 (III: 226): There came Gwaihir the Windlord
    948 (III: 226). Gwaihir the Windlord, and Landroval his brother, greatest of all the Eagles of the North, mightiest of the descendants of old Thorondor, who built his eyries in the inaccessible peaks of the Encirc­ling Mountains when Middle-earth was young - In Tolkien's Quenta Silmarillion text written in 1937 Gwaewar and Lhandroval ('wide-wing'), led by Thorondor ('king of eagles', from Sindarin thoron 'eagle' + -dor 'lord'), rescue Beren and Luthien after they escape from Angband with a Silmaril. Gwaewar was later revised to Gwaihir, as also occurred with the Gwaihir of The Lord of the Rings. In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien comments that he suppressed the names Gwaihir and Landroval
    in the published Silmarillion (p. 182) on account of the present passage in [ The Return of the King], but this was certainly mistaken: it is clear that my father deliberately repeated the names. As in so many other cases in The Lord of the Rings, he took the name Gwaewar for the greal eagle, friend of Gandalf, from The Silmarillion, and when Gwaihh replaced Gwaewar in The Lord of the Rings, he made the same change to the eagle's name in The Silmarillion. Now he took also Lhandrovai [thus in the draft for Book VI, Chapter 4] to be the name of Gwaihir's brother; and added a new name Meneldor.... [p. 45]
    In The Silmarillion Thorondor is described as 'mightiest of all birds thai have ever been, whose outstretched wings spanned thirty fathoms' (p. 110). The Encircling Mountains are the Eryd Echor, the mountains 'aboul Gondolin in the lost land of B[eleriand]' {Index).
    948 (III: 226). vassals - Here, in a more general sense, followers, subjects,
    948 (III: 226-7): Then all the Captains of the West
    948 (III: 226). close-serried - Close together, shoulder to shoulder.
    949 (III: 227): 'The realm of Sauron
    949 (III: 227). a huge shape of shadow.... Enormous it reared above the world, and stretched out towards them a vast threatening hand -
    In a design for a dust-jacket for The Return of the King Tolkien drew ir the background, behind the throne of Gondor and a stylized White Tree the Shadow of Mordor given gigantic form as a long arm reaching oul


    across red and black mountains, at its end a clawed hand. See Artist and Illustrator, fig. 182.
    Hugh Brogan, in 'Tolkien's Great War', Children and Their Books: A Celebration of the Work of Iona and Peter Opie (1989), compares Tolkien's description of the shadow of Sauron with that of a First World War shell-burst as written by Siegfried Sassoon in Memoirs of a Fox-hunting Man: 'Against the clear morning sky a cloud of dark smoke expands and drifts away. Slowly its dingy wrestling vapours take the form of a hooded giant with clumsy expostulating arms. Then, with a gradual gesture of acquiescence, it lolls sideways, falling over into the attitude of a swimmer on his side. And so it dissolves into nothingness.' Brogan comments: 'The similarities between these passages cannot be coincidental. ... It is possible that Tolkien used Sassoon's description as a model, but it is surely much likelier that he, as well as Sassoon, could remember what a shell-burst looked like, and exploit it for literary purposes' (pp. 353-4)-
    949 (III: 227). a great wind took it, and it was all blown away - In 1987 a Tolkien discussion group observed 'that Sauron's "shadow" is dissipated by wind, ... the province of Manwe', with whom also are associated the Great Eagles (Romenna Meeting Report, 29 March 1987, p. 5; see also notes for p. 261, above, and p. 1020).
    949 (III: 227): The Captains bowed their heads
    949 (III: 227). As when death smites the swollen brooding thing that inhabits their crawling hill and holds them all in sway, ants will wander witless and purposeless - The 'swollen brooding thing' in this context is the queen ant. Some readers have compared this passage to the elaborate similes often found in Homer. In his letter to Milton Waldman, ?late 1951, Tolkien used a comparable phrase, 'like termites with a dead queen' (Waldman LR).
    949 (III: 227-8): 'Twice you have borne me
    949 (III: 227). Twice you have borne me - Gandalf names one of these occasions, when he flew from Zirakzigil to Lothlorien; the other must be when Gwaihir rescued Gandalf from Orthanc. This would appear to pre­clude Gwaihir being the Lord of the Eagles (later King of All Birds) who rescues Gandalf in Chapter 6 of The Hobbit and later took part in the Battie of Five Armies, but some have argued that Gandalf may have been miscounting. Anders Stenstrom (Beregond) has discussed the question at length in 'Is Gwaihir to Be Identified with the Lord of the Eagles and the King of All Birds?', Beyond Bree, April and May 1987; both he and Douglas A. Anderson in The Annotated Hobbit (2nd edn.) reject the identification.
    Many readers have asked why the Council of Elrond did not simply give the Ring to Gwaihir to drop into the crater of Orodruin. Apart from the fact that there would then be no story, Tolkien wrote to Forrest J.


    Ackerman in June 1958: 'The Eagles are a dangerous "machine". I have used them sparingly, and that is the absolute limit of their credibility or usefulness' (Letters, p. 271).
    950 (III: 228): 'The North Wind blows
    950 (III: 228). Meneldor - A Sindarin name, presumably 'lord of the sky', from menel 'firmament, heavens' + -dor 'lord'.
    951 (III: 229): When Sam awoke
    951 (III: 229). When Sam awoke - It is 8 April 1419.
    951 (HI: 229): He remembered that smell
    951 (III: 229). third finger - The third finger from the thumb, also called the ring finger.
    952 (III: 230): 'The fourteenth of the New Year
    952 (III: 230). The fourteenth of the New Year ... or ... the eighth day of April in the Shire-reckoning ... in Gondor the New Year will always now begin upon the twenty-fifth of March when Sauron fell - Frodo and Sam have slept for fourteen days. Since in the Shire Reckoning March has thirty days, it is now 8 April.
    In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey comments that 'in Anglo-Saxon belief, and in European popular tradition both before and after that, 25 March is the date of the Crucifixion; also of the Annunciation (nine months before Christmas); also of the last day of Creation' (p. 181), all asserted in Byrhtferth's Manual, written by Byrhtferth, a monk of Ramsey, c. 970-c 1020. From the latter part of the twelfth century the feast of the Annunciation, 'Lady Day', 25 March, was the beginning of the year for most purposes in England. It remained so, for legal and official purposes, until the reform of the calendar in 1751.
    952 (III: 230): 'The clothes that you wore
    952 (III: 230). 'The clothes that you wore on your way to Mordor,' said Gandalf. 'Even the ore-rags that you bore in the black land, Frodo, shall be preserved. No silks and linens, nor any armour or heraldry could be more honourable. But later I will find some other clothes, perhaps.' -
    As first published this passage read: ' "The clothes that you journeyed in," said Gandalf. "No silks and linens, nor any armour or heraldry could be more honourable. But later we shall see."' It was revised in the second edition (1965), though Ballantine Books at first misprinted 'silks or linens' for 'silks and linens'.
    952 (HI: 230-1): Then he held out his hands
    952 (HI: 230-1). Then he held out his hands to them, and they saw that one shone with light. 'What have you got there?' Frodo cried. 'Can it


    be—V [paragraph:] 'Yes, I have brought your two treasures. They were found on Sam when you were rescued, the Lady GaladriePs gifts: your glass, Frodo, and your box, Sam. You will be glad to have these safe again.' - These two paragraphs were added in the second edition (1965). Ballantine Books misprinted 'Light' for 'light' and 'Galadnil's' for 'Galad-riel's', and erroneously divided the sentence 'They were found ...' into two. The first two errors were corrected in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966); the third was not completely corrected until the edition of 2004, having been variously punctuated in the interim.
    953 (III: 231): As they came to the opening
    953 (III: 231). a long wooded isle - Cair Andros.
    953 (III: 231): 'Long live the Halflings!
    953 (III: 231). Long live the Halflings! Praise them with great praise! I Cuio i Pheriain anann! Aglar'ni Pheriannath!... - Tolkien wrote to Rhona Beare on 8 June 1961 in regard to these phrases:
    The second, fourth and sixth lines are Sindarin or Grey Elvish. The seventh and ninth are High Elvish. Line 2 [Cuio i Pheriain anann! Aglar'ni Pheriannath!} means 'May the Halflings live long, glory to the Halflings.' The fourth line [Daur a Berhael, Conin en Annun! Eglerio!] means 'Frodo and Sam, princes of the west, glorify (them)', the sixth [Eglerio!], 'glorify (them)'. The seventh line [A laita te, laita te! Andave laituvalmet!] means 'Bless them, bless them, long will we praise them.' The ninth line [Cormacolindor, a laita tdrienna!] means 'The Ring bearers, bless (or praise) them to the height.' [Letters, p. 308]
    In his letter to Milton Waldman, ?late 1951, he wrote:
    In the scene where all the hosts of the West unite to do honour and praise to the two humble Hobbits, Frodo and Sam, we reach the 'eucata-strophe' of the whole romance: that is the sudden joyous 'turn' and fulfilment of hope, the opposite of tragedy, that should be the hallmark of a 'fairy-story' of higher or lower tone, the resolution and justification of all that has gone before. It brought tears to my eyes to write it, and still moves me, and I cannot help believing that it is a supreme moment of its kind. [Waldman LR]
    Christopher Tolkien notes that earlier forms of the praise differed con­siderably from that published, and included Old English as well as Sindarin and Quenya. The final form was typed onto the galley proof, replacing: 'Long live the Halflings! Praise them with great praise! Cuio i Pheriannath anann! Aglar anann! Praise them with great praise! Wilcuman, wilcuman, Proda and Samwis! Praise them! Uton herian holbytlan! A laita te, laita te! Andave laituvalmet! Praise them! The Ringbearers, praise them with great praise? (Sauron Defeated, p. 47).

    954 (III: 232-3): Frodo and Sam were led apart
    954 (III: 233). the soils and hurts that it had suffered; and then he laid before them two swords.... And when they were arrayed they went to the great feast; and they sat at the King's table with Gandalf - As first published this passage read: 'the soils and hurts that it had suffered; and when the hobbits were made ready, and circlets of silver were set upon their heads, they went to the King's feast, and they sat at his table with Gandalf. It was revised in the second edition (1965), introducing several lines of dialogue in which Frodo agrees to wear a sword though he does not wish to do so.
    Nancy Martsch suggests in 'Frodo's Failure', Beyond Bree, June 1997, that Frodo may not have wanted to wear a sword because he felt that he had failed: 'The sword was a badge of honour among Men, the emblem of a successful warrior. Frodo probably felt that he did not merit such an honour' (p. 4). But Frodo had said, not long after escaping from Cirith Ungol: 'I do not think it will be my part to strike any blow again' (Book VI, Chapter 2, p. 926, III: 204). Nor does he, even in the battle with the ruffians in Book VI, Chapter 8.
    955 (III: 233): But when, after the Standing Silence
    955 (III: 233). after the Standing Silence - These words were added in the second edition (1965). Compare, in Book IV, Chapter 5: 'Before they ate, Faramir and all his men turned and faced west in a moment of silence' (p. 676, II: 284).
    955 (III: 233): At last the glad day ended
    955 (III: 233). the round Moon rose slowly - It is the night of 8/9 April. The moon had been full the previous night.
    956 (III: 234): 'And not only Sam and Frodo
    956 (III: 234). I made sure you were dead - That is, he was convinced that Pippin was dead.
    956 (III: 234-5): To the Sea, to the Sea!
    956 (III: 235). the Last Shore - 'The Shores of Elvenhome, beyond the G[rea]t Sea' (Index).
    956 (III: 235). in the Lost Isle calling, in Eressea - The Lost Isle is another name for Eressea; see note for p. 244.
    957 (III: 235): Then the others also departed
    957 (III: 235). Field of Cormallen - In his unfinished index Tolkien defines Cormallen ('golden circle', from Sindarin cor 'ring' + mallen 'golden') as 'a region in Ithilien (originally called after the laburnum that grew there)', and Field of Cormallen as 'a mead in C[ormallen] in Ithilien not far from

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 54-60.
    958 (III: 236): When the Captains
    958 (III: 236). When the Captains were but two days gone - It is 20 March 1419.
    958 (III: 236): Lady, he answered
    958 (III: 236). You should not have risen from your bed for seven days
    yet - On 15 March Aragorn told the Warden that Eowyn should not be permitted from rising 'until at least ten days be passed' (Book V, Chapter 8, p. 870, III: 147). Five days have passed since then, leaving five more under Aragorn's prescription, not seven as the Warden says here. Perhaps he is taking Aragorn's 'at least' to heart and adding two days.
    958 (III: 236): 'There are no tidings'
    958 (III: 236). rents - In this context, wounds made by rending With, blades.
    959 (III: 237): The Warden looked at her
    959 (III: 237). her right hand clenched - As originally written and set in type, these words read: 'her left hand clenched'. Tolkien recorded an emendation, left hand' changed to 'right hand' (because Eowyn's left arm, her shield arm, had been broken in the battle), on the galley proof of The Return of the King (Marquette Series 3/9/29), but evidently in attempting to make the change the typesetters deleted 'left' without inserting 'right'. 'Her hand' was corrected to 'her right hand' in the edition of 2005.
    959 (III: 237): T do not rightly know"
    959 (III: 237). There is a marshal over the Riders of Rohan - As first published, the word 'marshal' here read 'captain'. It was altered in the second edition (1965).
    961 (III: 239): 'Alas, not me, lord!'
    961 (HI: 239). she did him a courtesy - Expressed respect through an action or gesture.
    961 (III: 239): But in the morning
    961 (III: 239). But in the morning - It is 21 March.


    961 (III: 239): And so the fifth day
    961 (III: 239). the fifth day came since the lady Eowyn went first to Faramir - It is now 25 March.
    961 (III: 239-40): They were clad in warm raiment
    961 (III: 239-40). his mother, Finduilas of Amroth, who died untimely
    - Finduilas was born in Third Age 2950 and died in 2988; Boromir had been born in 2978, and Faramir only in 2983. In Appendix A it is said that Denethor
    married late (2976), taking to wife Finduilas, daughter of Adrahil of Dol Amroth. She was a lady of great beauty and gentle heart, but before twelve years had passed she died. Denethor loved her, in his fashion, more dearly than any other. ... But it seemed to men that she withered in the guarded city, as a flower of the seaward vales set upon a barren rock. The shadow in the east filled her with horror, and she turned her eyes ever south to the sea that she missed, [p. 1056, III: 336]
    A Finduilas also figures in Tolkien's tales of the First Age, the daughter of Orodreth, loved by Gwindor. She was captured in the sack of Narg-othrond and killed by Ores at the Crossings of Teiglin. In drafts of The Lord of the Rings the name was first given to Elrond's daughter (later
    962 (III: 240): And as they stood so
    962 (III: 240). it seemed to them that above the ridges of the distant mountains another vast mountain of darkness rose, towering like a wave that should engulf the world, and about it lightnings flickered; and then a tremor ran through the earth, and they felt the walls of the City quiver - The description here, and that of the scene witnessed by Frodo and Sam from Mount Doom in Book VI, Chapter 3 (p. 947, III: 224: 'Towers fell and mountains slid; walls crumbled and melted, crashing down; vast spires of smoke and spouting steams went billowing up, up, until they toppled like an overwhelming wave, and its wild crest curled and came foaming down upon the land .. . the earth shook, the plain heaved and cracked.. .. The skies burst into thunder seared with light­ning'), recall the destruction of Numenor as described in the Akallabeth: 'Then suddenly fire burst from the Meneltarma, and there came a mighty wind and a tumult of the earth, and the sky reeled, and the hills slid, and Numenor went down into the sea.... And last of all the mounting wave, green and cold and plumed with foam, climbing over the land ...' (The Siltnarillion, p. 279). Since Numenor was destroyed in response to its king's attempted invasion of Aman, at the instigation of Sauron, it is only fitting that more than an Age later Sauron's own realm should be destroyed in a similar manner.


    962 (III: 240): 'Yes,' said Faramir
    962 (III: 240). the great dark wave climbing over the green lands and above the hills, and coming on, darkness unescapable. I often dream of
    it. - In his draft letter to Mr Thompson, 14 January 1956, Tolkien says that 'when Faramir speaks of his private vision of the Great Wave, he speaks for me. That vision and dream has been ever with me' (Letters, p. 232). On 7 June 1955 he wrote to W.H. Auden:
    I have what some might call an Atlantis complex. Possibly inherited, though my parents died too young for me to know such things about them, and too young to transfer such things by words. Inherited from me (I suppose) by one only of my children [Michael], though I did not know that about my son until recently, and he did not know it about me. I mean the terrible recurrent dream (beginning with memory) of the Great Wave, towering up, and coming in ineluctably over the trees and green fields. (I bequeathed it to Faramir.) I don't think I have had it since I wrote the 'Downfall of Numenor' as the last of the legends of the First and Second Age. [Letters, p. 213]
    963 (III: 241): And so they stood on the walls
    963 (III: 241). And the Shadow departed, and the Sun was unveiled, and light leaped forth; and the waters of Anduin shone like silver, and in all the houses of the City men sang for the joy that welled up in their hearts from what source they could not tell. - In On Fairy-Stories Tolkien writes of eucatastrophe, 'the Consolation of the Happy Ending' or 'the sudden joyous "turn"' provided in many fairy-stories that is 'a sudden and miraculous grace ... it denies ... universal final defeat and in so far is evangelium, giving a fleeting glimpse of Joy, Joy beyond the Walls of the World, poignant as grief (Tree and Leaf, p. 62). In The Lord of the Rings the 'turn' is spread over two chapters, concentrating in Book VI, Chapter 4 on Frodo and Sam ('all my wishes have come true', p. 954, III: 232), and now in the present chapter with a wider focus.
    In 'Goldberry and Galadriel: The Quality of Joy', Mythlore 16, no. 2, whole no. 60 (Winter 1989), L. Eugene Startzman notes that in the passages immediately preceding the Eagle's song
    the language describing the threat and the change is biblical and apoca­lyptic: earthquake and lightning accompany the "vast mountain of darkness"; the use of the coordinate conjunction and to join together a series of primarily independent clauses suggests the narrative style of the King James translation. The effect is to celebrate and further ground that joy which we experience in the turn of the story in the very structure of the universe. That is, Sun and Stars are always there behind the Darkness; they are permanent, and have their ultimate origin in the Flame Imperishable of Iluvatar....


    [The language of The Return of the King] conveys the real nature of the joy experienced in the Ringbearer's victory. The Sun, for example, doesn't just emerge from behind the clouds: it is 'unveiled,' and the style suggests that the departure of the Shadow is not necessarily the cause. The coordinate conjunctions separate and emphasize each action: 'And the Shadow departed, and the Sun was unveiled, and light leaped forth;...' The semicolon after forth allows a brief pause between the vigorous action of the light and its immediate consequences, thus giving final emphasis to the meaning of the light: 'and the waters of Anduin shone like silver, and in all the houses of the City men sang for the joy that welled up in their hearts from what source they could not tell.' The effect on the water is connected to the effect on the people because the joy 'welled up' as if from some underground, hidden source, which is exactly what joy (and the Sun in the third volume) has been throughout the story - hidden because of the menace of darkness and despair.. .. [pp. 11-12]
    963 (III: 241): And before the Sun had fallen
    963 (III: 241). And before the Sun had fallen ... - A recording by Tolkien from these words to the sentence following the poem ('And the people sang in all the ways of the City') is included on Disc 2 of TheJ.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    963 (III: 241). he bore tidings beyond hope from the Lords of the West
    - Thus the Eagle seems to have been sent by the Valar, the Authorities or Powers in Aman, whose title Lords of the West is established in the Akallabeth.
    963 (HI: 241). Sing now, ye people of the Tower ofAnor... - Tom Shippey comments in The Road to Middle-earth concerning the Eagle's message:
    There is no doubt here about Tolkien's stylistic model, which is the Bible and particularly the Psalms. The use of 'ye' and 'hath' is enough to indicate that to most English readers, familiar with those words only from the Authorised Version. But 'Sing and rejoice' echoes Psalm 33, 'Rejoice in the Lord', while the whole of the poem is strongly remi­niscent of Psalm 24, 'Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors for the King of glory shall come in.' 'Who is the King of glory?' asks the Psalm, and one traditional answer is Christ, crucified but not yet ascended, come to the city of Hell to rescue from it those especially virtuous pre-Christians. ... Of course the eagle's song is not about that. When it says 'the Black Gate is broken' it means the Morannon . .. and when it says 'your King shall come again', it means Aragorn. Yet the first statement could very easily apply to Death and Hell (Matthew xvi, 18 'and the gates of hell shall not prevail'), the second to Christ and the Second Coming. [2nd edn., pp. 180-1]


    963-4 (III: 241-2): The days that followed were golden
    963 (III: 241). and Spring and Summer joined and made revel together
    - Tolkien wrote to Forrest J. Ackerman in May-June 1958: 'Seasons are carefully regarded in [ The Lord of the Rings].... The main action begins in autumn and passes through winter to a brilliant spring: this is basic to the purport and tone of the tale' (Letters, pp. 271-2)
    964 (III: 242): 'Then if you will have it so
    964 (HI: 242). you do not go, because only your brother called for
    you___Or because I do not go___And maybe for both these reasons,
    and you yourself cannot choose between them. Eowyn, do you not love me, or will you not? - In his meetings with Frodo and Sam in Book IV Faramir is shown to be a shrewd judge of character and of circumstances. Here he makes a fairly accurate assessment of Eowyn's feelings, which to her are still confused. He forces the issue with the question: do you really feel nothing for me, or do you refuse to acknowledge what you feel?
    964 (III: 242): 'That I know,' he said
    964 (III: 242). puissant - Having great power, authority.
    964 (III: 243): Then the heart of Eowyn changed
    964 (III: 243). Then the heart of Eowyn changed, or else at last she understood it. - Tolkien drafted a reply c. 1963 to an unnamed correspon­dent concerning Faramir and Eowyn:
    It is possible to love more than one person (of the other sex) at the same time, but in a different mode and intensity. I do not think that Eowyn's feelings for Aragorn really changed much; and when he was revealed as so lofty a figure, in descent and office, she was able to go on loving and admiring him. He was old, and that is not only a physical quality: when not accompanied by any physical decay age can be alarm­ing or awe-inspiring. Also she was not herself ambitious in the true political sense. Though not a 'dry nurse' in temper, she was also not really a soldier or 'amazon', but like many brave women was capable of great military gallantry at a crisis... .
    [Regarding] criticism of the speed of the relationship or love' of Faramir and Eowyn. In my experience feelings and decisions ripen very quickly (as measured by mere 'clock-time', which is actually not justly applicable) in periods of great stress, and especially under the expec­tation of imminent death. And I do not think that persons of high estate and breeding need all the petty fencing and approaches in matters of 'love'. This tale does not deal with a period of 'Courtly Love' and its pretences; but with a culture more primitive (sc. less corrupt) and nobler. [Letters, pp. 323-4]

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    Chapter 6 MANY PARTINGS
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 61-74.
    974 (III: 252). [chapter title] - The title 'Many Partings' is an intentional contrast to the title of the first chapter of Book II, 'Many Meetings'.
    974 (III: 252): When the days of rejoicing
    974 (III: 252). When the days of rejoicing were over - It is 15 July 1419.
    974 (III: 252): 'Do you wonder at that
    974 (III: 252). For you know the power of that thing which is now destroyed; and all that was done by that power is now passing away. But your kinsman possessed this thing longer than you. He is ancient in years now, according to his kind; and he awaits you, for he will not again make any long journey save one. - Among many other things, the power of the Ring gave Bilbo long life, and evidently continued to sustain him until the Ring was destroyed. Gollum, too, was sustained, for hundreds of years since the Ring came to him, and for nearly seventy years after losing it to Bilbo; and it seems clear from his words to Sam on Mount Doom ('when Precious goes we'll die, yes, die into the dust', p. 944, III: 221) that he is aware that his life depends upon the Ring surviving - he is far more 'ancient in years' than Bilbo - apart from his emotional ties to his 'Precious'.
    Having given up the Ring, Bilbo had clearly aged by the time Frodo spoke with him at Rivendell before the Council of Elrond; and now his true physical age has caught up with him. The 'long journey' he will make is that which Frodo will share, into the West, as Arwen is about to offer; but the words also refer metaphorically to Bilbo's inevitable death.
    974 (III: 252): 'In seven days we will go'
    974 (III: 252). In three days now Eomer will return hither - In Scheme the following additional information is given, omitted from The Tale of Years possibly for reasons of space:
    Mid-year's Day: Aragorn and Arwen wed. That day and the [six > seven >] 14 following are made days of festival.
    July [6 > 14 >] 12: End of the festival [in fact, 2 Lithe plus 1-12 July = only 13 days].
    July [7 >] 15: Frodo begs leave of the King to depart.
    July [10 >] 18: Eomer returns from Rohan with picked body of Riders.


    974-5 (HI: 252-3): But the Queen Arwen said
    974 (III: 252). A gift I will give you. For I am the daughter of Elrond. I shall not go with him now when he departs to the Havens; for mine is the choice of Lufhien.... But in my stead you shall go, Ring-bearer, when the time comes, and if you then desire it. If your hurts grieve you still and the memory of your burden is heavy, then you may pass into the West, until all your wounds and weariness are healed. - To this point in the narrative there has been no suggestion that Frodo could not be fully healed. In his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, Tolkien wrote that Frodo
    appears at first to have had no sense of guilt...; he was restored to sanity and peace. But.. . one can observe the disquiet growing in him. Arwen was the first to observe the signs, and gave him her jewel for comfort, and thought of a way of healing him.. ..
    It is not made explicit how she could arrange this. She could not of course just transfer her ticket on the boat like that! For any except those of Elvish race 'sailing west' was not permitted, and any exception required 'authority', and she was not in direct communication with the Valar, especially not since her choice to become 'mortal'. What is meant is that it was Arwen who first thought of sending Frodo into the West, and put in a plea for him to Gandalf (direct or through Galadriel, or both), and she used her own renunciation of the right to go West as an argument. Her renunciation and suffering were related to and enmeshed with Frodo's: both were parts of a plan for the regeneration of the state of Men. Her prayer might therefore be specially effective, and her plan have a certain equity of exchange. No doubt it was Gandalf who was the authority that accepted her plea. The Appendices show clearly that he was an emissary of the Valar, and virtually their plenipotentiary in accomplishing the plan against Sauron. He was also in special accord with Cirdan the Ship-master, who had surrendered to him his ring and so placed himself under Gandalf's command. Since Gandalf himself went on the Ship there would be so to speak no trouble either at embarking or at the landing. [Letters, p. 327]
    Tolkien comments later in the draft: 'It is clear, of course, that the plan had actually been made and concerted (by Arwen, Gandalf and others) before Arwen spoke. But Frodo did not immediately take it in; the implica­tions would slowly be understood on reflection' (p. 328). See further, note for p. 1029.
    975 (III: 253): In three days, as the King had said
    975 (HI: 253). In three days - On 18 July.
    975 (III: 253). Merethrond, the Great Hall of Feasts - In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien notes that

    on a page of rough drafting for this passage my father dashed off a little plan of the Citadel. This is shown as a circle with seven small circles (towers) at equal distances within the circumference, one of these stand­ing beside the entrance. Beyond the Court of the Fountain is marked, at the centre, the White Tower and Hall of Kings, and beyond that again, on the west side of the Citadel, the King's House. To the right (north) of the White Tower is the Hall of Feasts. The outlines of other buildings are roughed in between the towers, [p. 67]
    975 (III: 253): At last the day of departure came
    975 (III: 253). the day of departure - 22 July. Scheme includes for this date: 'The cortege of Theoden leaves Minas Tirith with all the chieftains, and the four hobbits. They proceed slowly and take 15 days [to reach Edoras].'
    976 (III: 254): Without haste and at peace
    976 (III: 254). the Grey Wood - Described in Book V, Chapter 5 as 'wide grey thickets' (p. 834, III: 108). Tolkien defines Grey Wood in his unfinished index as 'the wood near the junction of Stonewain Valley and the main West Rd.'
    976 (III: 254): At length after fifteen days
    976 (III: 254). after fifteen days of journey - They arrive at Edoras on 7 August.
    976 (III: 254). there was held the highest feast that it had known - This is probably looking ahead to the feast after the funeral, rather than to a separate feast held on the travellers' arrival at Edoras.
    976 (III: 254). after three days - On 10 August.
    976 (III: 254). now there were eight mounds on the east side of the Barrowfield. - See note for p. 507. When Eomer dies a third line will begin, since he is Theoden's sister-son, not his son.
    Index defines the Barrowfield (written 'Barrow-field') as 'the field before Edoras beside Snowbourn where the Kings' mounds stood'.
    976 (III: 254): Then the Riders of the Kings House
    976 (III: 254). Gleowine - Old English 'lover of music, lover of minstrelsy' from gleo 'music, song' + wine 'friend'.
    977 (III: 255): When the burial was over

    977 (III: 255). the burial - Apart from the absence of a religious ceremony Theoden's funeral includes elements recorded as having been part of the burial of famous leaders in the early medieval period in Europe: buria with arms and other possessions; the raising of a mound over the grave


    followers riding around the barrow; the singing of a song recording the deeds of the deceased; and expressions of grief.
    In his De Origine Actibusque Getarum Jordanes describes the funeral of Attila, the leader of the Huns, in AD 453:
    His body was placed in the midst of a plain and lay in state in a silken tent as a sight for men's admiration. The best horsemen of the entire tribe of the Huns rode around in circles, after the manner of circus games, in the place to which he had been brought and told of his deeds in a funeral dirge. ... When they had mourned him with such lamentations, a strava, as they call it, was celebrated over his tomb with great revelling. They gave way in turn to the extremes of feeling and displayed funereal grief alternating with joy. Then in the secrecy of night they buried his body in the earth. They bound his coffins, the first with gold, the second with silver and the third with the strength of iron.... They also added the arms of foemen won in the fight, trappings of rare worth, sparkling with various gems, and ornaments of all sorts whereby princely state is maintained. And that so great riches might be kept from human curiosity, they slew those appointed to the work.... [The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, trans, by Charles C. Mierow, pp. 80-1]
    In Beowulf the hero's body was burned on a funeral pyre 'hung round with helmets, battle-shields, bright corslets' and 'the roaring flame mingled with the noise of weeping. ... Depressed in soul, they [the warriors] uttered forth their misery, and mourned their lord's death. Moreover, the aged woman with hair bound up, sang in memory of Beowulf a doleful dirge....' Over Beowulf's ashes, and the treasure taken from the dragon's hoard, his people build a mound upon a cliff; 'then the warriors brave in battle, sons of nobles, twelve in all, rode round the barrow; they would lament their loss, mourn for their king, utter a dirge, and speak about their hero. They reverenced his manliness, extolled highly his deeds of valour ...' (Clark Hall translation, pp. 174-5).
    977 (III: 255). then folk gathered to the Golden Hall for the great feast.... And when the time came that in the custom of the Mark they should drink to the memory of the kings, Eowyn Lady of Rohan came forth ... and she bore a filled cup to Eomer. [paragraph:] ... And when Theoden was named Eomer drained the cup. - Hilda Roderick Ellis writes in The Road to Hel: A Study of the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature p. 59, that
    throughout the sagas it is made clear that an important way of paying honour to the dead was to hold a funeral feast in his memory; and this was important for the living as well as for the dead, since it was at the feast that the son took over the inheritance of his father. Snorri [Yng-linga Saga] describes the proceedings at such a feast:


    It was the custom at that time when a funeral feast should be made in honour of king or jarl that he who held it and who was to succeed to the inheritance should sit on the step before the high-seat up to the time when the cup was borne in which was called Bragi's cup. Then he should stand up with the cup of Bragi and make a vow, and drink off the cup afterwards; then he should proceed to the high-seat which his father had had, and then he succeeded to all the inheritance after him. [p. 59]
    After giving other examples Ellis continues: "What then was the original motive behind this custom? Was there some idea of well-being for the dead dependent on the holding of a feast for them? We know that poems in honour of the dead man were recited, for in the famous scene in Egil's Saga Egil's daughter proposes that her father shall make a poem to be recited at his son's funeral feast' (p. 60). The Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby, Vigfusson, and Craigie notes for bragr 'best, foremost', and for bragar-full or braga-full:
    a toasting cup, to be drunk especially] at funeral feasts; it seems properly to mean the king's toast (cp. Bragi = princeps), i.e. the toast in the memory of the deceased king or earl, which was to be drunk first; the heir to the throne rose to drink this toast, and while doing so put his feet on the footstool of his seat and made a solemn vow; he then for the first time took his father's seat, and the other guests in their turn made similar vows.
    977 (III: 255): Then a minstrel and loremaster stood up
    977 (III: 255). Aldor brother of Baldor the hapless; and Frea, and Freaw-ine, and Goldwine, and Deor, and Gram.... Frealaf... and Leofa, and Walda, and Folca, and Folcwine, and Fengel - Aldor is Old English 'chief, prince' and 'elder, parent'.
    Baldor, who failed to pass the Paths of the Dead (see note for p. 787), is unlucky (hapless).
    Frea is Old English (frea) 'lord, master'.
    Freawine 'dear or beloved lord' is derived from Old English frea + wine 'friend', in the sense 'one who can help or protect'.
    Goldwine 'liberal and kindly prince' is derived from Old English gold 'gold' + wine 'friend' (as above).
    Dior is Old English (deor) 'brave, bold'.
    Gram is Old English 'furious, fierce'.
    Frealaf means 'surviving lord', from Old English frea 'lord, master' + laf leaving'. In editions through 2004 the name is given here erroneously without the second accent. The second accent was overlooked also for the 2005 hardback edition, but was added in the 2005 paperback. Frealaf became king after the death of his mother's brother, Helm, and of Helm's two sons.

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    Chapter 7


    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 75-8. 989 (III: 268): At last the hobbits
    989 (III: 268). At last the hobbits had their faces turned to home - It is
    5 October 1419 as Gandalf and the hobbits leave Rivendell.
    989 (III: 268): By the end of the next day
    989 (III: 268). By the end of the next day - It is now 7 October.
    989 (III: 268). At length they came to Weafhertop - According to Scheme, from the Ford the hobbits and Gandalf'ride at leisure, having good weather as far as Weathertop and often linger on way in autumn woods. (It is 285 miles by road from Rivendell to Weathertop.) They pass Weathertop on Oct[ober] 23. The weather then changes and they ride more quickly.'
    989 (III: 268-9): So it was that near the end
    989 (III: 268). near the end of a wild and wet evening in the last days of October - According to The Tale of Years it is 28 October. Scheme notes that the distance from Weathertop to Bree is ninety-five miles.
    989 (III: 268). Bree-hill - Here, as first published, 'Bree-hiU' was printed 'Bree Hill', though all other instances of the name in The Lord of the Rings have the hyphenated form. It was emended to 'Bree-hill' in the edition of 2004. Both forms are found variously in Tolkien's manuscripts.
    990 (III: 269): 'Come in!' he said
    990 (III: 269). a ruffianly evening - In this context (referring to the weather), windy, blustery.
    991 (III: 270): When he came back
    991 (HI: 270). Southlinch - 'Hill fields on the S[outh] side of Bree Hill'
    992 (III: 271): But he did say much
    992 (III: 271). Outside - 'Outside Bree' (Index). See also notes for pp. 22 and 154.
    992 (III: 271): 'Three and two'
    992 (III: 271). up-away - This probably refers to hobbits living higher on Bree-hill, as described on p. 149, I: 161: 'They lived mostly in Staddle


    though there were some in Bree itself, especially on the higher slopes of the hill, above the houses of the Men.'
    992 (III: 271). Pickthorn - Another example of the botanical surnames common in Bree. See notes for pp. 148 and 155.
    994 (III: 273): 'I hope so, I'm sure'
    994 (III: 273). a month of Mondays - A play on the saying a month of Sundays, i.e. a long time.
    994-5 (III: 274): The travellers stayed in Bree
    994 (HI: 274). The travellers stayed in Bree all the next day - On
    29 October.
    995 (III: 274): No trouble by day
    995 (III: 274). The next morning they got up early - The morning of
    30 October.
    996 (III: 275): 'Deep in, but not at the bottom'
    996 (HI: 275). He [Saruman] began to take an interest in the Shire before Mordor did. - See note for p. 75.
    996 (III: 275): 'But if you would know
    996 (HI: 275). He [Bombadil] is a moss-gatherer, and I have been a stone doomed to rolling. - A play on the proverb A rolling stone gathers no moss, i.e. 'someone who is always on the move and does not settle down will never become prosperous or wealthy' {Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable).
    996 (III: 275): 'As well as ever
    996 (HI: 275). I should press on now for home, or you will not come to the Brandywine Bridge before the gates are locked - Gandalf is either deducing that there are now gates at the Bridge, in light of the disturbing news that he and the hobbits have heard about the Shire, or he has knowledge not indicated in the text.
    996 (HI: 276): 'But there aren't any gates'
    996 (HI: 276). Buckland Gate - See note for p. 107.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 79-107.
    998 (III: 277): It was after nightfall
    998 (III: 277). It was after nightfall - On 30 October 1419.
    998 (III: 277). two-storeyed with narrow straight-sided windows, bare and dimly lit, all very gloomy and un-Shirelike - In the Prologue it is said that when hobbits built houses, rather than excavating holes, they 'were usually long, low and comfortable ... [with] a preference for round windows' (p. 7, 1:16).
    998 (III: 277): 'Come along!'
    998 (III: 277). Hob Hayward - In Nomenclature Tolkien explains that a hayward is 'a local official with the duty of inspecting fences and keeping cattle from straying... .' The word is 'now obsolescent, and surviving chiefly in the very common surname Hayward; but Hob ... was supposed actually to be a hayward'. 'The word is derived from hay "fence" (not "grass") + ward "guard".' (See also note for p. 107.)
    998 (III: 277). Hay Gate - See note tor p. 107.
    999 (III: 278): 'So much for your Big Man'
    999 (III: 278). Bridge Inn - 'Inn by the Brandywine Bridge' (Index).
    1000 (III: 279): 'All right, all right!'
    1000 (III: 279). no smoke - No smoking allowed (smoke = 'tobacco'). 1000 (III: 279): 'The new 'Chief
    1000 (III: 279). It was a good forty miles from the Bridge to Bag End -
    David Cofield points out in 'The Size of the Shire: A Problem in Cartogra­phy', Beyond Bree, July 1994, p. 4, that this statement does not agree with others made by Tolkien, including, in the first edition, 'Fifty leagues it [the Shire] stretched from the Westmarch under the Tower Hills to the Brandy-wine Bridge', and the emended text in the second edition, 'Forty leagues [120 miles] it stretched from the Far Downs to the Brandywine Bridge'.
    Here at the end of the book is a major problem.... It is stated specifi­cally that it was a 'good 40 miles' from the Brandywine Bridge to Bag End.... This means that more than two-thirds of the Shire lay west of the Hobbiton-Bywater region, which was known as 'the comfortable


    heart of the Shire' [Book I, Chapter 2, p. 44, I: 53]. It also means that the Eastfarthing must be squeezed into less than a third of the whole country and the Westfarthing must be swollen enormously.... Finally it makes nonsense of the claim of the Three-Farthing Stone (which was south and east of Bag End) to be 'as near the centre of the Shire as no matter' [Book VI, Chapter 9, p. 1023, III: 303].
    (See note for p. 1023.) Cofield suggests that Tolkien did not deal with this problem probably 'due to the haste with which the 1965 revisions had to be made', or 'he may have been concerned that lengthening the Bridge to Bag End distance could have made it impossible for Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin to traverse it in two days, especially with an escort of Shirriffs on foot'. He also thinks, 'although it is hard to be certain since mileage is rarely given', that 'Tolkien envisaged a greater distance between Bag End and the Brandywine when writing the first chapters of his book than he did when near the end' (p. 4).
    At any rate, there is an inconsistency. Unfortunately there is no scale on the map A Part of the Shire, but if one extrapolates from Frodo's estimate, made just below Woodhall, that 'they had about eighteen miles to go in a straight line' to the Bucklebury Ferry (Book I, Chapter 4, p. 88, I: 98), then the distance from Hobbiton to the Ferry, even as the crow flies, is about 69 miles, and the hobbits took a less direct and longer route; and the (cross-country) distance from the Bridge to Bag End is about 62 miles. In the present chapter it is said that, travelling by the Road, Frogmorton is 'about twenty-two miles from the Bridge' and Bywater a further 18 miles from Frogmorton; again extrapolating from the 18 miles between Woody End and the Ferry, these distances (in a straight line, not allowing for the curves in the road) would be about 30 miles and 27 miles respectively. The distance between the Bridge and the Three-Farthing Stone (4 miles short of Bywater) is about 51 miles, which is closer to the middle of a Shire 120 miles from east to west than the 36 miles suggested by the narrative in this chapter. On the other hand, the distance from Hobbiton to the Ferry appears on the general map of Middle-earth to be closer to 50 miles.
    1000 (III: 279-80): They had not made any definite plans
    1000 (III: 280). the fag-end of autumn - A fag-end is 'the last part or remnant of anything after the best has been used; the extreme end, e.g. of a portion of space or time' {OED).
    1001 (III: 280): As evening fell
    1001 (III: 280). Frogmorton - In Nomenclature Tolkien states that Frogmor­ton 'is not an actual English place-name, but has the same element as in Frogmore (Bucks [Buckinghamshire]): frog + moor + town. ... N.B. moor I mor has the meaning "marshy land", as usually in place-names of southern and midland England.' In his notes for the Dutch translator Tolkien says

    that 'Frogmorton represents an older froggan-mere-tun "village by the frog-mere". It possibly does not actually occur in mod[ern] England, but familiar names of a similar pattern do (e.g. Throckmorton, Throgmorton)'.
    1001 (III: 280). The Floating Log - A name probably chosen to suit the wetlands around Frogmorton.
    1001 (HI: 280). Shirriffs ... feathers in their caps - See notes for p. 10.
    1001 (III: 280): 'There now, Mister
    1001 (III: 280). Lockholes - 'Old storage tunnels in M[ichel] Delving, used as prisons by the Ruffians' {Index). In Nomenclature they are described as 'the hobbit version of "lock-up (house)": a place of detention'.
    1001 (HI: 280-1): Sam had been looking
    1001 (HI: 281). Smallburrow - Another Hobbit surname derived from the custom of living in holes.
    1001 (III: 281): 'Look here, Cock-robin!'
    1001 (III: 281). Cock-robin - 'A familiar or pet name for a male robin, also slang for 'a soft, easy fellow' (OED).
    1002 (III: 281): 'Can't say as I'd be sorry
    1002 (III: 281). old Flourdumpling - The origin of Will Whitfoot's nick­name was given in Book I, Chapter 9, where Pippin gives 'an account of the collapse of the roof of the Town Hole in Michel Delving: Will Whitfoot, the Mayor, and the fattest hobbit in the Westfarthing, had been buried in chalk, and came out like a floured dumpling' (p. 156,1: 168).
    1002 (III: 282): 'That's right
    1002 (III: 282). One came in from Whitfurrows last night ... and another took it on from here. And a message came back this afternoon
    - As first published the place-name in the first of these sentences read 'Bamfurlong', not referring to Maggot's farm but to a place on the Road about half way between the Bridge and Frogmorton. It was altered to 'Whitfurrows' in the second edition (1965), but an entry for Bamfurlong at this point in the text appeared nonetheless in the index of the Ballantine Books edition. Bamfurlong first appeared as the name of Maggot's farm in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition; see note for p. 91.
    Whitfurrows is derived from whit- 'white' (see note for p. 769) + furrows 'grooves in the soil made by a plough'. The earth in Whitfurrows is presumably chalky. See also Nomenclature.
    Obviously one of the hobbits at the Brandywine Bridge was a spy for the 'Chief. It was after nightfall the previous day when the travellers reached the Bridge, but already some time 'last night' a message had


    travelled twenty-two miles to Frogmorton. By the next afternoon it had travelled eighteen more miles to Bywater, and an order had travelled eighteen miles back - fifty-eight miles in about twenty hours (ignoring the calculations in the note for p. 1000, since Tolkien was considering the distances as he conceived them at this time).
    1003 (III: 282): The Shirriff-house at Frogmorton
    1003 (III: 282). they set off at ten o'clock in the morning - On
    2 November.
    1003 (III: 282): At the Three-Farthing Stone
    1003 (III: 282). Three-Farthing Stone - This was 'on the East Road at junction of lands of W[est], S[outh], E[ast] Farthings' (Index). In Book VI, Chapter 9 it is said that the Three-Farthing Stone 'is as near the centre of the Shire as no matter' (p. 1023, III: 303). The problem of its location only forty miles from the Brandywine Bridge, while the Shire is said to be 120 miles from East to West, is discussed in the note to p. 1000. Barbara Strachey also notes this in her Journeys of Frodo, map 50: 'this being so, the Stone can only have been central in a north-south direction, unless the Hobbits' "no matter" was unusually elastic'. Tolkien may have been thinking mainly of the Stone being at the meeting point of three of the four Farthings, with the fourth not too far distant.
    /TTT o -V 1004 (III: 284): Garn, what did I say?
    1004 (III: 284). Sharkey - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that Sharkey 'is supposed to be a nickname modified to fit Common Speech (in the English text anglicized), based on Orkish sharku "old man"'. He describes the ending -ey as 'diminutive and quasi-affectionate'. In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey suggests that 'to a medievalist the name [Sharkey] might well suggest the "Old Man of the Mountains" or leader of the Assassins as described in Mandeville's Travels. "Old Man" is simply Arabic shaikh' (2nd edn., p. 154).
    1005 (III: 284): The man stared at him
    1005 (III: 284). cock-a-whoop - The more usual term is cock-a-hoop, one who is 'in a state of elation; crowing with exultation... . Elated, exultant, boastfully and loudly triumphant' (OED).
    1005 (III: 285): 'I am a messenger of the King'
    1005 (III: 285). this troll's bane - The sword from the barrow with which Pippin killed the troll before the Morannon in Book V, Chapter 10.
    1005-6 (III: 285): The sword glinted
    1005 (III: 285). but Frodo did not move - In Sauron Defeated Christopher Tolkien notes that in the original draft of this chapter 'Frodo is portrayed


    ... at every stage as an energetic and commanding intelligence, warlike and resolute in action; and the final text of the chapter had been largely achieved when the changed conception of Frodo's part in the Scouring of the Shire entered' (pp. 93-4). Many of his words and actions were then transferred to Merry.
    1006 (III: 285): 'Fight?' said Frodo
    1006 (III: 285). But remember: there is to be no slaying of hobbits, not even if they have gone over to the other side. Really gone over, I mean; not just obeying ruffians' orders because they are frightened. - Early readers of The Lord of the Rings no doubt were reminded in this passage of the problem of collaborators in German-occupied countries in the Second World War.
    1006 (III: 285). And nobody is to be killed at all, if it can be helped. Keep your tempers and hold your hands to the last possible moment!
    - Tolkien is not advocating pacifism, but that violence should be only a last resort. He personally fought in the First World War, and supported the fight against the Axis in 1939-45. He accepted that fighting is sometimes necessary in a just cause, and especially in defence when attacked, but he objected to excessive force, the pursuit of revenge, or national aggrandize­ment. In wishing to spare even the ruffians, Frodo is following Aragorn's example of mercy towards the former allies of Sauron.
    1006(111:286): I ve an idea
    1006 (III: 286). old Tom Cotton's - Tom Cotton is the father of Rose Cotton and four sons (see note for p. 939), and second cousin to Sam's father. In Tolkien's unfinished index Cottons (farm) is said to be 'on s[outh] side of Bywater reached by South Lane', and South Lane 'in Bywater leading to Cotton's farm'.

    1006 (III: 286): 'No!' said Merry
    1006 (III: 286). It's no good getting under cover - In the story in draft, the hobbits do go to Cotton's farm, but Tolkien could not work out a satisfactory plan of action from that point and abandoned the idea.
    1007 (III: 286): 'Raise the Shire!'
    1007 (HI: 286). Raise the Shire! - Raise is used here in the sense 'rouse people for the purpose of common action'.
    1007 (III: 287): Its Sam, Sam Gamgee
    1007 (III: 287). It's Sam, Sam Gamgee. - In his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, Tolkien wrote that
    Sam is meant to be lovable and laughable. Some readers he irritates and even infuriates. I can well understand it. All hobbits at times affecl

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    Chapter 9

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see Sauron Defeated, pp. 108-13.
    1021 (III: 301): The clearing up certainly needed
    1021 (III: 301). The day after the battle - It is 4 November 1419.
    1021 (III: 301). the Brockenbores by the hills of Scary - Brockenbores is given thus in the text, but as Brockenborings on the map A Part of the Shire. The name suggests 'holes made by the brock', i.e. the badger (from Old English brocc); compare Brockhouse (note for p. 28). In Tolkien's unfinished index Brockenbores is defined as 'holes in the quarried hills of Scary'. In Nomenclature Tolkien writes of Scary: 'a meaningless name in the Shire; but since it was in a region of caves and rock-holes ... and of a stone-quarry ... it may be supposed to contain English dialectal scar "rocky cliff"'.
    1021 (III: 301): Then there was Lobelia
    1021 (III: 301). Hardbottle - In his unfinished index Tolkien says that Hardbottle is a village in the Southfarthing; but in Nomenclature he explains that it is the 'home of the Bracegirdles (in North Farthing, not on the map), -bottle is an English place-name element, Old English botl, variant of bold (from which modern English build is derived), meaning "(large) dwelling"; it is not connected with bottle "glass container".' Hardbottle means ' "hard dwelling"; "hard" because excavated in or built of stone (in the rocky Northfarthing).'
    1022 (III: 302): Meanwhile the labour
    1022 (III: 302). gammers - Gammer is a rustic word for 'old woman'; compare gaffer for a man (see note for p. 22).
    1022 (III: 302). Yule - In the Shire Calendar there were two Yule days between 30 December and 1 January: 1 Yule, the last day of the old year and 2 Yule, the beginning of the new year.
    1022 (III: 302): It's an ill wind as blows
    1022 (III: 302). All's well as ends Better - A play on the proverb All's well that ends well.
    1022 (III: 302): There was some discussion
    1022 (III: 302). Sharkey's End - In one sense, the place where Sharke) met his end; but end is also a familiar element in English street- 01

    place-names, meaning the 'the end of an estate, district, village etc' (com­pare Bag End, note for p. 21).
    1022 (III: 302): Inside it was filled
    1022 (III: 302). like a small nut with a silver shale - See note for p. 335.
    1023 (III: 303): So Sam planted saplings
    1023 (HI: 303). the Three-Farthing Stone, which is as near the centre of the Shire as no matter - See note for p. 1003.
    1023 (III: 303): Spring surpassed his wildest hopes
    1023 (III: 303). Spring surpassed his wildest hopes - The spring of 1420.
    1023 (III: 303). and burst into golden flowers in April - On 6 April, according to The Tale of Years.
    1023 (III: 303). people would come long journeys to see it: the only mallorn west of the Mountains and east of the Sea - Presumably this excluded Men, after Aragorn in 1427 forbade them to enter the Shire.
    1023 (III: 303): Altogether 1420 in the Shire
    1023 (III: 303). Altogether 1420 in the Shire was a marvellous year ... an air of richness and growth, and a gleam of beauty beyond that of
    mortal summers___All the children born or begotten in that year ...
    were fair to see ... and most of them had rich golden hair - The
    splendour of 1420 is greater than can be explained merely by the passing of the Shadow. Tolkien seems to imply that at least some of it may be due to Galadriel's elven-dust, every grain of which (Frodo believes) has a value. He hints at this also in Nomenclature (entry for Marigold), where it is said that 'there was a "Fallohide" strain ... in Sam's family - which, increased by the favour of Galadriel, became notable in his children', several of whom had golden hair (emphasis ours).
    1024 (III: 304): Sam stayed at first
    1024 (III: 304). on the thirteenth of that month [March] - The first anniversary of Shelob's attack.
    1024 (III: 304): 'It is gone for ever'
    1024 (III: 304). It is gone for ever ... and now all is dark and empty. -
    Frodo is not healed, and at times regrets the destruction of the Ring. See further, note for p. 1025.
    1024 (III: 304): 'There is no need to come yet
    1024 (III: 304). Widow Rumble - Rumble is the 'name of an old hobbit-woman. It had no meaning (at that time) in the Shire' (Nomenclature).


    1024 (III: 304): 'It's Rosie, Rose Cotton'
    1024 (III: 304). But as I hadn't spoken, she couldn't say so. And I didn't speak .... But now I have spoken - Sam uses speak, spoke in the sense 'to propose marriage, to make one's intentions known'.
    1024-5 (HI: 304-5): So it was settled
    1024 (III: 304). Sam Gamgee married Rose Cotton - According to The Tale of Years Sam and Rose were married on 1 May 1420. Tolkien wrote to Milton Waldman in ?late 1951: T think the simple "rustic" love of Sam and his Rosie (nowhere elaborated) is absolutely essential to the study of his (the chief hero's) character, and to the theme of the relation of ordinary life (breathing, eating, working, begetting) and quests, sacrifice, causes, and the "longing for Elves", and sheer beauty' (Letters, p. 161).
    1025 (III: 305): Merry and Pippin lived together
    1025 (III: 305). cut a great dash - To cut a dash is to 'be stylish or impressive in one's dress or behaviour' [Concise OED).
    1025 (III: 305): All things now went well
    1025 (III: 305). Frodo dropped quietly out of all the doings of the Shire, and Sam was pained to notice how little honour he had in his own country. - In his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, Tolkien wrote:
    Slowly [Frodo] fades 'out of the picture', saying and doing less and less. I think it is clear on reflection to an attentive reader that when his dark times came upon him and he was conscious of being 'wounded by knife, sting, and tooth, and a long burden' (III 268) it was not only nightmare memories of past horrors that afflicted him, but also unreasoning self-reproach: he saw himself and all that he had done as a broken failure. 'Though I may come to the Shire, it will not seem the same, for I shall not be the same.' That was actually a temp­tation out of the Dark, a last flicker of pride: desire to have returned as a 'hero', not content with being a mere instrument of good. And it was mixed with another temptation, blacker and yet (in a sense) more merited, for however that may be explained, he had not in fact cast away the Ring by a voluntary act: he was tempted to regret its destruction, and still to desire it. 'It is gone for ever, and now all is dark and empty', he said as he wakened from his sickness in 1420. [Letters, pp. 327-8]
    'How little honour [Frodo] had in his own country' echoes the proverb A prophet is not without honour save in his own country. Tolkien's changed conception of the part that Frodo played in the Shire and how it affected his subsequent reputation is shown by comparing the published text with the first draft:


    Even Sam could find no fault with Frodo's fame and honour in his own country. The Tooks were too secure in their traditional position - and after all their folkland was the only one that had never given in to the ruffians - and also too generous to be really jealous; yet it was plain that the name of Baggins would become the most famous in Hobbit-history. [Sauron Defeated, p. 108]
    In Tolkien and the Land of Heroes Anne C. Petty comments that Frodo's return to the Shire
    takes the form of the hero who sadly can't fit back into the society he left behind. He has sacrificed all, and not even Elrond can heal the damage done. If you want to look at him in terms of war imagery, mirroring Tolkien's experience at the front, Frodo comes back to the Shire shell-shocked . .. like many veterans of combat [he] suffers from post-traumatic stress syndrome that causes him to become more with­drawn and troubled as the days go by. He has saved the world, yet the magnitude of what he accomplished can never be appreciated or even comprehended by his old community, [p. 282]
    See also John Garth, 'Frodo and the Great War', in the proceedings of the October 2004 Marquette University Tolkien conference, forthcoming.
    1025-6 (III: 305-6): Time went on
    1025 (III: 305). Frodo was ill again in March - On 13 March 1421, according to The Tale of Years.
    1026 (III: 306). The first of Sam and Rosie's children was born on the twenty-fifth of March, a date that Sam noted. - It was the second anniver­sary of the destruction of the Ring. According to The Tale of Years it was also the 'day on which the Fourth Age began in the reckoning of Gondor'. In Appendix D (p. 1120, III: 390) it is said that 'the Fourth Age was held to have begun with the departure of Master Elrond, which took place in September 3021 [S.R. 1421]; but for purposes of record in the Kingdom Fourth Age 1 was the year that began according to the New Reckoning in March 25, 3021, old style.'
    1026 (HI: 306): 'It will be Bilbo's birthday
    1026 (III: 306). It will be Bilbo's birthday on Thursday - On Thursday it will be 22 September.
    1026 (III: 306): 'Of course not
    1026 (HI: 306). You can see me on my way ... you won't be away very long, not more than a fortnight - In fact he will be away for fifteen nights: Frodo and Sam will leave on 21 September, and Sam will return home on 6 October. Tolkien does not say how Frodo knows exactly when and where to meet Elrond, Bilbo, and the others. Sam's response shows


    that he thinks that Frodo is going to Rivendell; Frodo delays revealing the truth.
    1026-7 (III: 306-7): In the next day or two
    1027 (III: 307). It was divided into chapters but Chapter 80 was
    unfinished, and after that there were some blank leaves___Together
    with extracts from Books of Lore translated by Bilbo in Rivendell___
    'I have quite finished.... The last pages are for you.' - Kristin Thompson asserts in 'The Hobbit as a Part of The Red Book of WestmarcH, Mythlore 15, no. 2, whole no. 56 (Winter 1988), that the volume Frodo gave Sam 'was meant to include only Bilbo's and Frodo's memoirs, not Bilbo's Trans­lations from the Elvish. Taken together, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings contain 81 chapters' (p. 13). This total is the sum of the nineteen chapters of The Hobbit and the sixty-two of The Lord of the Rings. (The Prologue to the latter is presumably intended to be Tolkien's own work as 'editor'.) The sticking point is the statement in the present text, 'Chapter 80 was unfinished': for it seems logical to infer that Frodo has completed his portion of the account up to the time that he gives the volume to Sam, who in turn will write the rest of the final chapter. By the same token, it does not seem logical to suppose that Frodo wrote only part of the eightieth chapter ('The Scouring of the Shire'), which recounts events in which he took part.
    In Sauron Defeated (pp. 109; 112, n. 2) Christopher Tolkien notes that in successive versions of the text his father changed the number of chapters from '77?' to '72' to '80'. It is not clear what Tolkien had in mind, or if he miscounted, a possibility made more likely by the fact that in draft form some chapters were conjoined, and only later separated; or it may be that '80' is meant to refer to the original Red Book but not to the work Tolkien 'edited' or 'translated'. In fact Tolkien's 'source' for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings is said in the Prologue ('Note on the Shire Records') to be later copies and extracts, not the actual Red Book begun by Bilbo and Frodo and completed by Sam.
    The abandoned Epilogue seems to confirm the view that only a little of the manuscript was left for Sam to write. In his letter to Milton Waldman, ?late 1951, Tolkien said that in the Epilogue Sam is 'struggling to finish off the Red Book, begun by Bilbo and nearly completed by Frodo, in which all the events (told in The Hobbit and The Lord [of the Rings]) are recorded' {Waldman LR; also quoted in Sauron Defeated, p. 132). In the second version of the Epilogue Sam tells Elanor that Frodo 'left the last pages of the Book to me, but I have never yet durst to put hand to them. I am still making notes, as old Mr Bilbo would have said' {Sauron Defeated, p. 122). He also makes it clear that he has been collecting questions which need answering, such as whether Gimli and Legolas went back to Gondor, but he does not know how to write them as part of the story. He discusses some of these questions with his daughter Elanor, who says near the end:

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    For drafts and history of Appendix A, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 188-24, 253-89.
    Space permits us to annotate the Appendices only very selectively; but the Appendices themselves are intended to be a work of reference for readers of The Lord of the Rings, and should be used as such. Many of the names given in the Appendices, if not (like Thingol and Tuor on p. 1034, III: 314) directly and adequately explained within the text, are glossed by Chris­topher Tolkien in the indexes to The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales.
    In his original Foreword to The Lord of the Rings Tolkien called the attention of the reader to supplementary material then projected to appear at the end of the final volume, including
    some abridged family-trees, which show how the Hobbits mentioned were related to one another, and what their ages were at the time when the story opens. There is an index of names and strange words with some explanations. And for those who like such lore in an appendix some brief account is given of the languages, alphabets, and calendars that were used in the West-lands in the Third Age of Middle-earth. [1954 edn., I: 8]
    Such 'lore' had accumulated as the story was written, and was further developed by Tolkien after he brought the main text to completion in draft in 1948. An appendix or appendices, indeed, were long contemplated as an essential adjunct to the tale proper. Tolkien handed over some of the ancillary material to Allen & Unwin in 1954, but was still working on the Appendices in March 1955 while his readers, having had The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers already months earlier, were clamouring for The Return of the King. On 2 March 1955 Rayner Unwin pleaded with Tolkien to deliver the remainder of the Appendices, or Allen & Unwin would have to 'yield to the intense pressure that is accumulating and publish [The Return of the King) without all the additional material' (quoted in Letters, p. 209). Tolkien replied that he would have to 'make do with what material' he could produce in a short time.
    I now wish that no appendices had been promised! For I think their appearance in truncated and compressed form will satisfy nobody: certainly not me; clearly from the (appalling mass of) letters I receive not those people who like that kind of thing - astonishingly many.. ..


    It is, I suppose, a tribute to the curious effect that story has, when based on very elaborate and detailed workings of geography, chron­ology, and language, that so many should clamour for sheer 'infor­mation', or 'lore'. But the demands such people make would again require a book, at least the size of Vol. I.
    In any case the 'background' matter is very intricate, useless unless exact, and compression within the limits available leaves it unsatisfac­tory. [Letters, p. 210]
    In April 1956, in his draft letter to H. Cotton Minchin, Tolkien wrote of plans for a 'specialist volume' to include much additional material concern­ing Middle-earth, especially about the Elvish tongues (Letters, pp. 247-8). Similarly he mentioned an 'accessory volume' in his original Foreword to The Lord of the Rings. This separate book never materialized, but some of the abundant material it might have contained, in draft if not finished form, or which was prepared for the Appendices but omitted due to insufficient space, has appeared in posthumous volumes such as Unfinished Tales and The Peoples of Middle-earth.
    In the event, the Appendices occupied more than one hundred pages in the first edition. In the second edition (1965) they were extensively revised, but in such a way as to occupy the same amount of space when published in hardcover.
    On 27 May 1958 Tolkien wrote to Rayner Unwin concerning the index to The Lord of the Rings that Nancy Smith had prepared (see our 'Brief History', above): All [readers of the book] miss an index (with indi­cations of the meaning of names in other tongues).' But there was some doubt whether the inclusion of an index would require the omission of an equivalent amount of the Appendices; and in that respect Tolkien felt that
    some of what exists could be dropped without any damage at all.... I should say (1) most of Appendix D [The Calendars] (other than p. Ill 384 [the Shire Calendar table]; probably most of App. E II [Writing], and most of F II [On Translation], for a start: possibly some 15 pages. If the Silmarillion could be finished A I (i) [on the Niimenorean kings] and probably (v) [the Tale of Aragorn and Arwen] would also be unnecessary. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins]
    On 24 January 1961, however, Tolkien wrote to Alina Dadlez at Allen & Unwin concerning a Swedish edition of The Lord of the Rings which the publisher, Gebers, had proposed to issue without the Appendices so as to reduce costs:
    I have no objection ... to the omission of C [Hobbit family trees], D (except for the Shire Calendar, iii 384), E ii and Fii. Omission of the remainder would be, in different degrees, damaging to the book as a whole. In the case of Het Spectrum [the Dutch translation of The Lord


    of the Rings, In de ban van de ring, 1956-7], A and B and the Shire Calendar were retained, and that is the arrangement that I favour. I feel strongly that the absolute minimum is the retention of A (v) 'Of Ara­gorn and Arwen', and the Shire Calendar: two items essential to the understanding of the main text in many places. If Messrs. Gebers will include these in vol. iii, they may do as they wish with the remainder. ... I do not believe that they [the Appendices] give the work a 'scholarly' .. . look, and they play a major part in producing the total effect: as Messrs. Gebers' translator has himself pointed out (selecting the detail and the documentation as two chief ingredients in producing the com­pelling sense of historical reality). In any case, purchasers of vol. iii will presumably be already involved: vol. iii is not a separate book to be purchased solely on its own merits. Actually, an analysis of many hun­dreds of letters shows that the Appendices have played a very large part in readers' pleasure, in turning library readers into purchasers (since the Appendices are needed for reference), and in creating a demand for another book [The Silmarillion]. A sharp distinction must be drawn between the tastes of reviewers ('donnish folly' and all that) and of readers! I think I understand the tastes of simple-minded folk (like myself) pretty well. But I do appreciate the question of costs and retail prices. There is a price beyond which simple-minded folk cannot go, even if they would like to. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins; partly printed in Letters, p. 304]
    The first Swedish edition (Sagan om ringen, 1959-61) ultimately omitted the Appendices except for A Part of the Tale of Aragorn and Arwen and Appendix D, much as Tolkien insisted (now emphasizing the importance of the Tale); and when an opportunity arose to add an index to the second English and American editions of The Lord of the Rings, this was done with no loss to the Appendices (indeed, for the sake of obtaining a new copyright, it was in the author's and publishers' interests to add as much new material to the book as feasible). When, in 1968, the first one-volume edition was published, limited in its page count by practicalities of binding a thick volume in paperback, the Appendices were omitted except for The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen.
    1033 (III: 313): Concerning the sources
    1033 (III: 313). Concerning the sources for most of the matter.... - As
    first published, the introduction to Appendix A (I: 313) read thus:
    Until the War of the Ring the people of the Shire had little knowledge of the history of the Westlands beyond the traditions of their own wanderings; but afterwards all that concerned the King Elessar became


    of deep interest to them; while in the Buckland the tales of Rohan were no less esteemed. Thus the Red Book contained many annals, genealogies, and traditions of the realms of the South and the North, derived through Bilbo from the books of lore in Rivendell; or through Frodo and Peregrin from the King himself, and from the records of Gondor that he opened to them: such as The Book of the Kings, The Book of the Stewards, and the Akallabeth (that is, The Downfall of Numenor). From Gimli no doubt is derived the information concerning the Dwarves of Moria, for he remained much attached to both Peregrin and Meriadoc. But through Meriadoc alone, it seems, were derived the tales of the House of Eorl; for he went back to Rohan many times, and learned the language of the Mark, it is said. For this matter the authority of Holdwine is often cited, but that appears to have been the name which Meriadoc himself was given in Rohan. Some of the notes and tales, however, were plainly added by other hands at later dates, after the passing of King Elessar.
    Much of this lore appears as notes to the main narrative, in which case it has usually been included in it; but the additional material is very extensive, even though it is often set out in brief and annalistic form. Only a selection from it is here presented, again greatly reduced, but with the same object as the original compilers appear to have had: to illustrate the story of the War of the Ring and its origins and fill up some of the gaps in the main account.
    Actual extracts from the longer annals and tales that are found in the Red Book are placed within quotation marks. These can often be seen to be copies of matter not composed in the Shire. Notes made at later times are printed as notes or placed in square brackets.
    The dates given are those of the Third Age, according to the reckon­ing of Gondor, unless they are marked S. A. (Second Age) or F.A. (Fourth Age). The Second Age was held to have ended with the year 3441; but although a new era and calendar was begun in Gondor from the day of the final overthrow of Sauron, March 25, 3019, the Third Age was held to have ended with the year 3021 in which the Three Rings passed away [i.e. were taken by their bearers over sea into the West]. On the equation of this reckoning with Shire Reckoning see 1,14.
    In lists the dates set after the names of kings and rulers are the dates of their deaths, where only one date is given. The sign f indicates a death in battle or other violent manner, though an annal of the event has not always been included. A few references are given to The Lord of the Rings by volume and page, and to The Hobbit by page (add 5 after p. 96 for the second edition).
    In the second edition of The Lord of the Rings (1965) some of this material was moved and adapted to the Prologue, in the 'Note on the Shire Records'.

    APPENDIX A 683
    1033-4 (HI: 313-14): Feanor was the greatest
    1033-4 (HI: 313-14). Feanor was the greatest of the Eldar ... allies of the Eldar against the Enemy. - This paragraph was added in the second edition (1965), providing in a short space essential background concerning Feanor, the Silmarils, and the struggle of the Eldar and the Edain against Morgoth which lay behind the paragraphs with which Appendix A.Li originally began.
    1034 (III: 314): There were three unions
    1034 (III: 314). There were three unions of the Eldar and the Edain - As
    first published this passage read: 'There were only three unions of the High Elves and Men'. It was revised in the second edition (1965). As noted earlier (see note for p. 79), Tolkien in his letter to Naomi Mitchison of 14 April 1954 distinguished between the High Elves who had dwelt in Aman before returning to Middle-earth, and the Eldar who accepted the invitation of the Valar to pass from Middle-earth into the West but did not necessarily reach it; and it may be that it occurred to him when revising the text that although Liithien's mother was a Maia and her father an Elf who had been to Aman, she herself had not actually lived there, nor indeed had Arwen. Edain likewise is more specific than Men, generally used to mean those of the Three Houses who allied with the Elves in the First Age, from whom Aragorn was descended.
    Other unions between Elf and Man are noted or implied in Tolkien's writings, but it is debatable whether they are strictly 'of the Eldar and the Edain'. Mithrellas, a Silvan Elf, married a Lord of Dol Amroth (see note for p. 872); she had not lived in Aman, so was not a High Elf, but could be considered one of the Eldar if that term is taken to mean those Elves that began the journey West, including the Silvan folk; but in Appendix F Tolkien distinguishes Eldar 'the West-elves', i.e. of Beleriand, from 'the East-elves', i.e. 'most of the Elven-folk of Mirkwood and Lorien' (p. 1126, III: 405; see also The Lost Road and Other Writings, pp. 182-3). A stronger argument could be made for Dior (see note for p. 194), the son of Beren and Liithien: born after his mother had become mortal, he would seem to be fully mortal himself, but in late writings by Tolkien he seems to be considered Half-elven. In The Problem ofRos he says of himself T am the first of the Peredil (Half-elven)', and in a late plot synopsis for the Nam i Chin Hurin he is called 'Dior Halfelven' {The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 369 and The War of the Jewels, p. 257). Although Dior's two sons and his daughter Elwing appeared early in 'Silmarillion' writings, their mother is not identified, or even mentioned until after the publication of The Lord of the Rings. In the late plot synopsis Dior is said to have married the Elf Lindis of Ossiriand; in late writings she is variously named Lindis, Elulin, and (as in The Silmarillion) Nimloth, and said to be from Ossiriand, or

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    THE TALE OF YEARS (chronology of the westlands)
    For drafts and history of Appendix B, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 140,166-87, 225-52.
    1082 (III: 363). [section title] - The word Tale in The Tale of Years means 'counting or reckoning' {Nomenclature).
    1082 (III: 363): In the beginning of this age
    1082 (HI: 363)___still remained. Most of these dwelt in Lindon west of
    the Ered Luin; but before the building of the Barad-dur many of the Sindar passed eastward, and some established realms in the forests far away, where their people were mostly Silvan Elves. Thranduil, king in the north of Greenwood the Great, was one of these. In Lindon north of the Lune dwelt Gil-galad, last heir of the kings of the Noldor in exile. He was acknowledged as High King of the Elves of the West. In Lindon south of the Lune dwelt for a time Celeborn, kinsman of Thingol; bis wife was Galadriel, greatest of Elven women. She was sister of Finrod Felagund, Friend-of-Men, once king of Nargothrond, who gave his life to save Beren son of Barahir. - As first published this paragraph, following its first sentence, read only: 'The exiled Noldor dwelt in Lindon, but many of the Sindar passed eastward and established realms in the forests far away. The chief of these were Thranduil in the north of Greenwood the Great, and Celeborn in the south of the forest. But the wife of Celeborn was Noldorin: Galadriel, sister of Felagund of the House of Finrod.' The present text was introduced in the second edition (1965). (On changes to names in the lineage of Galadriel, see note for p. 80.)
    For Lindon, see note for p. 469.
    The name Sindar (Quenya 'grey ones', i.e. Grey-elves) was applied by the Noldor, returning to Middle-earth from Aman, to the elves they met in Beleriand. In The Silmarillion Christopher Tolkien notes that
    the Noldor may have devised this name because the first Elves of this origin whom they met with were in the north, under the grey skies and mists about Lake Mithrim [the great lake in the east of Hithlum]...; or perhaps because the Grey-elves were not of the Light (of Valinor) nor yet of the Dark (Avari ['The Unwilling, the Refusers', those Elves who refused to join the westward march from Cuivienen], but were Elves of the Twilight, [p. 348]

    APPENDIX B 713

    In late philological writing by Tolkien Thranduil's realm is said to have
    extended into the woods surrounding the Lonely Mountain and grow­ing along the west shores of the Long Lake, before the coming of the Dwarves exiled from Moria and the invasion of the Dragon. The Elvish folk of this realm had migrated from the south, being the kin and neighbours of the Elves of Lorien; but they had dwelt in Greenwood the Great east of Anduin. In the Second Age their king, Oropher [the father of Thranduil, father of Legolas], had withdrawn northward beyond the Gladden Fields. This he did to be free from the power and encroachments of the Dwarves of Moria, which had grown to be the greatest of the mansions of the Dwarves recorded in history; and also he resented the intrusions of Celeborn and Galadriel into Lorien. But as yet there was little to fear between the Greenwood and the Mountains and there was constant intercourse between his people and their kin across the River, until the War of the Last Alliance. [ Unfinished Tales, p. 258J
    When, in the Third Age, the Shadow fell upon Greenwood the Great, the Silvan Elves under Thranduil
    retreated before it as it spread ever northward, until at last Thranduil established his realm in the north-east of the forest and delved there a fortress and great halls underground. Oropher was of Sindarin origin, and no doubt Thranduil his son was following the example of King Thingol long before, in Doriath; though his halls were not to be com­pared with Menegroth. He had not the arts nor the wealth nor the aid of the Dwarves; and compared with the Elves of Doriath his Silvan folk were rude and rustic. [Unfinished Tales, p. 259]
    The name Felagund is that by which Finrod was known after the estab­lishment of Nargothrond; it was Dwarvish in origin, from felak-gundu 'cave-hewer', translated in The Silmarillion as 'Lord of Caves'.
    1084 (III: 365): When maybe a thousand years
    1084 (III: 365). Istari - See note for p. 502.
    1082-3 (HI: 363): Later some of the Noldor
    1083 (III: 363). Celebrimbor was lord of Eregion and the greatest of their craftsmen; he was descended from Feanor. - This sentence was added in the second edition (1965).
    1083-4 (HI: 363-4): [The Second Age]
    1083 (III: 364): 521 Birth in Numenor of Silmarien. - As first published this date was given as '548'. It was emended in the edition of 2004. In The Line ofElros: Kings of Numenor it is said that the eldest child of Tar-Elendil

    'was a daughter, Silmarien, born in the year 521' (Unfinished Tales, p. 219); and in an accompanying note Christopher Tolkien expresses the opinion that the date '548' in The Tale of Years, which survived from the first drafts of that text, 'should have been revised but escaped notice' (p. 225, n. 4).
    1083 (III: 364). 2251 Death of Tar-Atanamir. Tar-Ancalimon takes the sceptre. - As first published this passage read: 'Tar-Atanamir takes the sceptre.' It was revised in the edition of 2004. In Unfinished Tales Chris­topher Tolkien comments that the original reading 'is altogether discrepant with the present text [The Line ofElros], according to which Tar-Atanamir died in 2221. This date 2221 is, however, itself an emendation from 2251; and his death is given elsewhere as 2251. Thus the same year appears in different texts as both the date of his accession and the date of his death; and the whole structure of the chronology shows clearly that the former must be wrong' (p. 226, n. 10).
    1084 (III: 364). 3175 Repentance of Tar-Palantir. - In The Line ofElros the death date of Ar-Gimilzor was originally given as 3175, but later emended to 3177, in contradiction to The Tale of Years. Christopher Tolkien thinks it 'almost certain' that 3175 was the year of the succession of Tar-Palantir (Unfinished Tales, p. 227, n. 15).
    1085 (III: 366): Throughout the Third Age
    1085 (III: 366). Gil-galad before he died gave his ring to Elrond; Cirdan later surrendered his to Mithrandir. - As first published this passage read: 'The ring of Gil-galad was given by him to Elrond; but Cirdan surrendered his to Mithrandir.' It was revised in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1085-90 (III: 366-71): [The Third Age]
    1085 (III: 366). 109 Elrond weds Celebrian, daughter of Celeborn. - As
    first published this read: '100 Elrond weds Celebrian of Lorien.' In the second edition (1965) it was emended to: '100 Elrond weds daughter of Celeborn.' In the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966) Tolkien further emended the date '100' to '109'. The present reading entered only in the eighth (1974) or ninth (1978) printing of the Allen & Unwin second edition.
    1085 (HI: 366). 130 Birth of Elladan and Elrohir, sons of Elrond. - As
    first published this passage read: '139 Birth of Elladan and Elrohir, sons of Elrond.' In the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966) Tolkien emended the date '139' to '130'.
    1085 (III: 366). 1149 Reign of Atanatar Alcarin begins. - As first published, Atanatar' read 'Atanamir'. The name was corrected in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).

    APPENDIX B 715

    1087 (III: 368). 1981 Nain I slain. The Dwarves flee from Moria. Many of the Silvan Elves of Lorien flee south. Amroth and Nimrodel are lost.
    - This is the correct reading, as published in the first edition (1955) and the Ballantine Books second edition (1965). As first printed in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966), however, a section was omitted, producing the erroneous reading: 'Nain I slain. The Dwarves of Lorien flee south.' This was corrected in the eighth (1974) or ninth (1978) printing of that edition.
    1088 (III: 369). 2683 Isengrim II becomes tenth Thain - The apparent contradiction of Isengrim (Took) II as tenth Thain with Isumbras I as 'thirteenth Thain, and first of the Took line' (entry for 2340) is explained by an early version of The Tale of Years which includes the entry: '2620 Isengrim II, tenth Thain of the Took-line, born in the Shire' (The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 236, emphasis ours).
    1088 (III: 369). 2758 ... The Long Winter follows. Great suffering and loss of life in Eriador and Rohan. Gandalf comes to the aid of the Shire-folk. - In the third version of The Quest ofErebor Gandalf says:
    And then there was the Shire-folk. I began to have a warm place in my heart for them in the Long Winter.... They were very hard put to it then: one of the worst pinches they have been in, dying of cold, and starving in the dreadful dearth that followed. But that was the time to see their courage, and their pity for one another. It was by their pity as much as by their tough uncomplaining courage that they survived. [ The Annotated Hobbit, 2nd edn., p. 370]
    1088 (III: 369). 2799 ... They settle in the South of Ered Luin beyond the Shire (2802). - This sentence was added in the second edition (1965), but with 'shire' for 'Shire'. The latter was corrected in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1088 (III: 369). 2851 The White Council meets. Gandalf urges an attack on Dol Guldur. Saruman overrules him. - In papers published as part of The Hunt for the Ring it is said that this meeting was held at Rivendell. A passage is quoted giving details of the debate and of a confrontation between Gandalf and Saruman; see Unfinished Tales, pp. 350-2.
    1088 (III: 369). 2872 Belecthor II of Gondor dies. The White Tree dies, and no seedling can be found. The Dead Tree is left standing. - In
    editions prior to 2005 this was entered for the year 2852, though correctly dated 2872 in the list of Stewards. Christopher Tolkien notes in The Peoples of Middle-earth: 'The date of the death of the Steward Belecthor II in all three texts of The Heirs of Elendil [precursors of Appendix A.I.ii-iv] is 2872. The date 2852 in the later typescripts of the Tale of Years and in Appendix B is evidently a casual error' (p. 250, n. 38).

    1089 (III: 370). 2951 ... Sauron sends three of the Nazgul to reoccupy Dol Guldur. - One text of The Hunt for the Ring states that in June 3018 'the second to the Chief [of the Ringwraiths], Khamul the Shadow of the East, abode in Dol Guldur as Sauron's lieutenant, with one other [Nazgul] as his messenger' (Unfinished Tales, p. 338). Christopher Tolkien comments:
    According to the entry in the Tale of Years for 2951 Sauron sent three, not two, of the Nazgul to reoccupy Dol Guldur. The two statements can be reconciled on the assumption that one of the Ringwraiths of Dol Guldur returned afterwards to Minas Morgul, but I think it more likely that the formulation of the present text [of The Hunt for the Ring] was superseded when the Tale of the Years was compiled; and it may be noted that in a rejected version of the present passage there was only one Nazgul in Dol Guldur (not named as Khamul, but referred to as "the Second Chief (the Black Easterling)"), while one remained with Sauron as his chief messenger, [p. 352, n. 1]
    1089 (III: 371). 2956 Aragorn meets Gandalf and their friendship begins.
    - Gandalf visited Rivendell at least twice during Aragorn's fostering there, in 2941 and 2942 while on his way to and from Erebor. There is no indication that he encountered Aragorn at Rivendell; at any rate, the present entry marks the beginning of their close relationship.
    1090 (III: 371). 2957-80 ... As Thorongil he serves in disguise both Thengel of Rohan and Ecthelion of Gondor. - The words As Thorongil' were added in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1090 (III: 371). 2968 Birth of Frodo. - This entry was added in the second edition (1965).
    1090 (III: 371). 2980 ... Birth of Samwise. - This reading was introduced in the edition of 2004, replacing the entry for Sam under 2983. 'Birth of Samwise' was added to The Tale of Years for Third Age 2983 in the second edition (1965), after the mention of the birth of Faramir; but the date of Sam's birth in 'The Longfather Tree of Master Samwise' (Appendix C) has been given, since the first edition, as Shire Reckoning 1380 (= Third Age 2980), and this is supported by the entry near the end of The Tale of Years for Shire Reckoning 1469, which states that Sam was 'in 1476 [= Third Age 3076], at the end of his office, ninety-six years old'.
    1090 (III: 371). 3009 ... Elrond sends for Arwen, and she returns to Imladris; the Mountains and all lands eastward are becoming danger­ous. - Prior to the second edition (1965) this passage was printed as a separate entry for the year 3016.
    1090 (III: 371) 3009 Gandalf and Aragorn renew their hunt for Gollum
    at intervals during the next eight years___At some time during these
    years Gollum himself ventured into Mordor, and was captured by

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    For drafts and history of Appendix C, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 85-118.
    In his draft letter to A.C. Nunn, probably late 1958-early 1959, Tolkien wrote:
    As far as I know Hobbits were universally monogamous (indeed they very seldom married a second time, even if wife or husband died very young); and I should say that their family arrangements were 'patri­linear' rather than patriarchal. That is, their family names descended in the male-line (and women were adopted into their husband's name); also the titular head of the family was usually the eldest male. In the case of large powerful families (such as the Tooks), still cohesive even when they had become very numerous, and more what we might call clans, the head was properly the eldest male of what was considered the most direct line of descent. But the government of a 'family', as of the real unit: the 'household', was not a monarchy (except by accident). It was a 'dyarchy', in which master and mistress had equal status, if different functions. Either was held to be the proper representative of the other in case of absence (including death). There were no 'dowagers'. If the master died first, his place was taken by his wife, and this included (if he had held that position) the titular headship of a large family or clan. This title did not descend to the son, or other heir, while she lived, unless she voluntarily resigned....
    Customs differed in cases where the 'head' died leaving no son. In the Took-family, since the headship was also connected with die title and (originally military) office of Thain, descent was stricdy through the male line. (This tide and office descended immediately, and was not held by a widow....) In other great families the headship might pass through a daughter of the deceased to his eldest grandson (irrespective of the daughter's age). This latter custom was usual in families of more recent origin, without ancient records or ancestral mansions. In such cases the heir (if he accepted the courtesy tide) took the name of his mother's family - though he often also retained that of his father's family also (placed second). [Letters, pp. 293-4, 295]
    1101-2. [Bolger and Boffin family trees] - These were prepared by Tolkien for the first edition, but omitted for lack of space. They were first published

    in The Peoples of Middle-earth, and added to The Lord of the Rings with the edition of 2004.
    1103 (III: 381). [Took family tree] - Those who held the office of Thain are marked with an asterisk (*).
    In his draft letter to A.C. Nunn, probably late 1958-early 1959, Tolkien comments that Fortinbras II, son of Isumbras IV, married Lalia the Great ('or less courteously the Fat'), nee Clayhanger, 'in 1314, when he was 36 and she was 31. He died in [S.R.] 1380 at the age of 102, but she long outlived him, coming to an unfortunate end in 1402 at the age of 119.' She was prevented from attending Bilbo's 'long-expected party' 'rather by her great size and immobility than by her age. Her son, Ferumbras [Ferumbras III, noted in the family tree as "unmarried"], had no wife, being unable (it was alleged) to find anyone willing to occupy apartments in the Great Smials, under the rule of Lalia' {Letters., pp. 294-5). Lalia is said to have died when her attendant (rumoured to be Pippin's sister Pearl) let her wheeled chair slip down a flight of steps.
    As first published the Took genealogy states that Adelard Took had '3 daughters' (in addition to sons Reginard and Everard). In a list of errors in the Ballantine Books edition Tolkien emended '3 daughters' to '2 daugh­ters': this was corrected at last in the edition of 2004.
    1104 (HI: 382). [Brandybuck family tree] - Estella Bolger was added to the Brandybuck family tree as the wife of Meriadoc, and to the Took family tree as the sister of Fredegar (children of Odovacar Bolger, who married Rosamunda Took), in the third printing (1966) of the Ballantine Books edition. But she appears in the family trees only in some subsequent editions, beginning with the Houghton Mifflin edition of 1987. In all cases her name should be underlined to indicate that she was present at Bilbo's birthday party, a late revision entered by Tolkien in one of his personal copies of The Lord of the Rings.
    1105 (III: 383). [Longfather-tree of Master Samwise] - In the version of this genealogy sent to the printer in 1955 Samwise and Rose had fourteen children, including Lily, the youngest, born in 1444. But Tolkien removed Lily from the family tree in proof, feeling that the number of Sam's children (now thirteen) should surpass that of the Old Took (twelve) by one only.

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    For drafts and history of Appendix D, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 119-39-
    1106 (III: 384). [Shire Calendar] - The names of the months in the Shire Calendar are adaptations, or modernizations, of names in Old English:
    Afteryule from cefter Geola 'after Winter Solstice'.
    Solmath from Solmonad, apparently 'mud-month' (from sol 'mud'; the Venerable Bede thought that Solmonad was named after cakes offered to the Gods).
    Rethe from Hredmonad 'glory-month'. (Tolkien considered the name Luyde for the third month, derived from Old English Hlyda, probably related to Modern English loud after roaring March winds; see The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 137, n. 3)
    Astron from Eastermonad 'Easter-month', in turn derived from Eostre, the name of a goddess whose festival was celebrated at the vernal equinox (compare Germanic *austron- cognate with words for 'dawn' in Sanskrit etc.).
    Thrimidge from Pri-milce 'three milk-givings'.
    Forelithe from cerra LlSa 'before Ll3a'. Ltda 'gentle, mild' suits the summer months.
    Afterlithe from cefter LlSa 'after LlcSa'.
    Wedtnath from Weodmonad 'weed-month'.
    Halimath from Haligmonad 'holy-month'. The Venerable Bede refers to it as the 'Month of Offerings', i.e. a harvest month (see The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 122).
    Winterfilth from Winterfylled 'winter fullness', compare 'the filling or completion of the year before Winter', p. 1110, n. 1 (III: 388, n. 1). In The Peoples of Middle-earth Christopher Tolkien notes that Bede 'explained the name by reference to the ancient English division of the year into two parts of six months each, Summer and Winter: Winterfylleth was so called because it was the first month of Winter, but fylleth, Bede supposed, referred to the full moon of October, marking the beginning of that period of the year' (p. 137, n. 4).
    Blotmath from Blotmonad 'sacrifice-month', so called because at this season the Saxons offered in sacrifice many of the animals they killed in setting aside provisions for winter.
    Foreyule from cerra Geola 'before Winter Solstice'.
    See also Jim Allan, 'The Giving of Names' in An Introduction to Elvish,


    pp. 227-8; and Adrian Knighton, letter to the editor, Amon Hen 36 (December 1978), pp. 15-16.
    1106 (III: 384): Every year began on the first day of the week
    1106 (III: 384). The Lithe before Mid-year's Day was called 1 Lithe, and the one after was called 2 Lithe. The Yule at the end of the year was 1 Yule, and that at the beginning was 2 Yule. - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes about Lithe and Yule:
    The former and later Lithe (Old English lida) were the old names for June and July respectively. All the month-names in the Shire-Calendar are (worn-down) forms of the Old English names. In the Hobbit Calen­dar (the) Lithe was the middle-day (or 183rd day) of the year. Since all the Hobbit month-names are supposed not to be Common Speech, but conservative survivals from their former language before migration, it would be best to keep Lithe unaltered [in translations of The Lord of the Rings].... (The word was peculiar to English and no related calen­dar word is found elsewhere.) ...
    Yule, the midwinter counterpart, only occurs in Appendix D, but in translating this, it should like Lithe be treated as an alien word not generally current in Common Speech. ... Yule is found in modern English (mostly as a literary archaism), but this is an accident, and cannot be taken to imply that a similar or related word was also found in the Common Speech at that time: the hobbit calendar differed throughout from the official Common Speech calendars. It may, however, be supposed that a form of the same word had been used by the Northmen who came to form a large part of the population of Gondor ... and was later in use in Rohan, so that some word like Yule was well-known in Gondor as a 'northern name' for the midwinter festival.
    (In the course of writing Nomenclature Tolkien changed his mind in regard to Yule. In an earlier, deleted entry he wrote: 'Since it [ Yule] does occur in modern English, though not in common use, it must be assumed to represent a Common Speech word of similar status at that time. It should therefore be translated in the language used in translation, if possible by a related word, of some similar kind - so long as this has no recognizable Christian reference.')
    1107 (III: 385): The Calendar in the Shire
    1107 (III: 385). The year no doubt was of the same length - The footnote accompanying this phrase ('365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds') was added in the second edition (1965).
    1107 (III: 385): It seems clear that the Eldar
    1107 (III: 385). the Eldar in Middle-earth, who had, as Samwise

    APPENDIX D 727

    remarked, more time at their disposal - The reference is probably to Sam's remark in Book II, Chapter 9 in regard to Lothlorien: 'Anyone would think that time did not count in there', to which Legolas replies that the Elves 'do not count the running years, not for themselves. The passing seasons are but ripples ever repeated in the long long stream' (p. 388, I: 404-5)-
    1107 (III: 385). contained 52,596 days - In the first edition a footnote was included at this point: 'The re contained aur'e day(light) and lom'e (night); in Sindarin the terms were aur containing calan and fuin! It was deleted in the second edition (1965).
    1108 (III: 386): Laire and hrive
    1108 (III: 386). doubling the enderi (adding 3 days) in every twelfth year -
    This is the equivalent of adding one day every fourth year in the Gregorian Calendar.
    1108 (HI: 386): How any resulting inaccuracy
    1108 (III: 386). If the year was then of the same length as now, the yen would have been more than a day too long. - In the 144 years of the yen, a total of 36 days would have been added at the rate of 3 days every twelfth year. But 36 days (864 hours) more than compensates for the deficit, about 837 hours over 144 years (5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds per year). Thus the surplus in one total yen was nearly 27 hours, 'more than a day too long'.
    1108 (III: 386): The Numenorean system
    1108 (III: 386). The Numenorean system - Tolkien wrote to Naomi Mitchi-son on 8 December 1955: 'I am sorry about my childish amusement with arithmetic; but there it is: the Numenorean calendar was just a bit better than the Gregorian: the latter being on average 26 sec[ond]s fast p.a. [per annum], and the N[umenorean] 17.2 sees slow' {Letters, p. 229). The Gregorian Calendar adjusts for an extra 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds each year beyond 365 days, by adding in February one extra day every fourth (leap) year, defined as years the number of which is divisible by four, excepting the last years of each century unless the number is divisible by 400. This provides 97 leap years in 400 years, but leaves a surplus of 26 seconds per year, or 1 day in 3,323 years.
    1108 (HI: 386). In every fourth year, except the last of a century {har-anye), two enderi or 'middle-days' were substituted for the loende [or middle-day]. - This is similar to the Gregorian system, adding (though in midsummer, not February) one day every fourth year, except at the end of a century.

    1108 (III: 386-7): In Numenor calculation started
    1108-9 (III: 386-7). In Numenor calculation started with S.A. 1.... between the ninth and tenth (September, October). - As first published these paragraphs read:
    This system was originally reckoned from Year 1 of the Second Age, not from 32, the date of the foundation of Numenor. Millennial adjust­ments were made by adding 2 days to S.A. 1000, 2000 and 3000. A new numeration, however, was begun with Third Age 1. No addition was made until T.A. 1000 (repeated in 2000). Also S.A. 3440 had been an atendea ('double-middle' or leap-year), but the first atendea of the Third Age was in T.A. 4 (that is, in 3445). It was probably to correct this and other inaccuracies accruing since S.A. 3000 that Mardil the Steward added 2 days to T.A. 2060. Hador added another in 2360. These alter­ations seem to have become recognized eventually throughout the west-lands; but there were no further corrections during the Third Age.
    Mardil also in the same year, 2060, introduced a revised system which was called Stewards' Reckoning and was adopted eventually by most of the users of the Westron language, except the Hobbits. The months were all of 30 days, and 2 days outside the months were intro­duced between the third and fourth months (March, April) and 1 between the ninth and tenth (September, October). These 5 days outside the months, yestare, tuilere, loende, ydviere, and mettare, were holidays.
    The text was revised in the second edition (1965).
    1108 (III: 386). The Deficit caused by deducting 1 day from the last year of a century was not adjusted until the last year of a millennium, leaving a millennial deficit of 4 hours, 46 minutes, 40 seconds. This addition was made in Numenor in S.A. 1000, 2000, 3000. - The wording here is curious, since in the previous paragraph there is no mention of deducting a day from the last year of a century, only of not adding one. The deficit arose because the Numenorean calendar did not add an extra day at the end of 400 years as in the Gregorian system, but made an adjustment at the end of a millennium, by which time more that two days would have accumulated. In the first edition it is quite clear that in S.A. 1000, etc. 2 days were added (equivalent to the extra days in 400, 800, etc. in the Gregorian Calendar), but this feature was omitted, perhaps inadvertently, in the second edition. By S.A. 1000 another part of a day would have accumulated. As Ake Jonsson (Bertenstam) comments in 'The King's Reckoning: Did Tolkien Reckon Correct?' Beyond Bree (November 1985): 'The phrase "This addition" may mislead us into believing that Tolkien states that the millennial deficit of the King's Reckoning is 4 hours etc., but it isn't so. What Tolkien says is that the error remaining after an unspecified addition is 4 hours etc. This addition must be 2 days' (p. 5).

    APPENDIX D 729
    Indeed, the addition of 2 extra days in S.A. 1000 would still leave 4 hours 46 minutes 40 seconds not accounted for.
    1108 (III: 386). To reduce the errors so caused, and the accumulation of the millennial deficit, Mardil the Steward issued a revised calendar to take effect in T.A. 2060, after a special addition of 2 days to 2059 (S.A. 5500), which concluded 5V2 millennia since the beginning of the Numenorean system. But this still left about 8 hours deficit. - The deficit of 5V2 millennia after adding 2 days three times in the Second Age and twice in the Third Age would be 50 hours 16 minutes 40 seconds. The addition of two days to T.A. 2059 would reduce this to 2 hours 16 minutes 40 seconds. Tolkien presumably reached '8 hours deficit' by adding 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds for the late leap year in T.A. 4, or taking into account that with no extra day in 2060 it would be 5 years before the next leap year, T.A. 2064. Ake Jonsson, 'The King's Reckoning: Did Tolkien Reckon Correct?' agrees that the deficit was 8 hours 5 minutes 26 seconds.
    1108 (III: 386-7). Hador to 2360 added 1 day though this deficiency had not quite reached that amount. - Adding the deficit surviving from Mardil's revision to the deficiency accumulated in 300 years gives a total of 23 hours 55 minutes 26 seconds.
    1108 (HI: 387). After that no more adjustments were made. By the end of the Third Age, after 660 more years, the Deficit had not yet amounted to 1 day. - Ake Jonsson in 'The King's Reckoning: Did Tolkien Reckon Correct?' seems to be correct when he says that with no further adjustments in the 660 years following 2360, the deficit must have amounted to more than 1 day. In a millennium it reached 2 days 4 hours 46 minutes 40 seconds. And since the 660-year period 2360-3020 included seven centen­nial years, in which an extra day was not added, the deficit was proportion­ately more, over 44 hours.
    1108-9 (HI: 387): The Revised Calendar
    1109 (III: 387). These 5 days outside the months - That is, the three days outside the months since the beginning (yestate, loende, mettare), plus the two new days added by Mardil: tuilere between the third and fourth months, and ydviere between the ninth and the tenth.
    1109 (III: 387-8): In the above notes
    1109 (III: 387-8). It appears, however, that Mid-year's Day was intended to correspond as nearly as possible to the summer solstice. In that case the Shire dates were actually in advance of ours by some ten days, and our New Year's Day corresponded more or less to the Shire January 9.
    - As first published this passage read: 'It appears, however, that Mid-year's Day and Year's End were originally intended to correspond as nearly as possible to the summer and winter solstices, and still did so. In that case

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    For drafts and history of Appendix E, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 22-3, 28.
    1113-14 (HI: 391-2): [CONSONANTS]
    1114 (III: 392). PH ... alph 'swan' ... and (d) in Adunaic and Westron
    - On 30 June 1969 Tolkien wrote to Paul Bibire that alph 'could not be Quenya, as ph is not used in my transcription of Quenya, and Quenya does not tolerate final consonants other than the dentals, t, n, I, r after a vowel. Quenya for "swan" was alqua (alkwa)' (quoted in The Rivers and Beacon-hills ofGondor, Vinyar Tengwar 42 (July 2001), p. 7). Alph is Sinda-rin (alf).
    The words 'and Westron' were added in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1114 (III: 392). S ... SH, occurring in Westron, Dwarvish and Orkish -
    'Westron' was added in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1114 (III: 392). TH ... This had become s in spoken Quenya - As first published these words read: 'This became in Quenya of the Third Age s'.
    1114-15 (III: 392-3). Y ... represents a sound like that often heard - The
    word 'often' was added in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1115 (III: 393): In Sindarin the combinations
    1115 (III: 393). ng remained unchanged except initially and finally - The
    words 'initially and' were added in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1115 (III: 393). Endore - On 7 September 1955 Tolkien wrote to Richard Jeffery that en, ened - middle, centre as in Endor, Endore Middle-earth (S[indarin] ennorath)' [Letters, p. 224).
    1117 (III: 395): The alphabets were of two main
    1117 (III: 395). Cirth, translated as 'runes' - On 25 June 1963 Tolkien wrote to Rhona Beare:

    APPENDIX E 735

    The 'cirth' or runes in the 'L.R.' were invented for that story and, within it, have no supposed historical connexion with the Germanic Runic alphabet, to which the English gave its most elaborate development. There is thus nothing to be surprised at if similar signs have different values. The similarity of shapes is inevitable in alphabets devised pri­marily for cut [ting] or scratching on wood and so made of lines directly or diagonally cut across the grain. [Letters, pp. 324-5]
    The signs used in the Cirth are nearly all extracted from a basic pattern, given in the letter quoted above and reproduced in Letters.
    In The Hobbit Tolkien used genuine Anglo-Saxon runes for the Dwarv-ish lettering. On runes in The Lord of the Rings, see further, The Treason oflsengard, pp. 452-65.
    1117 (III: 395): The Tengwar were the more ancient
    1117 (III: 395). Rumil - The Noldorin Elf of Tirion in the First Age (see note for p. 343), to whom is attributed the Ainulindale.
    1120 (III: 398): Within these general applications
    1120 (HI: 398). th, f, sh, ch- As first published this read: 'th, f, sh, kh'. It was revised (i.e. kh > ch) in the second edition (1965).
    1120, n. 1 (III: 398, n. 1): The representation of the sounds
    1120, n. 1 (III: 398, n. 1). The representation of the sounds here is the same as that employed in transcription and described above, except that here ch represents the ch in English church; j represents the sound of English j, and zh the sound heard in azure and occasion. - As first published this footnote read: 'The representation of the sounds is not strictiy phonetic, but is the same as that employed in transcription and described on pp. 391-5, except that here ch represents the ch in English church, and to distinguish it the back 'spirant' ch is represented by kh; j represents the sound of English ;', and zh the sound heard in azure and occasion; ij is used for ng in sing' It was replaced in the second edition (Ballantine Books, 1965) with: 'The representation of the sounds here is the same as that employed in transcription and described on pp. 487-9, except that here ch represents the ch in English church; j represents the sound of English j, and zh the sound heard in azure and occasion, n [error, for //] is used for ng in sing.' The portion of text following occasion was deleted, and the page reference made more general, in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    1121 (III: 399): The standard spelling of Quenya
    1121 (III: 399). The standard spelling of Quenya ... Quenya letter-names pp. 1122-3 [400,401]. - This paragraph was added in the Ballantine Books

    second edition (1965), though with errors of transcription (corrected in the Allen & Unwin second edition, 1966).
    1121 (III: 399-400): The vowels were in many modes
    1121 (III: 399). The three dots, most usual in formal writing - In the
    Ballantine Books and Allen & Unwin second editions (1965,1966) 'formal' was erroneously set as 'forming'. The correct reading, as in the first edition, was restored in the HarperCollins edition of 2002.
    1122-3 (HI: 400-1): The names of the letters
    1123 (III: 401). noldo (older ngoldo) ... nwalme (older ngwalme)... ure
    heat - As first published, 'ngoldo' read 'rjoldo', and 'tire' read 'ur'. The first was altered, and the words '(older ngwalme)' added, in the second edition (1965). The word ngwalme was misprinted ywalme in the Ballantine Books printings, but corrected in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966). Also in the latter, the word ur was changed to ure.
    1123 (III: 401). the spirant ch... distinct signs for chw - As first published this passage read: 'the spirant kh ... distinct sounds for khw'. The sounds kh and khw were altered to ch and chw in the second edition (1965).

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