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    Форум » Дж.Р.Р. Толкин » Произведения Толкина » The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:55 | Сообщение # 46
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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 144-70.
    664 (II: 272): 'Maybe,' he said
    664 (II: 272). when I set out six days ago - On 1 March 1419. It is now 7 March.
    665 (II: 273): 'See here, Captain!'
    665 (II: 273). 'sauce' - Impudence, impertinence.
    665 (II: 273): 'Patience!' said Faramir
    665 (II: 273). But I do not slay man or beast needlessly, and not gladly even when it is needed. - Faramir quickly develops into one of the most fully rounded and sympathetic characters in The Lord of the Rings: perceptive, merciful, brave, responsible, restrained, aware of his position but neither boastful nor arrogant, choosing to do what he feels to be right even if it may be to his disadvantage. In a draft letter of c. 1953 Tolkien wrote:
    I think you misunderstand Faramir. He was daunted by his father: not only in the ordinary way of a family with a stern proud father of great force of character, but as a Numenorean before the chief of the one surviving Numenorean state [i.e. Denethor]. He was motherless and sisterless . .. and had a 'bossy' brother. He had been accustomed to giving way and not giving his own opinions air, while retaining a power of command among men, such as a man may obtain who is evidently personally courageous and decisive, but also modest, fair-minded and scrupulously just, and very merciful. [Letters, p. 323]
    In fact Faramir often expresses Tolkien's own thoughts about the world and life. In his draft letter to Mr Thompson, 14 January 1956, Tolkien wrote: 'As far as any character is "like me" it is Faramir - except that I lack what all my characters possess . .. Courage {Letters, p. 232, note).
    666 (II: 274): 'Five days ere I set out
    666 (II: 274). eleven days ago at about this hour of the day - Boromir's death occurred at about noon on 26 February, but this conversation is taking place in late afternoon. The call of Boromir's horn took time to reach Faramir to the south, if sound it was, and not a supernatural 'echo in the mind'.


    666 (II: 274). On the third night after - Presumably the night of 28/ 29 February.
    666 (II: 274): 'An awe fell on me
    666 (II: 274). It waded deep - It lay deep in the water as it moved.
    667 (II: 275-6): Then turning again to Frodo
    667 (II: 276). The shards came severally to shore: one ... among the reeds ... northwards below the infalls of the Entwash; the other was found spinning on the flood - According to Scheme, the shards (broken pieces) were found on 28 and 30 February.
    667 (II: 276). murder will out - An old proverb, found in this form in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.
    668 (II: 277): 'Now you, Frodo and Samwise
    ,TT >. rr ,1-1
    668 (II: 277). affray - Attack, disturbance.
    669 (II: 277): There was nothing for Frodo to do
    669 (II: 277). foray - Raid.
    669 (II: 277): I do not blame you
    669 (II: 277). hazard - In this sense (as a verb), guess, venture to say.
    669 (II: 277). confederates - Allies, those in league with others.
    669 (II: 277). hit near the mark - Near the mark, here meaning 'close to the truth', derives from archery, as does Frodo's reply: 'Near, but not in the gold' (i.e. not in the centre or bull's-eye of a target, coloured gold).
    669 (II: 277): 'Near,' said Frodo
    669 (II: 277). ancient tales teach us also the peril of rash words concern­ing such things as - heirlooms - A theme which Tolkien explored also in the story of the oath sworn by Feanor and his seven sons, pledging war and undying hatred against Morgoth who had stolen the Silmarils, and 'to pursue with vengeance and hatred to the ends of the World Vala, Demon, Elf or Man ... whoso should hold or keep a Silmaril from their possession' {The Silmarillion, p. 83). This brought only disaster and death, murder and war among kinfolk until the last two survivors were 'sick and weary with the burden of the dreadful oath' (p. 247).
    669-70 (II: 278): 'But, Frodo, I pressed you hard

    670 (II: 278). Mardil, the good steward, who ruled in the king's stead when he went away to war. And that was King Earnur, last of the line of Anarion - From the time of King Minardil (Third Age 1621-34) the Kings of Gondor chose their Stewards from the descendants of Hurin, who


    had been Minardil's Steward. By 2000 the office became hereditary. In 2050 King Earnur, accepting a challenge from the Witch-king, rode away to Minas Morgul and was never heard of again. Since his death was uncertain and 'no claimant to the crown could be found who was of pure blood, or whose claim all would allow; and all feared the memory of the Kin-strife [a civil war in Gondor many years before], knowing that if any such dissension arose again, then Gondor would perish', Mardil the Stew­ard, and his descendants, continued to rule. 'Each new Steward indeed took office with the oath "to hold rod and rule in the name of the king, until he shall return". But these soon became words of ritual little heeded, for the Stewards exercised all the power of the kings.' But they 'never sat on the ancient throne, and they wore no crown, and held no sceptre' (Appendix A, pp. 1052-3, III: 332-3), nor did they use the royal banner.
    In his draft letter to Mr Rang in August 1967 Tolkien explained that 'the element, or verbal base (N)DIL, "to love, be devoted to" - describing the attitude of one to a person, thing, course or occupation to which one is devoted for its own sake' appeared in many Quenya names 'such as Mardil the Good Steward (devoted to the House [Quenya mar], sc. of the Kings)' (Letters, p. 386).
    670 (II: 278): 'And this I remember
    670 (II: 278). our sires - Ancestors.
    670 (II: 278). 'How many hundreds of years need it to make a steward a king, if the king returns not?' he [Boromir] asked. 'Few years maybe, in other places of less royalty,' my father [Denethor] answered. 'In Gondor ten thousand years would not suffice.' - Boromir, as eldest son and heir to the Stewardship, can expect to have the power of a king but wants the title as well. In a letter published in Mythlore 6, no. 4, whole no. 22 (Fall 1979), Benjamin Urrutia points out that 'two major events of Gondorian history are inversions, most likely conscious, of milestones in French history. The faithful Stewardship is the exact opposite of the treach­ery of the Carolingian stewards, who deposed the Merovingians', while the Bourbons 'were overthrown by the Republic, which was taken over by the arrogant upstart, Napoleon, who snatched the crown from the Pope's hands, placing it upon his own head. The mirror image of that deed is the humble action of Aragorn, who by law is entitled to crown himself, but instead requests Mithrandir, the spiritual leader, to do so' (p. 41). In 'Steward and King', Beyond Bree, February 1983, Ron Sanborn rejects the suggestion of a connection between the Stewards of Gondor and
    the accession of the Stewarts to the throne of Scotland. The head of the family had been the hereditary high steward of Scotland . . . [but] had not previously ruled, and they succeeded to the kingship legitimately: Walter Stewart, the sixth steward, married Marjorie Bruce, the daughter and eventual heiress of the famous king Robert the Bruce. . . .


    The accession of the Carolingian dynasty in France was somewhat different. The family was founded by Pippin [or Pepin] the Old, steward (major domus, 'mayor of the palace') of part of France (Austrasia). His son, grandson, and son-in-law were executed for trying to seize the throne.
    Nevertheless, Pippin's other grandson, Pippin the Younger, was sub­sequently restored to the stewardship. He proceeded to make himself ruler of all France. He and his successor, his son Charles Martel, like the ruling stewards of Condor, exercised all the royal power but did not take the title king. The Gondorian stewards, however, ruled only in the king's absence; the French king [of the Merovingians] was a puppet in the hands of the steward. The stewards deposed and appointed kings at will... .
    At last, Pippin the Short, son and successor of Charles Martel, usurped the throne for himself, in the third generation. I think that this may have been Tolkien's inspiration for Denethor's remark about 'places of less royalty', [p. 4]
    Denethor's reply to Boromir shows that he was content with the title of Steward if with it came the power of the king, but his later refusal even to consider a claimant of the line of Isildur (Aragorn) reveals that he was not willing to give up the power.
    670 (II: 278): 'I doubt it not'
    670 (II: 278). the pinch - Critical point, moment of stress.
    /TT M i„ ., i
    670 (II: 278): But I stray
    670 (II: 278). in divers characters - In many different (diverse) writing systems.
    670 (II: 278-9): 'Mithrandir, we called him
    670 (II: 279). Tharkun to the Dwarves, Olorin I was in my youth in the West that is forgotten, in the South Incdnus, in the North Gandalf - In
    Tolkien's writings on the Istari, Tharkun, obviously a Dwarvish name, is said to mean 'Staff-man', that is, a man with a staff. Olorin, in contrast,
    is a High-elven name, and must therefore have been given to him in Valinor by the Eldar, or be a 'translation' meant to be significant to them. In either case, what was the significance of the name given or assumed? Olor is a word often translated 'dream', but that does not refer to (most) human 'dreams', certainly not the dreams of sleep. To the Eldar it included the vivid contents of their memory, as of their imagination: it referred in fact to clear vision, in the mind, of things not physically present at the body's situation. But not only to an idea, but to a full clothing of this in particular form and detail. [The Istari in Unfinished Tales, p. 396]


    In The Silmarillion it is said that although Olorin 'loved the Elves, he walked among them unseen, or in form as one of them, and they did not know whence came the fair visions or the promptings of wisdom that he put into their hearts. In later days he was the friend of all the Children of Iluvatar, and took pity on their sorrows; and those who listened to him awoke from despair and put away the imaginations of darkness' (p. 31).
    Tolkien hesitated about the name Incdnus and what Gandalf meant by 'the South'. In a note written before the publication of the second edition of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien said that Gandalf may have visited the areas of Harad adjoining Gondor, and that 'the name Incdnus is apparently "alien", that is neither Westron, nor Elvish (Sindarin or Quenya), nor explicable by the surviving tongues of Northern Men. A note in the Thain's Book says that it is a form adapted to Quenya of a word in the tongue of the Haradrim meaning simply "North-spy" (Inka + nusf {The Istari in Unfinished Tales, p. 399). But in another note, written in 1967, Tolkien indicated that 'the South' should mean Gondor at its widest extent, and Tncanus was ... a Quenya name, but one devised in Gondor in earlier times while Quenya was still much used by the learned, and was still the language of many historical records' (Christopher Tolkien, Unfinished Tales, p. 400). He proposed an etymology from Quenya in(id)- 'mind' + kan-'ruler'. Christopher Tolkien comments:
    In this note my father referred to the Latin word incdnus 'grey-haired' in such a way as to suggest that this was the actual origin of this name of Gandalf's when The Lord of the Rings was written, which if true would be very surprising; and at the end of the discussion he remarked that the coincidence in form of the Quenya name and the Latin word must be regarded as an 'accident'. ... [p. 400]
    671 (II: 279-80): 'What in truth this Thing is
    671 (II: 280). allured - Attracted or tempted.
    671 (II: 280): 'But fear no more!
    671 (II: 280). I would not take this thing, if it lay by the highway. Not were Minas Tirith falling in ruin and I alone could save her, so, using the weapon of the Dark Lord for her good and my glory. - In this Faramir shows his character, and contrasts with his brother Boromir and, as shown later, with his father. He believes with Tolkien that the end does not justify the means. Although when he makes this statement he does not know what he is renouncing, he considers himself bound by it.
    671-2 (II: 280): 'For myself,' said Faramir
    671-2 (II: 280). I would see the White Tree in flower again ... and the Silver Crown return, and Minas Tirith in peace. Minas Anor again as of old, full of light, high and fair, beautiful as a queen among other

    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:56 | Сообщение # 47
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    Chapter 6

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 171-4. 683 (II: 292): 'Not yet, but night
    683 (II: 292). night is drawing to an end, and the full moon is setting -
    It is early on 8 March 1419. According to the 1942 lunar calendar used by Tolkien, the moon became full soon after midnight.
    683 (II: 292): They went first along
    683 (II: 292). turret stair - A turret is a small tower, usually with a spiral staircase.
    683 (II: 292): At last they came out
    683 (II: 292). race - In this sense, a narrow channel.
    684 (II: 293): Faramir heard and answered
    684 (II: 293). Moonset over Gondor - Scheme notes: 'See Moon-set about 5 a.m.'
    684 (II: 293). white locks - Snow-covered peaks.
    684 (II: 293): Faramir turned to the man
    684 (II: 293). a kingfisher? Are there black kingfishers in ... Mirkwood?
    - The kingfisher is a bird with a long sharp beak which dives to catch fish in streams, ponds, etc. Most are brightly coloured. Faramir wonders if black kingfishers exist in Mirkwood along with black squirrels (and, as seen in The Hobbit, black bats, butterflies, etc.).
    685 (II: 294): 'You know, then, what this thing is?'
    685 (II: 294). he has done worse trespass - Here trespass means both 'committed an offence' and 'entered a place without permission'.
    690 (II: 299): 'Then I will declare my doom'
    690 (II: 299). This doom shall stand for a year and a day - 'A year and a day is the period specified in some legal matters to ensure the completion of a full year' (Concise OED). The phrase is used in a more general sense of expressing a period of time at the beginning of Book I, Chapter 2.
    691 (II: 301): 'Not wholly, perhaps'
    691 (II: 301). canker - A spreading sore or ulcer.


    691-2 (II: 301): 'No,' said Faramir
    691 (II: 301). break troth - Break a solemn agreement.
    692 (II: 301). holden - Beholden, under an obligation.
    692 (II: 301): 'Nothing certain,' said Faramir
    692 (II: 301). there is some dark terror - Some readers have wondered why Faramir did not at least tell Frodo that ungol means 'spider'.
    692 (II: 301). blanch - Turn pale with fear.
    692 (II: 301-2): 'The Valley of Minas Morgul
    692 (II: 301). the banished Enemy dwelt yet far away - In Dol Guldur.
    692 (II: 301). it [Minas Ithil] was taken by fell men.... It is said that their lords were men of Numenor who had fallen into dark wickedness; to them the Enemy had given rings of power, and he had devoured them.... After his going they took Minas Ithil and dwelt there, and they filled it and all the valley about, with decay.... Nine lords there were, and after the return of their Master, which they aided and pre­pared in secret, they grew strong again. Then the Nine Riders issued forth from the gates of horror, and we could not withstand them. -According to The Tale of Years, Minas Ithil, which Isildur had built after his escape from Numenor in Second Age 3319, was captured by Sauron in 3429. After the overthrow of Sauron at the end of the Second Age, Minas Ithil was resettled; but in Third Age 1636 'a plague came upon dark winds out of the east.... Then the forts on the borders of Mordor were deserted, and Minas Ithil was emptied of its people' (Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age in The Silmarillion, p. 296). In Third Age 2000 the Nazgul came out of Mordor, whence they had returned 'to prepare the ways of their Master' (The Silmarillion, p. 297), besieged Minas Ithil, and took it in 2002. Both mentions by Faramir of the taking of the city, and to the Nazgul having issued forth from the gates of horror, seem to refer to the occasion in the Third Age.

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    Chapter 7

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 175-82.
    694 (II: 303): When they had finished
    694 (II: 303). Imlad Morgul, the Valley of Living Death - In his unfinished index Tolkien writes: 'Imlad Morgul = Morgul Vale', 'Imlad narrow valley with steep sides but a flat habitable bottom', and 'Morgul "necromancy"'.
    694 (II: 303). portends - To portend is to give warning that something momentous or calamitous is about to occur.
    694 (II: 303): The hobbits' packs were brought
    694 (II: 303). staves - In this context, the plural of staff, in the sense 'a stick used as an aid in walking or climbing'.
    694 (II: 303): 'I have no fitting gifts
    694 (II: 303). the fair tree lebethron, beloved of the woodwrights - The
    casket in which the crown of Gondor is brought to Aragorn in Book VI. Chapter 5 is made of black lebethron.
    A woodwright is one who works in wood, a carpenter or joiner.
    696 (II: 305): Darkness came early
    696 (II: 305). the first glimmer of light - It is 9 March 1419.
    696 (II: 305): As the third stage
    696 (II: 305). great ilexes of huge girth - Besides the common holly which can grow to sixty-five feet, the term ilex also encompasses the holm-oak or evergreen oak (Quercus ilex), which can reach ninety feet. Frodo, Sam, and Gollum sleep in a holm-oak the following night.
    696 (II: 305). launds — A laund is an open space in woods, a glade.
    696 (II: 305). celandine - According to the Oxford English Dictionary., celandine is 'the name of two distinct plants bearing yellow flowers; by old herbalists regarded as species of the same plant, and identified (probably correctly) with the greater and lesser chelidonia of ancient writers'. The Lesser Celandine, filewort or figwort (Ranunculus ficaria), which flowers in March and grows in shady places, is probably meant here. (The Common or Greater Celandine, Chelidonium majus, which can grow up to thirty inches tall, would be out of place in this landscape.)
    696 (II: 305). woodland hyacinths — Bluebells (Hyacinthoides nonscripta).


    696-7 (II: 306): Light was fading fast
    696-7 (II: 306). Light was fading fast.... A dim valley lay before them... - Brian Rosebury has commented on the descriptive power of this paragraph:
    Tolkien describes like a painter: his descriptions appeal to the emotions through the senses, not the other way round.... Tolkien evokes the human experience of perceiving a landscape.... But the analogy of a painter is imperfect, not merely because sound and silence are heard but because the visual scene is not experienced statically. Frodo arrives at this vantage point, after long journeying ... and his (and our) perception of the land ahead is suffused with an awareness of the continuing journey. The long valley comes out of the darkness, but Frodo must go into it. And the description is full of verbs suggesting movement, though most refer to static features of the landscape.... The paradox of movement in stillness reinforces.that of an audible silence: we sense the nervously attentive eyes and ears of the travellers. Already the absence of living creatures, and the heavy stifling atmos­phere, have been stressed.... The landscape becomes suffused with a tension which will be intensified in the following pages.... [Tolkien: A Cultural Phenomenon, pp. 84-5]
    697 (II: 306). the long valley - The vale of Morgulduin. Faramir had said that it was fifteen leagues to that place from Henneth Annun; therefore Frodo, Sam, and Gollum have covered about forty-five miles in two days.
    697 (II: 306). old towers forlorn and dark - Rosebury comments that this 'inversion' (of noun phrase and adjectives) is for euphony and variation:
    Out of context, it might be dismissed as a Gothic cliche; actually it is an example of one of the work's greatest strengths. ... The point is that the towers are literally forlorn: they belong to Osgiliath, the 'populous city' glimpsed in the Mirror of Galadriel, but long ago abandoned in Gondor's retreat before the expansion of Mordor. Not only do we recall this historical detail when we read the phrase, but the visual scene brings home the distinctive kind of forlornness to which Osgiliath is condemned: it stands in no man's land between two opposed powers, East and West; and the haunted impression it makes under the gathering dark reminds us that it is Mordor, rather than Gondor, the spirit of decay rather than the spirit of growth, that dominates in this disputed territory.... Tolkien here restores power to a jaded image by con­structing around it a new historical and geographical context, which displays afresh its original aptness: the very simplicity which made it a cliche becomes again its virtue. [Tolkien: A Cultural Phenomenon,
    PP. 85-6]

    697 (II: 306): Frodo looked down on the road
    697 (II: 306). Morgulduin, the polluted stream that flowed from the Valley of the Wraiths - Morgulduin, the river that ran out of Morgul Vale, also called Imlad Morgul, Morgul Valley, the Valley of the Wraiths; see note for p. 694.
    697-8 (II: 306-7): Gollum reluctantly agreed to this
    697 (II: 306). the crotch of a large holm-oak - Crotch in this sense means 'a place in the limbs of a tree where they divide in two'.
    698 (II: 307): It must have been a little after midnight
    698 (II: 307). a little after midnight - It is early on 10 March.
    698 (II: 307): As soon as they were down
    698 (II: 307). There seemed to be a great blackness looming slowly out of the East, eating up the faint blurred stars. - According to The Tale of Years, 'Darkness begins to flow out of Mordor' on 9 March, presumably late, since in the narrative Frodo notices nothing during that evening. Scheme notes that on 9 March Frodo, Sam, and Gollum reach the Osgiliath Road at dusk and sleep in a tree. Then: 'March 10: Darkness begins to flow out of Mordor at night. F & S. [Frodo and Sam] go on during early hours, and reach Hogback. No dawn. Lie hid till afternoon. Reach Cross-Roads at dusk, & see last glimpse of sun.'
    698 (II: 307): He quickened his pace
    698 (II: 307). hog-back - A long steep hill or ridge.
    698 (II: 307). gorse - A shrub with yellow flowers and spine-shaped leaves. (Compare whin, note for p. 333.)
    698-9 (II: 308): On the further edge
    699 (II: 308). covert - In this sense (as a noun), a hiding-place. 700 (II: 309): The afternoon, as Sam supposed
    700 (II: 309). dun - Dull sreyish-brown.
    700 (II: 310): Sam stared at him
    700 (II: 310). tea-time - The time of an afternoon or early evening meal with which tea is drunk, traditionally at about four o'clock.
    701 (II: 310): 'The Cross-roads, yes'
    701 (II: 310). Cross-roads - The point at which the Southward Road from the Morannon through Ithilien to Harad crosses the road running east from Osgiliath to Minas Morgul.


    701-2 (II: 311): As furtively as scouts
    701 (II: 311). campment - A shortened form of encampment, a place where troops camp in tents or other temporary shelter.
    702 (II: 311): Standing there for a moment
    702 (II: 311). pall - Here used figuratively 'of something that covers or conceals ... especially something such as a cloud that extends over a thing or region and produces an effect of gloom' (OED).
    702 (II: 311). unsullied - In this figurative sense, not yet made gloomy or dull.
    702 (II: 311). a huge sitting figure___The years had gnawed it___Its
    head was gone - The description and the ravages of time and hostility on a once imposing figure recall Percy Bysshe Shelley's poem Ozymandias, which commemorates a battered statue of an Egyptian pharaoh:
    Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
    3 • T 1 XT I " 1 J
    Stand in the desert. . . . Near them, on the sand, Half sunk, shattered visage lies .. .
    Nothing beside remains. Round the decay Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch jar away.
    702 (II: 311): The eyes were hollow
    702 (II: 311). carven beard - And yet, the kings of Gondor had Elven blood in their ancestry, and in a note written by Tolkien in December 1972 it is said that 'the Elvish strain in Men [is] .. . observable in the beard-lessness of those who were so descended (it was a characteristic of all Elves to be beardless)' {Unfinished Tales, p. 247). But this is a late note, and the concept might not have been in Tolkien's mind when he wrote The Lora of the Rings (in Book VI, Chapter 9, the Elf Cirdan, the Shipwright, is described as having a long beard). The note was evidently prepared to explain how Legolas recognized an Elvish strain in the ancestry of Imrahil of Dol Amrofh (Book V, Chapter 9).
    702 (II: 311). coronal - A garland or wreath for the head.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 183-226.
    704 (II: 313): So they came slowly to the white bridge
    704 (II: 313). Here the road ... passed over the stream in the midst of the valley, and went on, winding deviously up towards the city's gate: a black mouth opening in the outer circle of the northward walls. - See
    Tolkien's sketch-map, captioned 'Minas Morghul and the Cross-roads', in The War of the Ring, p. 181, and his 1941 sketch of the city gate shaped like a gaping mouth with teeth and an eye on either side {Artist and Illustrator, fig. 170).
    704 (II: 313). charnel-smell - An 'odour of rottenness', as of dead bodies.
    706 (II: 315): All that host was clad in sable 706 (II: 315). wan walls - Wan 'pale'.
    708 (II: 317): Frodo raised his head
    708 (II: 317). whether Faramir or Aragorn or Elrond or Galadriel or Gandalf or anyone else ever knew about it - It seems odd that Frodo should include Gandalf in this list, when he believes Gandalf to have been killed in Moria.
    708 (II: 317): They did not answer
    708 (II: 317). they followed him on to the climbing ledge - From this point, as Frodo and Sam begin their ascent towards Cirith Ungol on the evening of 10 March 1419, the chronology of their story is no longer straightforward until Sam comes out of his swoon on 14 March. Internally, this reflects the hobbits' difficulty in counting the passage of time within the darkness both outside and inside the tunnel through the mountains ('One hour, two hours, three hours: how many had they passed in this lightless hole? Hours - days, weeks rather', p. 718, II: 327); but also exter­nally, the timing of events within the period 10-14 March (as it became after revision) became confused as Tolkien made adjustments in the course of writing.
    If The Tale of Years is taken in conjunction with Scheme and with the immediately preceding time-scheme (Marquette MSS 4/2/17, with a difference of one day in dating), a clearer chronology can be expressed:
    March 10: Frodo and Sam reach the Cross-roads at dusk and see a last


    glimpse of the sun. They pass Minas Morgul, and see the host ride out. They begin climbing in the Ephel Duath.
    March 11: Climbing in Ephel Duath. They rest and sleep in a crevice of rocks. Gollum slips off to see Shelob.
    March 12: Gollum returns, and seeing the sleeping Frodo nearly repents, but finally surrenders to evil. In the afternoon he leads Frodo and Sam into Shelob's lair.
    March 13: Escape from Shelob's lair in the morning. Frodo is struck down. Sam's agony. Frodo is captured by Ores in the late afternoon or evening. Sam lies in a swoon outside the Undergate of the Tower.
    March 14: Sam lies in a swoon until late morning. Seeking a way in, he comes to the front gate of the Tower in the afternoon or evening. He enters and finds Frodo.
    March 15: Frodo and Sam escape early in the day.
    See also note tor p. 715.
    711 (II: 320): In a dark crevice
    711 (II: 320). In a dark crevice ... they sat down. - It is 11 March 1419. Frodo, Sam, and Gollum have probably been walking and climbing for well over twenty-four hours.
    712 (II: 321): 'No, they never end as tales'
    712 (II: 321). the people in them come, and go when their part's ended
    - The phrase recalls Jacques' soliloquy in Shakespeare's As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7: All the world's a stage, / And all the men and women merely players. / They have their exits and their entrances, / And one man in his time plays many parts'.
    712 (II: 321): 'And then we can have some rest
    712 (II: 321). I wonder if we shall ever be put into songs or tales ... told by the fireside, or read out of a great big book with red and black letters
    - Apart from the tale that Frodo and Sam are in literally - The Lord of the Rings - they enter a song within the tale sung by a minstrel at the Field of Cormallen (Book VI, Chapter 4), and the abandoned Epilogue to The Lord of the Rings opens with Sam and his children sitting by the fireside in Bag End, where (in the first version, though similarly in the second) 'he had been reading aloud (as was usual) from a big Red Book on a stand' (Sauron Defeated, p. 114). In Book VI, Chapter 9, Frodo tells Sam that he 'will read things out of the Red Book, and keep alive the memory of the age that is gone, so that people will remember the Great Danger and so love their beloved land all the more. And that will keep you as busy and as happy as anyone can be, as long as your part of the Story goes on' (p. 1029, III: 309).

    713 (II: 323): 'Well, I suppose you're right
    713 (II: 323). I don't doubt he'd hand me over to Ores as gladly as kiss his hand. - That is, Gollum would have no difficulty in betraying Sam to the Ores (compare the slang phrase as easy as kiss your hand).
    714 (II: 323): 'No, but we'd better keep our eyes skinned
    714 (II: 323). keep our eyes skinned - Stay watchful, alert. 714 (II: 323). have a wink - Take a nap.
    714 (II: 324): 'Hey you!' he said roughly
    714 (II: 324). 'Hey you!' he said roughly. 'What are you up to?' - Gollum has engaged in 'some interior debate', Gollum vs. Smeagol, in which Smeagol has nearly won. But Sam sees Gollum's touch of Frodo's knee not as 'almost a caress' but as 'pawing at master'. Suddenly awakened, he speaks out roughly, and the moment is lost. Gollum withdraws, and a green light appears in his eyes, a sign that his evil side is ascendant. In September 1963 Tolkien wrote in his draft letter to Eileen Elgar: 'For me perhaps the most tragic moment in the Tale comes in II 323 ff. when Sam fails to note the complete change in Gollum's tone and aspect.' Gollum's 'repentance is blighted and all Frodo's pity [given to him to this point] is (in a sense) wasted.' But in the context of the story, 'Sam could hardly have acted differently' (Letters, p. 330).
    715 (II: 324): 'It's tomorrow
    715 (II: 324). 'It's tomorrow,' said Gollum, 'or this was tomorrow when hobbits went to sleep. - The Tale of Years indicates for 11 March: 'Gollum visits Shelob, but seeing Frodo asleep nearly repents'; and for 12 March: 'Gollum leads Frodo into Shelob's lair'. But both the glossed passage and Tolkien's working time-schemes make it clear that although Gollum left Sam and Frodo sleeping on one day, he did not return until the next. The phrase 'but seeing Frodo asleep nearly repents' is not meant to refer to an event on 11 March, only to an aspect of Gollum's character in opposition to his treachery involving Shelob. Marquette MSS 4/2/17, prob­ably the penultimate synoptic time-scheme, with slightly different dating, has:
    10 March: F[rodo] & Sam in Ephel Duath and sleep in rocks (while Gollum visits Shelob).
    11 March: Gollum returns and leads F & S into Shelob's Lair. (It was prob[ably] afternoon or late morning).
    And compare Scheme, in which the idea of repentance was introduced intc the chronology:

    11 March: Climbing in Ephel Duath. They [Frodo and Sam] rest anc

    sleep in a crevice of rocks. (Gollum slips off to see Shelob: nearly repents but finally surrenders to evil.)
    12 March: Gollum returns and leads F. and S. into Shelob's Lair (in afternoon).

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    Chapter 9 SHELOB'S LAIR
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 183-226.
    717 (II: 326): Presently they were under the shadow
    717 (II: 326). Torech Ungol, Shelob's Lair - Torech Ungol is Sindarin for 'tunnel of the spider', from torech 'hole, excavation' + ungol 'spider' {Index). Shelob is simply composed of she 'female' + dialectal English lob 'spider'. Compare Bilbo's taunt to the spiders, 'Lazy Lob', in The Hobbit, Chapter 8. The creature's name was originally to be Ungoliant, borrowed from 'The Silmarillion'; see following note.
    717-18 (II: 326-7): Drawing a deep breath
    717 (II: 327). a black vapour wrought of veritable darkness that, as it was breathed, brought blindness not only to the eyes but to the mind
    - The Silmarillion tells of Ungoliant, who 'took shape as a spider of monstrous form, weaving her black webs in a cleft of the mountains. There she sucked up all light that she could find, and spun it forth again in dark nets of strangling gloom, until no light more could come to her abode' (p. 73). With Melkor she attacked the Two Trees of Valinor, draining them of their sap. As she did so, she 'belched forth black vapours', and 'so soon as any [in pursuit] came up with the Cloud of Ungoliant the riders of the Valar were blinded and dismayed' (p. 76).
    720 (II: 329): Frodo gazed in wonder
    720 (II: 329). Aiya Earendil Elenion Ancalima! - In his draft letter to Mr Rang, August 1967, Tolkien wrote that this phrase in Quenya means 'Hail Earendil brightest of stars', and that it 'is derived at long remove from Bala Earendel engla beorhtasf, a line from the Old English poem Crist (Letters, p. 385). See also note for p. 194.
    720 (II: 329-30): But other potencies there are
    720 (II: 329). potencies - In this sense, beings possessed of power.
    720 (II: 329). She that walked in darkness had heard the Elves cry that cry far back in the deeps of time - 'She' is Shelob, but the Elves cannot have cried thus until the end of the First Age and the transformation of the mariner Earendil into a star.
    720 (II: 329). a deadly regard - Regard in this sense means 'gaze'.

    720 (II: 329). two great clusters of many-windowed eyes - In this and

    other respects Shelob is not like normal spiders, which do not have com­pound eyes. See further, note for p. 724.
    -jix (II: 330): Frodo and Sam, horror-stricken
    721 (II: 330). baleful - Menacing.
    721 (II: 330): 'Galadriel!' he called
    721 (II: 330). flickered - In editions prior to 2004 this word was printed 'flicked', an original error overlooked in proof. See The War of the Ring, P- 3>
    721 (II: 330): They wavered
    721 (II: 330). One by one they [Shelob's eyes] dimmed, and slowly they drew back. No brightness so deadly had ever afflicted them before. From sun and moon and star they had been safe underground - Whereas Ungoliant in The Silmarillion lusted for light and gorged herself on it, Shelob is repelled by it.
    722 (II: 331): 'That would not help us noV
    722 (II: 331). There were webs of horror in the dark ravines of Beleriand where it was forged. - Frodo's sword Sting was 'made in Gondolin for the Goblin-wars' (The Hobbit, Chapter 3). In The Silmarillion it is said that Ungoliant, fleeing the Balrogs of Morgoth,
    went down into Beleriand, and dwelt beneath Ered Gorgoroth [east of Gondolin], in that dark valley that was afterwards called Nan Dungor-theb, the Valley of Dreadful Death, because of the horror that she bred there. For other foul creatures of spider form had dwelt there since the days of the delving of Angband, and she mated with them, and devoured them; and even after Ungoliant herself departed, and went whither she would into the forgotten south of the world, her offspring abode there and wove their hideous webs. [p. 81]
    /TT ^ T J T- . • . 1,1]
    722 (II: 332): It seemed light in that dark land
    722 (II: 332). The great smokes had risen and grown thinner, and the last hours of a sombre day were passing. Yet it seemed to Frodo that he looked upon a morning of sudden hope. - According to Scheme it is the morning of 13 March. Tolkien's revisions to the 'Cirith UngoP sequence (the final chapters of Book IV, and the beginning of Book VI) were complex, involving changes both to the topography of the passage through the mountains (working sketch-plans are reproduced in The War of the Ring, Chapter 8, and see also Artist and Illustrator, figs. 172-4) and to the chronology of events. Here the last hours of a sombre day were passing are a vestige of the earlier chronology, in which Frodo and Sam entered Shelob's lair in the morning and escaped in the afternoon.


    723 (II: 332): There agelong she had dwelt
    723 (II: 332). an evil thing in spider-form, even such as once of old had lived in the Land of the Elves in the West that is now under the Sea,
    such as Beren fought in the Mountains of Terror in Doriath___How
    Shelob came there, flying from ruin, no tale tells.... But still she was there, who was there before Sauron, and before the first stone of Barad-dur; and she served none but herself, drinking the blood of Elves and Men, bloated and grown fat with endless brooding on her feasts, weaving webs of shadow; for all living things were her food, and her vomit darkness. Far and wide her lesser broods, bastards of the miser­able mates, her own offspring, that she slew, spread from glen to glen, from the Ephel Duafh to the eastern hills, to Dol Guldur and the fastnesses of Mirkwood. But none could rival her, Shelob the Great, last child of Ungoliant to trouble the unhappy world. - Thus Shelob in The Lord of the Rings is related to the giant spiders of Mirkwood in The Hohbit and to a creature Tolkien had envisioned long before in 'The Silmarillion'. On 25 April 1954 he wrote to Naomi Mitchison that Shelob is represented as a 'descendant of the giant spiders of the glens of Nandungorthin, which come into the legends of the First Age, especially into the chief of them, the tale of Beren and Liithien... . The giant spiders were themselves only the offspring of Ungoliante the primeval devourer of light, that in spider-form assisted the Dark Power, but ultimately quarrelled with him' (Letters, p. 180). Of Ungoliant The Silmarillion says that 'the Eldar knew not whence she came'; she took 'all things to herself to feed her emptiness', and she 'crept towards the light of the Blessed Realm; for she hungered for light and hated it' (p. 73). Of Beren's terrible southward journey through the Mountains of Terror (Ered Gorgoroth), The Silmarillion tells that in 'the wilderness of Dungortheb, where the sorcery of Sauron and the power of Melian came together,... horror and madness walked. There spiders of the fell race of Ungoliant abode, spinning their unseen webs in which all living things were snared' (p. 164).
    The first stone of Barad-dur was laid c. Second Age 1000.
    In drafts for this section of The Lord of the Rings Frodo and Sam were menaced by a host of spiders, as Bilbo encountered in The Hobbit but more deadly. Eventually Tolkien chose to write of one great spider, at first named Ungoliant, finally the last child of Ungoliant (i.e. the last descendant, if not literally the offspring of a creature of the distant First Age of the world).
    Some readers have supposed that Tolkien had a fear of spiders, which manifested itself in Shelob. 'If that has anything to do with my being stung by a tarantula when a small child,' he wrote to W.H. Auden on 7 June 1955, 'people are welcome to the notion.... I can only say that I remember nothing about it, should not know it if I had not been told; and I do not


    dislike spiders particularly, and have no urge to kill them. I usually rescue those whom I find in the bath!' (Letters, p. 217).
    724 (II: 333): And as for Sauron
    724 (II: 333). unabated - Not lessened.
    724 (II: 333). his cat he calls her, but she owns him not - That is, she does not acknowledge Sauron's authority.
    724-5 (II: 334): Dread was round him
    724 (II: 334). a fey mood - Fey 'overexcited or elated, as formerly associated with the state of mind of a person about to die' (Concise OED).
    725 (II: 334): Hardly had Sam hidden the light
    725 (II: 334). Most like a spider she was - In a late unpublished work Toikien noted that Shelob is not described in The Lord of the Rings
    in precise spider terms; but she was 'most like a spider'. As such she was enormously magnified; and she had two horns and two great clusters of eyes. But she had the characteristic tight constriction of spiders between the front section (head and thorax) and the rear (belly) - this is called ... her 'neck', because the rear portion is swollen and bloated out of proportion. She was black, except for the underpart of her belly, which was 'pale and luminous' with corruption. [Tolkien Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford]

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    Chapter 10
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 183-226.
    728 (II: 337): Now the miserable creature
    728 (II: 337). Her vast belly... with its putrid light - Putrid 'rotten, foul, noxious'. It has already been said, in Book IV, Chapter 9, that Shelob's 'pale and luminous belly . .. gave forth a stench' (p. 725, II: 334), while in the next paragraph her hide is 'knobbed and pitted with corruption'.
    728-9 (II: 337-8): But Shelob was not as dragons are
    729 (II: 337). But Shelob was not as dragons are, no softer spot had she save only her eyes. - Dragons by tradition have a soft spot in their under-parts. In Norse legend Sigurd slew Fafnir by stabbing him from underneath, and Turin uses the same method to kill Glaurung in The Silmarillion. In The Hobbit Bilbo notices an unprotected soft spot on Smaug's left breast, and by this knowledge Bard the archer knows where to aim to kill the dragon over Lake-town.
    729 (II: 337-8). not though Elf or Dwarf should forge the steel or the hand of Beren or of Turin wield it - No weapon could pierce her skin, even if wielded by the greatest of heroes. But Sam holds his sword in such a way that Shelob drives it into herself. In his letter to Milton Waldman in ?late 1951 Tolkien referred to Sam's 'supreme plain dogged common-sensible heroism in aid of his master', and said that as he confronts Shelob 'Sam now begins his rise to supremely heroic stature. He fights the Spider, rescues his master's body, assumes the ghastly burden of the Ring, and is preparing to stagger on alone in an attempt to carry out the impossible errand' {Waldman LR).
    729 (II: 338): No such anguish had Shelob
    729 (II: 338). had ever thus endured her - Here endured means 'persisted, continued to attack'.
    729 (II: 338): Sam had fallen to his knees

    729 (II: 338). drabbling - Bespattering.

    the ::-::::i5 of master samwise

    729 (II: 338): 'Galadriel!' he said faintly
    729 (II: 338). Gilthoniel A Elbereth! - As first published, the reading here and in the verse below was 'O Elbereth'. These expressions were emended in the second edition (1965). On 14 October 1958 Tolkien wrote to Rhona Beare:
    The use of O on II p. 339 [2004 edn., p. 729] is an error. Mine in fact, taken over from p. 338, where Gilthoniel O Elbereth is, of course, a quotation of I p. 88 [p. 79}, which was a 'translation', English in all but proper names. Sam's invocation is, however, in pure Elvish and should have had A as in I p. 250 [p. 238]. Since hobbit-language is represented as English, O could be defended as an inaccuracy of his own; but I do not propose to defend it. He was 'inspired' to make this invocation in a language he did not know. . .. Though it is, of course, in the style and metre of the hymn-fragment, I think it is composed or inspired for his particular situation. [Letters, p. 278]
    729 (II: 338-9): And then his tongue was loosed
    729 (II: 338). And then his tongue was loosed and his voice cried in a language which he did not know - The language Sam uses is Sindarin. In Shelob's lair Frodo cried out in Quenya.
    729 (II: 339). A Elbereth Gilthoniel... - In his letter to Rhona Beare, 14 October 1958, Tolkien says that the verse
    means, more or less: 'O Elbereth Starkindler (in the past tense: the title belongs to mythical pre-history and does not refer to a permanent function) from heaven gazing-afar, to thee I cry now in the shadow of {the fear of) death. O look towards me, Everwhite!' Everwhite is an inadequate translation; as is equally the snow-white of I 88. The element ui (Primitive Elvish oio) means ever; both/an- and los(s) convey white, but fan connotes the whiteness of clouds (in the sun); loss refers to snow.
    Amon Uilos, in High-elven Oiolosse, was one of the names of the highest peak of the Mountains of Valinor, upon which Manwe and Varda dwelt. So that an Elf using or hearing the name Fanuilos, would not think of (or picture) only a majestic figure robed in white, standing in a high place and gazing eastwards to mortal lands, he would at the same time picture an immense peak, snow-capped, crowned with a piercing or dazzling white cloud. [Letters, p. 278]
    Prior to the second printing (1967) of the Allen and Unwin second edition the i in palan-diriel and in tiro was marked as long. Tolkien comments in The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle (p. 64) that these vowels in fact should be short.


    730 (II: 339): As if his indomitable spirit
    730 (II: 339). indomitable - Impossible to overcome or subdue.
    730 (II: 339). firmament - 'The arch or vault of heaven overhead, in which the clouds and the stars appear; the sky or heavens. In modern use, poetical' (OED).
    730 (II: 339): Sam was left alone
    730 (II: 339). as the evening of the Nameless Land fell - Evidently another vestige of the earlier chronology of this episode, when Frodo and Sam escaped from Shelob's lair in the late afternoon rather than in the morning. The Nameless Land is Mordor.

    730 (II: 339): 'Master, dear master!'
    730 (II: 339). had stung him in the neck - Real spiders in fact do not have stings, but poison or paralyze their prey with a bite. Again, however, Tolkien does not say that Shelob is a spider, only that she is 'in spider-form' and 'most like a spider'.
    730 (II: 339-40): Then as quickly as he could
    730 (II: 340). chafed - Rubbed to restore warmth or feeling.
    730 (II: 340): 'Frodo, Mr. Frodo!'
    730 (II: 340). O wake up, Frodo, me dear, me dear. - In his distress, as he attempts to rouse Frodo, Sam forgets to address him formally, omitting 'Mr'. Helen Saunders in a letter to Anion Hen 57 (August 1982) points out that
    there is nothing embarrassing in Sam calling Frodo 'M'dear'. I think it highly possible that JRRT was called 'M'dear' during his family holidays in Cornwall. It used to be the recognised form of address, between almost anyone, irrespective of sex. Sometimes varied with 'My lover'. Sam's family was based on an old Cornishman named by JRRT Gaffer Gamgee. Gaffer Gamgee would probably address any member of the Tolkien family as 'M'dear'. [p. 21]
    731 (II: 340): Then anger surged over him
    731 (II: 340). suddenly he saw that he was in the picture that was revealed to him in the mirror of Galadriel - See note for p. 362.
    731 (II: 340). 'He's dead!' he said___And as he said it... it seemed to
    him that the hue of the face grew livid green. - As noted for p. 271, Tolkien commented in a letter to his son Christopher on 7-8 November 1944: 'in the last chapter of The Ring that I have yet written I hope you'll note, when you receive it ... that Frodo's face goes livid and convinces Sam that he's dead, just when Sam gives up hope1 (Letters, p. 101).


    731 (II: 340): When at last the blackness passed
    731 (II: 340). When at last the blackness passed - Tolkien intended that Sam should be unconscious of the world for a long time. In an early outline, when the attack on Frodo was to take place much later in the day, he wrote: 'Make Sam sit long by Frodo all through night' (The War of the Ring, p. 190). In the final chronology Frodo is struck down in the morning, and his unconscious body is found by ores in the late afternoon or evening.
    731 (II: 340): 'What shall I do, what shall I do?'
    731 (II: 340). And then he remembered his own voice speaking words that at the time he did not understand himself - On the morning after the hobbits spent the night with Gildor and the Elves, in Book I, Chapter 4.
    732 (II: 341): He looked on the bright point
    732 (II: 341). He looked on the bright point of the sword___'What am
    I to do then?'... see it through. - Sam contemplates revenge and suicide but, although his grief at Frodo's apparent death is as great, and probably greater, than Denethor's grief for Faramir in Book V, he sees that these would be useless actions. Instead, without hope, he makes the decision to assume Frodo's task. He will soon think that he made the wrong choice, but his reasoning is sound, and his actions will lead to the successful outcome of the Quest. Even if he had realized that Frodo was not dead, there was nowhere safe he could have taken him to wait until the effect of the sting wore off; if he had stayed beside him, both would have been captured and the Ring taken; and without the fight over Frodo's mithril coat which destroyed the garrison of Cirith Ungol, it is unlikely that they would have been able to pass the tower undetected. Sam's choice is perhaps a constructive expression of the Northern spirit of fighting against all odds until the last.
    733 (II: 342-3): As the sheer sides of the Cleft
    733 (II: 343). He fancied there was a glimmer on the ground - In The
    War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien speculates that this is a shadow of an earlier text in which Sam left the Phial of Galadriel clasped in Frodo's hand, and that its original meaning was that 'there was a faint shining from the Phial' (p. 214).
    735 (II: 344): 'Orders, you lubber'
    735 (II: 344)- lubber - 'A big, clumsy, stupid fellow; especially one who lives in idleness' (OED). Gorbag and Shagrat accuse each other of avoiding more active service.
    735 (II: 344). Shagrat - Tolkien deliberately invented Ore names with sounds which seem harsh and unpleasant to English ears or have unpleasant associations. Shag, for instance, has many meanings including


    'rough matted hair' and 'a low rascally fellow', while rat can mean 'vermin', 'a despicable person', 'one who deserts a cause', etc.
    735 (II: 344): 'Hai! Hola! Here's something!
    735 (II: 344). babel of baying voices - A babel is a confused noise of voices, derived from the biblical story in Genesis that at a time when all men spoke the same language they attempted to build a tower to reach the heavens, but God responded by confusing their language and scattering them over the earth.
    Baying is the sound made by dogs, especially used of hounds in a hunt.
    736 (II: 345): There was a wild clamour
    736 (II: 345). Ya hoi! Ya harri hoi! Up! Up! - In The Annotated Hobbit Douglas A. Anderson compares these words with the song of the goblins in The Hobbit, Chapter 6, as they dance around the trees in which Gandalf, Bilbo, and the dwarves have taken refuge: 'Ya heyl Ya-harri-hey! Ya hoy!':
    It may be that Tolkien intended the phrases to be Common Speech renderings of Orkish curses. In section I of Appendix F ('The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age') of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien wrote of the Ores: 'It is said that they had no language of their own, but took what they could of other tongues and perverted it to their own liking; yet they made only brutal jargons, scarcely sufficient even to their own needs, unless it were for curses and abuse.' [2nd edn., p. 152]
    736 (II: 345): Then a voice shouted
    736 (II: 345). Undergate - 'An underground entrance to [the] rear of the Tower of C[irith] U[ngol] reached by a passage from Torech Ungol' {Index).
    736 (II: 345-6): It no longer seemed very dark
    736 (II: 345). His weariness was growing but his will hardened all the more - An obvious echo of the Northern ethic as described in the Old English poem The Battle of Maldon: 'Hige sceal pe heardra, heorte pe cenre, / mod sceal pe mare pe ure maegen lytlaS', translated by Tolkien in The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son {Essays and Studies 1953 (i953)> P- 3) as 'Will shall be the sterner, heart the bolder, spirit the greater, as our strength lessens'.
    736 (II: 346). the swiftest way from the Dead City over the mountains
    - That is, from Minas Morgul. Considering the difficulty of the stairs, even apart from the need to watch out for Shelob, one would expect the longer route along the road that ran past Minas Morgul and up the cutting b} which Sam and Frodo escaped to be quicker; but Ores had longer legs than the hobbits.

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    Chapter 1 MINAS TIRITH

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 229-35, 255-65, 274-95.
    747 (III: 19): Pippin looked out from the shelter
    747 (III: 19). Pippin looked out - It is the night of 7/8 March 1419.
    747 (III: 19). Sleepily he tried to reckon the times and stages of their journey - In Tolkien's original scheme the Battle of the Pelennor Fields took place on 14 March. But when he came to write the story of Aragorn's journey from Helm's Deep to Minas Tirith, originally to be told wholly in retrospect after the battle, he found that more time was needed for that sequence than he had allowed. He considered that the 'Fellowship could be broken sooner giving 2 days (5) [i.e. presumably 5 days instead of 3] to Ffrodo and] S[am] in [the] Emyn Muil and moving [the] Hornburg etc. back 2 days. But this would throw all out of gear in rest [of] story. Best would be to make Pelennor later' (Marquette MSS 4/2/17). The Battle of the Pelennor Fields was thus moved to 15 March, and an extra day was added to Gandalf and Pippin's journey from Dol Baran to Minas Tirith: they still left Dol Baran late on 5 March, but arrived at Minas Tirith early on 9 March instead of 8 March. In Marquette MSS 4/2/17 Tolkien worked out 'Gandalf's ride' with meticulous attention to detail, although concomi­tantly the speed and endurance of Shadowfax became less remarkable:
    March 5:11.30 leaves Dolbaran [sic].
    March 6: 7.30 sights Edoras having ridden (with brief rest) at 16 mph. 136 miles.
    Rides on to Edoras (139 mi.).
    Stays there during day, resting Shadowfax and ordering things anew.
    Leaves Edoras with 294 miles to go to M[inas] Tfirith].
    [In the following, the first figure indicates the miles travelled in the period stated, and the second the total miles travelled during the ride:]

    Mar. 6 8 p.m. > 10 p. m. 32 32
    Mar. 7 midnight > 2 a.m. 32 64
    4 > 6 a.m. 32 96
    8 > 10 [p.m.] 32 128
    Mar. 8 mid [night] > 2 a.m. 32 passes into Anorien 160
    4 > 6 a.m. 32 192


    8 > 10 [p.m.] 32 224
    Mar. 9 mid[night] > 2 a.m. 32 256
    4 [>] 6.20 [a.m.] 38 294
    reaches Rammas Echor at 6.20
    Errand-riders reach DH [Dunharrow] at dark on 9th. When do they pass Gandalf?
    Episode of moon must be therefore in early hours of 8 [March] (5 a.m.) and the errand-riders would then be about 176 miles out from Gondor which they should reach [i.e. reach Dunharrow] by dark next day.
    Having worked out these details, Tolkien also emended or rewrote his original entries in Scheme for 6 and 7 March:
    March 6: Gandalf and Pippin sight Edoras at dawn (139 miles between 11.30 p.m. on 5 March and 7.30 a.m.) Remain at Edoras during day. Proceed at night, and ride [deleted: another 60 miles before 11.30 [p.m.] and then rest 199 [i.e. total miles from Dol Baran]] > on (with pauses) through night 6/7.
    March 7: Gfandalf] and Pippin [deleted: ride 69 miles and pass into Anorien and lie hid in foothills at 3 a.m. (10 miles over border). Go on again at 4 a.m. until 7 a.m. doing another 50 miles. Gandalf has then still 119 miles to go to reach wall of Rammas Echor. Rides on at 8 p.m. Pippin sees moon rise at 9 p.m. and about 9.20 the errand-riders of Gondor go by to Rohan and the beacons are kindled. G[andalf] now rides faster, and when he rests at 11 p.m. he is only 69 miles from the Pelennor] > 96 miles from Edoras rest and hide. Ride on at night.
    From 8 March the account of the ride (and other events) is continued on a new sheet but with the revised chronology ab initio:
    March 8: Pippin sees moon soon after midnight 7/8, and beacons in Anorien. Errand-riders of Gondor pass, 176 miles from Edoras. Gandalf halts 192 miles from Edoras.
    March 9: Gandalf rides through night and reaches Rammas Echor about 6.15 a.m.
    No hint of this careful division of the journey of Gandalf and Pippin into thirty-two-mile stretches, each taking two hours and with two-hour breaks in between, is suggested in the narrative, which mentions only halts during the day. The only alteration made to the text to indicate an extra day was the addition of the words on p. 748 (III: 20): Another day of hiding and a night of journey had fleeted by.'
    747 (III: 19): There had been the first ride
    747 (III: 19). the great empty house on the hill - Meduseld, empty because most of the inhabitants had withdrawn to safer places.

    747 (III: 19). the winged shadow... and Gandalf giving orders - Accord­ing to Scheme: 'Second Nazgul swoops over Edoras in morning and terrifies all men. Gandalf orders the Muster to remove up the Snowbourn valley to Dunharrow.'
    747 (III: 19). the third night since he looked in the Stone - Pippin looked in the palantir during the evening of 5 March; the three nights are 5/6, 6/ 7, and 7/8 March.
    747 (III: 19): A light kindled in the sky
    747 (III: 19). the moon was rising above the eastern shadows, now almost at the full. So the night was not yet old and for hours the dark journey would go on. - Here the narrative fits better with Tolkien's earlier time-scheme, when Pippin saw the moon at 9 p.m. In the revised scheme (not apparent in the text) he does not see the moon until after midnight, when it had become full. Some hours later, Frodo at Henneth Annun will see this moon setting over Gondor.
    747 (III: 19): 'In the realm of Gondor'
    747 (III: 19). Anorien - In Nomenclature (entry for Sunlending) Tolkien writes that Anorien was 'the name of the land immediately attached to Minas Anor (originally including that city and inhabited country as far as the River Erui). It is thus "heraldic" rather than climatic, and related to the heraldic names of Elendil's sons Andrion and Isildur, being the counterpart of Ithilien!

    747 (III: 19): For answer Gandalf cried aloud

    747 (III: 19). The beacons of Gondor are alight, calling for aid. - On
    reading this, almost every English man, woman, and child would immedi­ately think of the beacons lit in 1588 to warn of the approach of the Spanish Armada. Tolkien almost certainly knew Thomas Babington Macaulay's poem The Armada, which recounts the event:
    Till Belvoir's lordly terraces the sign to Lincoln sent, And Lincoln sped the message on o'er the wide vale of Trent; Till Skiddaw saw the fire that burned on Gaunt's embattled pile, And the red glare on Skiddaw roused the burghers of Carlisle.
    Beacons have long been used to signal warnings and to call for aid. In the eighth and ninth centuries, for instance, the news of a Saracen invasion on the Cilician frontier was flashed to Constantinople by eight beacon fires. Even earlier, Homer wrote in the Iliad: 'Thus, from some far-away beleaguered island, where all day long the men have fought a desperate battle from their city walls, the smoke goes up to heaven; but no sooner has the sun gone down than the light from the line of beacons blazes up and shoots into the sky to warn the neighbouring islanders and bring them to the rescue in their ships' (trans, by E.V. Rieu (1950), p. 342).


    747 (III: 19). Amon Din ... Eilenach; ... Nardol, Erelas, Min-Rimmon, Calenhad... Halifirien - In The Rivers and Beacon-hills ofGondor Tolkien says that
    the full beacon system, that was still operating in the War of the Ring, can have been no older than the settlement of the Rohirrim in Calenard-hon about 500 years before; for its principal function was to warn the Rohirrim that Gondor was in danger or (more rarely) the reverse. How old the names then used were cannot be said. The beacons were set on hills or on the high ends of ridges running out from the mountains, but some were not very notable objects. [Vinyar Tengwar 42 (July 2001), p. 18; partly published in Unfinished Tales, p. 315, n. 35]
    In the same essay, Tolkien discusses the situation of the beacons and their names. Amon Din (Sindarin 'silent hill')
    was perhaps the oldest, with the original function of a fortified outpost of Minas Tirith, from which its beacon could be seen, to keep watch over the passage into North Ithilien from Dagorlad and any attempt by enemies to cross the Anduin at or near Cair Andros. Why it was given this name is not recorded. Probably because it was distinctive, a rocky and barren hill standing out and isolated from the heavily wooded hills of the Driiadan Forest (Tawar-in-Druedain), little visited by men, beasts or birds. [Unfinished Tales, p. 319, n. 51]
    Eilenach (or Eilienach) is 'probably an alien name; not Sindarin, Niimenorean, or Common Speech. In true Sindarin eilen could only be derived from *elyen, *alyen, and would normally be written eilien' (Vinyar Tengwar 42, p. 19). That hill
    was the highest point of the Driiadan Forest. It could be seen far to the West, and its function in the days of the beacons was to transmit the warning of Amon Din; but it was not suitable for a large beacon-fire, there being little space on its sharp summit. Hence the name Nardol 'Fire-hilltop' [compare Sindarin naur 'fire'] of the next beacon west­ward; it was on the end of a high ridge, originally part of the Driiadan Forest, but long deprived of trees by masons and quarriers who came up the Stonewain Valley. Nardol was manned by a guard, who also protected the quarries; it was well-stored with fuel and at need a great blaze could be lit, visible on a clear night even as far as the last beacon (Halifirien) some hundred and twenty miles to the westward. The line of beacons from Nardol to Halifirien lay in a shallow curve bending a little southward, so that the three intervening beacons did not cut off the view. [Unfinished Tales, p. 319, n. 51; Vinyar Tengwar 42, p. 19]
    Erelas was a small beacon, as also was Calenhad. These were not always lit; their lighting as in The Lord of the Rings was a signal of great urgency. Erelas is Sindarin in style, but has no suitable meaning in that

    language. It was a green hill without trees, so that neither er- 'single' nor las(s) 'leaf seem applicable.
    Calenhad was similar but rather larger and higher. Calen was the usual word in Sindarin for 'green' (its older sense was 'bright', Q [uenya] kalina). -had appears to be for sad... seen in S[indarin] sad 'a limited area natur­ally or artificially defined, a place, spot', etc.... Calenhad would thus mean simply 'green space', applied to the turf-covered crown of the hill. But had may stand for S[indarin] -hadh.. . -hadh would then be for sadh (in isolated use sadh) 'sward, turf.... [Vinyar Tengwar 42, pp. 19-20]
    Min-Rimmon (Sindarin min 'peak') is a 'peak of the Rimmon (a group of crags)' {Index).
    In Nomenclature Tolkien notes that Firien represents 'an old word (Old English firgen, pronounced firien) for "mountain". Cf. Halifirien "holy-mount".' In The Rivers and Beacon-hills ofGondor he says more extensively about the name Halifirien that it is
    in the language of Rohan. It was a mountain with easy approach to its summit. Down its northern slopes grew the great wood called in Rohan the Firien Wood. This became dense in lower ground, westward along the Mering Stream and northwards out into the moist plain through which the Stream flowed into the Entwash. The great West Road passed through a long ride or clearing through the wood to avoid the wet land beyond its eaves. The name Halifirien (modernized in spelling for Haligfirgen) meant Holy Mountain. The older name in Sindarin had been Fornarthan 'North Beacon'; the wood had been called Eryn Fuir 'North Wood'. The reason for the Rohan name is not now known for certain. [Vinyar Tengwar 42, p. 20]
    Tolkien goes on in this work to develop the idea that the Rohirrim considered Halifirien holy because, according to their traditions, it was on the summit that Eorl and Cirion had sworn 'perpetual friendship and alliance' between Rohan and Gondor, and looking forth over the land had 'fixed the bounds' of the realm that Cirion granted to Eorl. Tolkien suggests that in the Oath Cirion may have invoked the One (Eru), which would have hallowed the place. He also mentions that it was recorded that on the top was an ancient monument, perhaps a tomb - and at that point the manuscript ceases. Christopher Tolkien suggests that 'these last words may well signify the precise moment at which the tomb of Elendil on Halifirien entered the history' (Vinyar Tengwar 42, pp. 20, 22). At this point Tolkien abandoned the essay and marked the part on Halifirien for deletion; its explanation, however, probably accords closely with what Tolkien had in mind while writing The Lord of the Rings.
    A later and more extensive account of Halifirien was published as part of Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan in Unfinished Tales, pp. 300 ff:

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    Chapter 2


    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 296-311, 397—9, 405—11, 416—17, 419-24, 427—9.
    773 (III: 46). Gandalf was gone - It is late on 5 March 1419. Aragorn and the others will ride through the night of 5/6 March.
    773 (III: 46): 'I cannot say yet'
    773 (III: 46). four nights from now - The night of 9/10 March. In Book V, Chapter 3, Theoden arrives at Dunharrow late on 9 March and expects the muster to take place on 10 March.
    773 (III: 46): 'Well, for myself'
    773 (III: 46). it is dark before me. I must go down also to Minas Tirith, but I do not yet see the road. - Aragorn is still uncertain (it is dark, i.e. not clear), but is probably also pondering GaladrieFs message in Book III, Chapter 5: 'But dark is the path appointed for thee: / The Dead watch the road that leads to the Sea' (p. 503, II: 106).
    773 (III: 46). an hour long prepared - Aragorn was twenty in Third Age 2951 (sixty-eight years before the present point in the story) when Elrond revealed to him his lineage. Aragorn went out into the wild, and spent the intervening years in becoming 'the most hardy of living Men, skilled in their crafts and lore' (Appendix A, p. 1060, III: 341), preparing himself to help lead the opposition to Sauron, and to reveal himself in Condor as the heir of Elendil.
    773 (III: 46): Soon all were ready to depart
    773 (III: 46). Soon all were ready to depart - Gandalf and Pippin left at 11.30 p.m. on 5 March (see note for p. 747). It is probably now about midnight, at the beginning of 6 March 1419.
    775 (III: 48): 'I bring word to you
    775 (III: 48). the Paths of the Dead - '([Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim), the road believed to lead under the Dwimorberg from the Dark Door to some end S[outh] of the [White] Mts., but guarded by the Unquiet Dead cursed by Isildur' (Index).


    775 (III: 48): 'It is a gift that I bring you
    775 (III: 48). the Lady of Rivendell - Arwen Undomiel, daughter of Elrond.
    775 (III: 48). Either our hope cotneth, or all hope's end. - This was the reading in all editions and printings until c. 1978, when in the standard Allen & Unwin edition 'hope's' was erroneously changed to 'hopes', possibly as a result of a repair to a printing plate, and in that form carried over into subsequent editions. The word was returned to its correct form in the edition of 2004. By chance, either form makes sense in context; but the sentence began in rough manuscript (Marquette Series 3/7/38): 'For either our hope cometh soon, or the end of all hope' Tolkien then emended the latter part, in the same manuscript, to 'all hope's end'.
    775 (III: 48). J send thee what I have made for thee. - The th- forms of second person singular pronouns (nominative thou, objective thee, possess­ive thine, thy) largely disappeared in standard English in the eighteenth century, though they are still to be encountered in dialects, in poetry, and in older works that continue to be quoted, such as the King James Bible. Also lost is the distinction Tolkien applies in some of his dialogue between high-born characters, in which th- forms are used between intimates -such as in the quoted phrase from Arwen to Aragorn - while ye, you, your are used formally. This developed in imitation of the French distinction between tu and vous, but in English was not always used consistently. See further, notes for pp. 852, 977.
    776 (III: 49-50): Legolas stood before the gate
    776 (III: 50). They have no need to ride to war; war already marches on their own lands. - According to The Tale of Years, on 15 March 'Thranduil repels the forces of Dol Guldur', and on 17 March 'Battle of Dale. King Brand and King Dain Ironfoot fall. Many Dwarves and Men take refuge in Erebor and are besieged.'
    777 (III: 50): For a while the three companions
    777 (III: 50). Dunlendings - People of Dunland; see note for p. 3. 777 (III: 50): 'I doubt it not,' said the king.
    777 (III: 50). sword-thain - Defined as 'esquire' in the 1966 Index. 777 (HI: 50-1): 'Gladly will I take it'
    777 (III: 50-1). Take your sword and bear it to good fortune - For
    comparison with Pippin's oath of allegiance before Denethor, see note foi PP- 755-6.


    778 (III: 51): The king with his guard
    778 (III: 51). weapontake - Here the word must mean 'muster of armed men'. Compare wapentake 'a division of certain English shires'. The Oxford-English Dictionary notes that in Old Norse the equivalent word meant '(1) a vote of consent expressed by waving or brandishing of weapons; (2) a vote or resolution of a deliberative assembly; (3) in Iceland the breaking up of a session of the Althing when the members resumed their weapons that had been laid aside during the sittings. In English there is no trace of these senses and the development of the actual sense can only be explained conjecturally.'
    777 (III: 51): A little apart the Rangers sat
    777 (III: 51). Roheryn - 'Horse of the lady', so called because it was a gift to Aragorn from Arwen {The Silmarillion, p. 363).
    777 (III: 51). a brooch of silver shaped like a rayed star - Presumably the insignia of the Diinedain or Rangers of Arnor, related to the seven stars of the emblem of Elendil. When Aragorn served in Gondor he was called 'Thorongil..., the Eagle of the Star, for he was swift and keen-eyed, and wore a silver star upon his cloak' (Appendix A, p. 1055, III: 335). Compare the 'Star of the Diinedain' which King Elessar presents to Samwise on the king's visit to the North in S.R. 1436 {The Tale of Years).
    778 (III: 51): The king mounted his horse
    778 (III: 51). Stybba - Compare Old English stybb 'stub, stump of a tree'.
    778 (III: 52): 'It is now a full hour past noon'
    778 (III: 52). Before the night of the third day from now we should come to the Hold. - It is now 6 March. The Tale of Years agrees with the narrative that Theoden will reach Dunharrow in the evening of 9 March.
    778 (III: 52). The Moon will then be two nights past his full - In editions prior to 2005 the final words in this passage read 'one night past his full'. But the full moon was on 7/8 March, and Theoden arrived at Dunharrow on the evening of 9/10 two nights later. Barbara Strachey notes this problem in Journeys ofFrodo, and the need for alteration accords with the discrep­ancies or shadows of earlier chronologies noted by Christopher Tolkien in The War of the Ring, p. 322.
    779 (III: 52): 'That road I will take
    779 (III: 52). in battle we may yet meet again, though all the hosts of Mordor should stand between - Aragorn, already shown to have prophetic wisdom, once again foreshadows events to come, in this case his reunion with Eomer on the Pelennor Fields in Book V, Chapter 6.


    780 (HI: 53): 'You forget to whom you speak
    780 (III: 53). What do you fear that I should say to him? Did I not openly proclaim my title before the doors of Edoras? - As first published this passage read: "What do you fear that I should say: that I had a rascal of a rebel dwarf here that I would gladly exchange for a serviceable ore?' Tolkien sent revised text to Ballantine Books for the second edition (1965), but in printing the order of the sentences was mistakenly reversed and a word was misspelt, thus: 'Did I not openly proclaim my title before the deson [sic] of Edoras? What do you fear that I should say to him?' The same order, but with correct 'doors', continued to appear until the Hough­ton Mifflin edition of 1987: then the order of the sentences was changed in accordance with Tolkien's wishes, though a new error was introduced ('What did you fear'). The emended passage was not completely correct until the HarperCollins edition of 1994.
    In his unpublished letter begun 22 September 1963 to Eileen Elgar, who apparently had criticized Aragorn's sharp retort as published in the first edition, Tolkien wrote that Gimli should have known better than to ques­tion the action and judgement of the greatest Captain of Men and a superior strategist. Gimli's remark was silly and impertinent; but although Aragorn at this point in the story was under great stress, his original reply was more grim humour than serious rebuke. Nonetheless, Tolkien softened Aragorn's words in the second edition.
    780 (III: 53). I am the lawful master of the stone___The strength was
    enough - barely. - In his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, Tolkien wrote that 'in the contest with the Palantir Aragorn was the rightful owner. Also the contest took place at a distance, and in a tale which allows the incarnation of great spirits in a physical and destructible form their power must be far greater when actually physically present' {Letters, p. 332). In Tolkien's notes on the palantiri written while preparing the second edition it is
    noted with regard to the narrative of The Lord of the Rings that over and above any such deputed authority, even hereditary, any 'heir of ElendiP (that is, a recognized descendant occupying a throne or lordship in the Numenorean realms by virtue of this descent) had the right to use any of the palantiri. Aragorn thus claimed the right to take the Orthanc-stone into his possession, since it was now, for the time being, without owner or warden; and also because he was de jure the rightful King of both Gondor and Arnor, and could, if he willed, for just cause withdraw all previous grants to himself. [Unfinished Tales, p. 409]
    780 (III: 53-4): He drew a deep breath
    780 (III: 53). The eyes in Orthanc did not see through the armour of Theoden, but Sauron has not forgotten Isildur - As first published these


    words read simply: 'But he has not forgotten Isildur'. They were emended in the second edition (1965).
    780 (III: 54): 'The hasty stroke goes oft astray"
    780 (HI: 54). a grave peril I saw coming unlooked-for from the South -
    It is now 6 March; Beregond (as emended, see notes for p. 765) says that news of the fleet reached Minas Tirith on the evening of 7 March.
    781 (III: 54): 'Thus spoke Malbeth the Seer
    781 (III: 54). Stone ofErech - 'Erech (pre-N[umenorean] name) a hill in South Gondor in Morthond Vale. ... On it was the great black Stone of Isildur' {Index). In 1966Index Tolkien notes that the latter was 'a tryst-stone (symbol of Isildur's overlordship)'.
    Tolkien wrote in his draft letter to Mr Rang, August 1967, of
    two cases where I was not, at the time of making use of them, aware of 'borrowing', but where it is probable, but by no means certain, that the names were nonetheless 'echoes'. Erech, the place where Isildur set the covenant-stone. This of course fits the style of the predominantly Sinda-rin nomenclature of Gondor (or it would not have been used), as it would do historically, even if it was, as it is now convenient to suppose, actually a pre-Numenorean name of long-forgotten meaning. Since naturally, as one interested in antiquity and notably the history of languages and 'writing', I knew and had read a good deal about Mesopo­tamia, I must have known Erech the name of that most ancient city. Nonetheless at the time of writing L.R. Book V chs. II and IX (originally a continuous narrative, but divided for obvious constructional reasons) and devising a legend to provide for the separation of Aragorn from Gandalf, and his disappearance and unexpected return, I was probably more influenced by the important element ER (in Elvish) = 'one, single, alone'. In any case the fact that Erech is a famous name is of no importance to The L.R. and no connexions in my mind or intention between Mesopotamia and the Numenoreans or their predecessors can be deduced. [Letters, p. 384]
    782 (III: 55): 'That we shall know
    782 (III: 55). the Men of the Mountains - In a note to the late Battles of the Fords of Isen it is said that 'the Dunlendings were a remnant of the peoples that had dwelt in the vales of the White Mountains in ages past. The Dead Men of Dunharrow were of their kin' (Unfinished Tales, p. 370).
    782 (III: 55): 'Then Isildur said to their king
    782 (III: 55). this curse I lay upon thee and thy folk: to rest never until your oath is fulfilled - The importance of oaths or promises, and the consequences of their fulfilment or of their breaking, is a recurring theme

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 231-67. 791 (III: 64): Now all roads were running together
    791 (III: 64). the King of Rohan came down out of the hills - It is the
    evening of 9 March 1419.
    791 (III: 64): All day far below them
    791 (III: 64). Snowbourn - In his unfinished index Tolkien notes that the Snowbourn is a 'river rising under Starkhorn and flowing out down Harrowdale and so past Edoras to join [the] Entwash in Fenmarch'. In Nomenclature he says that the name is a modernized form of 'the actual Rohan (i.e. Old English) snaw-burnd. Compare, in Modern English, bourn or bourne (Scottish burn) 'small stream or brook'.
    791 (III: 64). Starkhorn - In his unfinished index Tolkien describes the Starkhorn as a mountain of the Ered Nimrais at the head of Harrowdale. In Nomenclature its name is said to derive from Rohan, meaning 'a horn (peak) "standing up stiff like a spike".... To an English reader stark has now implications of nakedness and grimness (not originally present, but due to applications to rigor mortis in corpses, and to the expression stark-naked)....'
    791-2 (III: 64-5): He was very tired
    791 (III: 64). though they had ridden slowly - According to Scheme they had ridden 'slowly by hidden path in lower mountains. Doing only about 35 m[iles] p[er] day'.
    792 (III: 65): 'This journey is over, maybe'
    792 (III: 65). Two nights ago the moon was full - In printings prior to 2005 this read: 'Last night the moon was full'. But this is the evening of 9/10 March and the moon was full on 7/8 March. This is a shadow of an earlier chronology when Theoden arrived on the evening of 8 March. Christopher Tolkien notes the discord in The War of the Ring, p. 322.
    793 (III: 66): 'At dawn three days ago, lord'
    793 (HI: 66). three days ago - It is the evening of 9 March. Gandalf reached Edoras at dawn on 6 March.


    794 (III: 67): On all the level spaces
    794 (III: 67). a great concourse of men - Concourse 'a coming together, a gathering'.
    794 (III: 67): Merry wondered how many
    794 (III: 67). Pukel-men - Pukel-men is 'a Rohan name for the effigies of men of a vanished race. It represents Old English pucel (still surviving as puckle), one of the forms of the puk- stem (widespread in England, Wales, Ireland, Norway and Iceland) referring to a devil, or to a minor sprite, e.g. Puck, and often applied to ugly misshapen persons' (Nomenclature). When Merry sees the Wose, Ghan-buri-Ghan, in Book V, Chapter 5, he thinks that he is like one of the Pukel-men brought to life. Tolkien later wrote that the Pukel-men, or Druedain, ancestors of the Woses,
    occupied the White Mountains (on both sides) in the First Age. When the occupation of the coastlands by the Numenoreans began in the Second Age they survived in the mountains of the promontory [of Andrast], which was never occupied by the Numenoreans. Another remnant [Ghan-buri-Ghan's people] survived at the eastern end of the range [in Anorien]. At the end of the Third Age the latter, much reduced in numbers, were believed to be the only survivors; hence the other region was called 'the Old Pukel-wilderness' (Druwaith Iaur). [The Druedain in Unfinished Tales, p. 384]
    794-5 (HI: 67-8): At last the king's company
    794 (III: 67). Firienfeld - In Nomenclature (entry for Firien) Tolkien writes that the name Firienfeld denotes 'the flat upland of Dunharrow'. F'or firien, see note for p. 747 (Halifirien). The element -field is Old English 'field'.
    794 (III: 68). Irensaga - A name of Rohan (i.e. from Old English) which means' "iron-saw" with reference to its serrated ridge, crest' {Nomenclature).
    794 (III: 68). a double line of unshaped standing stones - For this Tolkien may have been inspired by lines (single or double) of uncarved or roughly shaped standing stones in several places in North-west Europe, notably Carnac in Brittany, the West Kennet Avenue near Avebury in Wiltshire, and at Callanash on the Isle of Lewis in the Hebrides.
    795 (III: 68): Such was the dark Dunharrow
    795 (III: 68). Such was the dark Dunharrow - The final conception of Dunharrow took a long time to emerge in Tolkien's mind, and as he explored various possibilities he made several drawings. See The War of the Ring, with illustrations as frontispiece and on pp. 239, 314, Sauron Defeated, pp. 136-7, with illustrations on pp. 140-1, and Artist and Illustra­tor, pp. 171-2 and figs. 165-6. Tolkien's finished drawing of Dunharrow


    (Artist and Illustrator, fig. 166) bears a remarkable resemblance to a photo­graph of Miirren, Switzerland seen by the authors.
    795 (III: 69): 'I do not know'
    795 (III: 69). he rode away yestermorn - It is late on 9 March. Aragorr left early on 8 March.
    797 (III: 70): 'No man knows'
    797 (III: 70). Baldor, son of Brego - See note for p. 787. Baldor is Old English 'prince, ruler', closely related to bald (beald) 'bold, brave'.
    798 (III: 71-2): A tall man entered
    798 (III: 72). In his hand he bore a single arrow, black-feathered and barbed with steel, but the point was painted red. - In A Tale of the House of the Wolfings by William Morris the Wolfings are summoned to war against the Romans in part by a messenger who carries 'the token of the war-arrow ragged and burnt and bloody' (Chapter 2).
    799-800 (III: 73): 'But we will speak no longer
    800 (III: 73). a week it may be from tomorrow's morn - Tomorrow will be 10 March; the Rohirrim will arrive at Minas Tirith at dawn on 15 March, two days less than Theoden's estimate. With the coming of the Great Darkness Theoden will decide that there is no need for hiding, and he and his forces can ride by the open road.
    800 (III: 73): 'A week!' said Hirgon 800 (III: 73). Swarthy Men - The Haradrim (1966 Index).
    800 (III: 73-4): He was wakened 800 (III: 73). He was wakened - It is 10 March 1419.
    803 (III: 76): On down the grey road
    803 (III: 76). Underharrow - 'Village on the Snowbourn beneath the cliff of the Hold' (Index). See also note for p. 518.
    803 (III: 76). Upbourn - 'Village on the Snowbourn a mile below Underharrow' (Index). In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that 'up- is used in English place-names for river-side villages far up the named river (as Upavon in Wilts. [Wiltshire]), especially in contrast to larger places near its mouth, as Upwey above Weymouth. This village was some way up the Snowbourn above Edoras, but not so far up as Underharrow! The 'proper Rohan form' is Upburnan.
    803 (III: 76-7). so without horn or harp ... - A recording by Tolkien from these words to the end of the following poem is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.


    803 (HI: 76-7): From dark Dunharrow in the dim morning
    803 (III: 76). Mark-wardens - Kings of the Mark.
    803 (III: 77). Five nights and days - According to Scheme: 'Theoden leaves Dunharrow in morn; reaches Edoras; leaves Edoras after midday.' He will arrive at Minas Tirith at dawn on 15 March.
    803 (III: 77). Folde and Fenmarch and the Firienwood - In Nomen­clature Tolkien writes that Folde is 'a Rohan name' which also occurs in Eastfold.
    This is Old English folde (Old Norse fold) 'earth, land, country', not connected either with the English verb fold, or with (sheep)fold. ...
    The Folde was the centre of the kingdom, in which the royal house and its kin had their dwellings; its boundary eastward was roughly a line S.W. [south-west] from the junction of the Snowbourn and Entwash to the mountains; the Eastfold was the land from that line east to the Fenmark between Entwash and the mountains; the Westfold was the similar land along the mountains as far as the R[iver] Isen. The defensive centre of the Folde and Eastfold was at Edoras; of Westfold at Helm's Deep.
    Fenmarch is also a 'Rohan name: the fenny (marshy) border-land about the Mering Stream ... forming the boundary of Rohan and Andrien. This should have been called Fenmark, but since appears in III 78 [2004 edn., p. 804; Book V, Chapter 3] and on the map to vol. Ill, I have retained it; the meaning of -mark, or the French form (of Germanic origin) marche is the same: boundary, border (land)' (Nomenclature).
    The Firienwood is the 'wood about and on the slopes of the Halifirien {Nomenclature, entry for Firien); see note for p. 747. Tolkien later wrote that Firien Wood is a 'modernized spelling' for Old English firgen-wudu (Unfinished Tales, p. 314, n. 33).
    803 (III: 77). Sunlending - 'A translation into the language of Rohan oi Andrien [see note for p. 747].... It only occurs in the verses .. . purport­ing to translate the minstrelsy of Rohan.... It might well be spelt (indeed more accurately) Sunnlending', Old English 'sun-land-people' (Nomen­clature).
    803 (III: 77). foe-beleaguered - Under siege.
    804 (III: 77): 'I received you for your safe-keeping'
    804 (III: 77). a hundred leagues and two to Mundburg - Three hundred and six miles. This agrees with the 294 miles of Gandalf's ride from Edoras to the Rammas Echor, plus the 4 leagues (12 miles) from the Rammas to Minas Tirith.


    804 (III: 77): Merry bowed and went away
    804 (III: 77). tightening their girths - A girth is 'a belt or band of leather or cloth, placed round the body of a horse ... and drawn tight, so as to secure a saddle, pack etc. upon its back' (OED).
    804 (III: 78): 'Do you not?'
    804 (III: 78). Dernhelm - A name derived from obsolete dern 'secret, hidden' + helm 'helmet'.
    804 (III: 78): Thus it came to pass
    804 (III: 78). Windfola - Old English 'Wind-foal'.
    804 (III: 78): On into the shadow they rode
    804 (III: 78). In the willow-thickets where Snowbourn flowed into Entwash, twelve leagues east of Edoras, they camped that night. - This seems to be out of their way: surely the Great West Road, shown promi­nently on the map of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor as running direct from Edoras to Minas Tirith, would have been the quickest route. According to Scheme they camp '30 miles east on way', compared with 36 miles ('twelve leagues') in the text.
    804 (III: 78). And then on again through the Folde - It is 11 March 1419.
    804-5 (HI: 78): And so King Theoden departed
    804 (III: 78). and mile by mile the long road wound away - According to Scheme:
    March 11: Theoden rides on and camps 110 miles east.
    March 12: Theoden rides on and camps under Minrimmon. Ents destroy ore-host on plains of Rohan and so save Rohirrim from flank-attack or destruction of Edoras behind them.
    March 13: Theoden camps beyond Eilenach in Driiadan Forest and interviews Wild Men at night.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 323-42.
    806 (III: 79): Pippin was roused by Gandalf 806 (III: 79). Pippin was roused - It is 10 March 1419.
    806 (III: 79): Before long he was walking
    806 (III: 79). Tower Hall - 'Hall of the White Tower, the great hall of the throne under the White Tower' (Index).
    806 (III: 79): 'I will, when I learn
    806 (III: 79). out-garrison - Those defending a position some distance from the main fortress. Also referred to as 'the out-companies'.
    808 (III: 81): It was the sunset-hour
    808 (III: 81). the great pall now stretched far into the West - It had
    already reached Dunharrow by dawn: it was dark when Merry woke on this same day.
    809 (III: 82): Reluctantly Pippin climbed
    809 (III: 82). five birdlike forms, horrible as carrion fowl yet greater than eagles - As first published, 'five birdlike forms' read 'huge birdlike forms'. The phrase was altered in the second edition (1965).
    More detail of the winged steeds of the Nazgul is given in Book V, Chapter 6 when that ridden by the Witch-king is seen at close quarters: 'it was a winged creature: if bird, then greater than all other birds, and its vast pinions were as webs of hide between horned fingers; and it stank. A creature of an older world maybe it was, whose kind, lingering in forgotten mountains cold beneath the Moon, outstayed their day...' (p. 840, III: 115). In a draft letter of 14 October 1958 to Rhona Beare, who had asked if the Witch-king rode a pterodactyl, Tolkien wrote:
    Yes and no. I did not intend the steed of the Witch-king to be what is now called a 'pterodactyl', and often is drawn (with rather less shadowy evidence than lies behind many monsters of the new and fascinating semi-scientific mythology of the 'Prehistoric'). But obviously it is ptero-dactylic and owes much to the new mythology, and its description even provides a sort of way in which it could be a last survivor of older geological eras. [Letters, p. 282]


    In a draft manuscript of Book V, Chapter 6 the Witch-king rides a beast like a 'huge vulture' (The War of the Ring, p. 365).

    811 (III: 84): So at length they came 811 (III: 84). brazier - A container for burning coals. 811 (III: 84): When Faramir had taken

    811 (III: 84). he sat upon a low chair at his father's left hand. Removed a little upon the other side sat Gandalf in a chair of carven wood
    - According to formal protocol, Gandalf sits on the more prestigious (right-hand) side of Denethor. Faramir's low chair indicates his relationship with his lord and father.
    811 (III: 84). ten days before - This is the evening of 10 March. Faramir had set out on 1 March, probably in the morning (The Tale of Years).
    812 (III: 85): 'I parted with them
    812 (III: 85). in the morning two days ago - On 8 March.
    812 (III: 85). accursed Tower - Minas Morgul.
    812 (III: 85). At swiftest they could not come there before today, and maybe they have not come there yet. - It must now be an hour or more past sunset in Minas Tirith. Frodo was at the Cross-roads at sunset and probably came to Morgul Vale at about this time. Brian Rosebury points out in Tolkien: A Cultural Phenomenon that Faramir's news provides Gandalf
    with the information about Frodo's progress necessary to guide his later strategy. His fear that Frodo may have perished or been captured in the valley of Minas Morgul, and Sauron already regained the Ring, is not less moving because we already know that ... it is both well-founded and ill-founded: Frodo has indeed been captured, but the Ring is in the possession of Sam, still at liberty, [p. 65]
    This news also will lead Gandalf and Aragorn to decide to assault the Morannon, rather than Minas Morgul, lest they draw Sauron's attention nearer to Frodo. Gandalf, as the bearer of Narya, would surely have known if Sauron had regained the Ring.
    812 (III: 85). It is clear to me that the Enemy has long planned an assault on us, and its hour had already been determined before ever the travellers left my keeping. - Sauron had indeed long been planning an assault, but moved his plans forward after Aragorn looked in the palantir on 6 March. See Gandalf's explanation, p. 815, III: 88-9.
    812 (HI: 85): 'Some twenty-five leagues
    812 (III: 85). Cair Andros - 'This name means "Ship of Long-foam"; for the isle was shaped like a great ship, with a high prow pointing


    north, against which the white foam of Anduin broke on sharp rocks' (Appendix A, p. 1054, III: 335, n. 1).
    812 (III: 85): '111?' cried Denethor
    812 (III: 85). '111?' cried Denethor, and his eyes flashed suddenly. -
    Tolkien now skilfully begins to depict the fraught relationship between Faramir and his father, and how Denethor's grief at the death of his favoured son, Boromir, has made him even harder on Faramir, though deep down he loves him too. In early drafts Denethor was less harsh in his dealings with Faramir, and it was Faramir, not Denethor, who urged the defence of Osgiliath and the forts. But Tolkien wrote in a note to himself:
    The early conversation of Faramir and his father and motives must be altered. Denethor must be harsh. He must say he did wish Boromir had been at Henneth Annun - for he would have been loyal to his father and brought him the Ring. ... Faramir grieved but patient. Then Denethor must be all for holding Osgiliath 'like Boromir did', while Faramir (and Gandalf?) are against it, using the arguments previously given to Denethor. At length in submission, but proudly, to please his father and show him that not only Boromir was brave [he] accepts the command at Osgiliath. Men in City do not like it.
    This will not only be truer to previous situation, but will explain Denethor's breaking up when Faramir is brought back dying, as it seems. [The War of the Ring, p. 333]
    812 (III: 86): 'My son, your father
    812 (III: 86). as was my wont - Wont 'custom, habit', here indicating 'as well as ever I could'.

    814 (III: 87): 'And where will other men look

    814 (HI: 87). 'And where will other men look for help, if Gondor falls? ... If I had this thing now in the deep vaults of this citadel, we should not then shake with dread - Again Denethor thinks only of Gondor, and does not imagine that anything could survive if Gondor falls, in contrast to Gandalf's broader point of view which encompasses 'other men and other lives'. Denethor also believes that he could resist the temptation of the Ring, but we will learn that he has succumbed to temptation by using the palantir, and Gandalf implies that Denethor would wish to use the Ring (the first person singular, if I had this thing, is telling), no less than had Boromir.
    815 (III: 88): Gandalf stood for a moment
    815 (HI: 88). some five days ago now he would discover that we had thrown down Saruman, and had taken the Stone - It is now the evening


    of 10 March; it was on the evening of 5 March that Pippin looked in the palantir. One Nazgul flew over Isengard soon afterward, and a second the next day.
    815 (III: 89): The next day came
    815 (III: 89). The next day came - It is 11 March.

    816 (III: 89): 'Yet, said Denethor

    816 (III: 89). we should not lightly abandon the outer defences, the Rammas made with so great a labour - In his unfinished index Tolkien says that the Rammas was built under Denethor's lordship, which would explain his reluctance to abandon it, though it surely enclosed too great an area to be adequately defended.
    816 (III: 90): 'Much must be risked in war'
    816 (III: 90). Cair Andros is manned - According to The Tale of Years an army which issued from the Morannon had taken Cair Andros the previous day and passed into Anorien. According to Scheme:
    March 10: Ore-host from Morannon with Easterlings assault Cair Andros after Faramir has gone. They cross into Anorien and march west at great speed.
    March 12: Easterlings pass the Pelennor and march west to waylay Rohirrim.
    March 13: Ores and Easterlings from Cair Andros camp near Amon Din [sic] to bar way of Rohirrim.
    817 (III: 90): 'Yes, he will come'
    817 (III: 90). At best the Red Arrow cannot have reached him more than two days ago - The Red Arrow reached Theoden late on 9 March.
    817 (III: 90): It was night again
    817 (III: 90). news came ... saying that a host had issued from Minas Morgul - This is the army that Frodo saw leaving Minas Morgul after sunset on 10 March. It is now late on 11 March.
    817 (III: 91): The next day
    817 (III: 91). The next day - It is 12 March.
    817 (III: 91). Causeway Forts - Two towers guarding the eastern gate in the Rammas Echor, four leagues distant from Minas Tirith, from which a causeway or raised road led over the flats to Osgiliath.
    818 (III: 91): The bells of day
    818 (III: 91). The bells of day - It is now 13 March 1419.



    818 (III: 91): 'They have taken the wall!'
    818 (III: 91). blasting breaches - Sauron, like Saruman, uses explosives, which is depicted as if evil sorcery. There is no indication that Gondor, or any other of the 'Free Peoples', has this technology.
    819 (III: 92): Pippin trembled
    819 (HI: 92). if words spoken of old be true, not by the hand of man shall he fall - In Third Age 1975 the Host of the West defeated the Witch-king of Angmar at the Battle of Fornost. Earnur, son of the King of Gondor, wished to pursue the Witch-king in his flight, but was restrained by Glorfindel who said of their foe: 'Far off yet is his doom, and not by the hand of man will he fall' (Appendix A, p. 1051, III: 332). Here Tolkien introduces the prophecy, to prepare the reader for the denouement in Book V, Chapter 6.
    819 (III: 92). Captain of Despair - The Witch-king, Lord of the Nazgul.
    820 (III: 93): The retreat became a rout
    820 (III: 93). rout - In this sense, a disorderly retreat by a defeated army.
    820 (III: 94): The Nazgul screeched
    820 (III: 94). taken at unawares in wild career - That is, taken by surprise as they attacked in a disorganized way.
    820 (III: 94). smote - Attacked.
    821 (III: 94): Last of all he came
    821 (III: 94). his kinsman - Faramir is the nephew of Prince Imrahil, son of his sister Finduilas, deceased wife of Denethor.
    821 (III: 94). the stricken field - The field of battle.
    821 (III: 94): Faramir! Faramir! 821 (III: 94). a deadly dart - An arrow.
    821 (III: 94-5): The Prince Imrahil brought
    821 (III: 95). saw a pale light that gleamed and flickered - Presumably Denethor is looking in the palantir of Minas Tirith. When Pippin looked in the Stone of Orthanc 'all the inside seemed on fire; the ball was spinning, or the lights within were revolving' (Book III, Chapter 11, p. 592, II: 197).
    821 (III: 95). And when Denethor descended again ... the face of the Lord was grey, more deathlike than his son's. - What did he see in the
    palantir to have this effect? Tom Shippey suggests in J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century (p. 172) that it may have been the capture of Frodo, since Denethor cannot have seen the fleet coming up the Anduin until 14 or

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 343-58.
    830 (III: 104): It was dark 830 (III: 104). It was dark - It is not long before dawn on 14 March 1419.
    830 (III: 104): He could not see them
    830 (III: 104). Druadan Forest - In editions prior to 2004 the name 'Druadan' was printed, here and in other instances, variously with and without the acute accent, but the accented form predominated, in one instance 'Druadan' was emended to 'Druadan' in the second edition (1965), and the accented form appears also in Unfinished Tales. All instances of the name were regularized to 'Druadan' for the latest text.
    In his unfinished index Tolkien defines D[ruadan] Forest as 'the woods between Eilenach and Din', and Druadan [sic] as 'firth or enclosure of the Druad {dru wild, untamed) ... a woodwose'. In Unfinished Tales Chris­topher Tolkien gives the Sindarin name of the forest as Tawar-in-Druedain (p. 319, n. 51).
    830 (III: 104): Tired as he was
    830 (III: 104). He had ridden now for four days on end - Presumably Tolkien is counting four calendar days from the riders' departure from Dunharrow or Edoras on 10 March to the present date, 14 March.
    831 (III: 105): 'Nay, nay,' said Elfhelm
    831 (III: 105). the Woses, the Wild Men of the Woods - In Nomenclature Tolkien says that Woses
    represents (modernized) the Rohan word for 'wild men of the woods'. It is not a purely invented word. The supposed genuine Rohan word was wasa, pi [ural] wasan, which if it had survived into modern English would be woses. It would have been better to call the 'wild men' woodwoses, for that actually occurs in Old English wudewasa glossing Jaunus, satyrus, savage men, evil creatures'. (This word survived into the Tudor period as woodoses (often corrupted to wood-houses), and survives in heraldry, since a woodhouse = 'a wild hairy man clad in leaves', common as a supporter to arms.) The wasa element meant originally a forlorn or abandoned person.... The origin of this idea was no doubt the actual existence of wild folk, remnants of former peoples driven out by invaders, or out­laws, living a debased and savage life in forests and mountains.


    Christopher Tolkien notes that 'the actual word employed by the Rohirrim (of which "wose" is a translation, according to the method employed throughout) is once mentioned: rog, plural rogin (Unfinished Tales, p. 387, n. 14). The term wodwos is met in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, translated by Tolkien in 1975 (p. 43) as 'wood-trolls'. See further, Tom Shippey, 'A Wose by Any Other Name . . .', Anton Hen 45 (July 1980).
    831 (III: 105). they use poisoned arrows - As have some peoples in our history, such as those natives of South America with arrows tipped with curare, an extract of Strychnos toxifera.
    831 (III: 105). they are woodcrafty beyond compare - Compare many so-called 'primitive' peoples in our history, who by living close to nature have greater tracking and hunting skills than are possessed by more 'civil­ized' cultures. Tolkien remarked in his lecture On Fairy-Stories that he had enjoyed tales of (North) American Indians as a child: 'there were bows and arrows ... and strange languages, and glimpses of an archaic mode of life, and above all, forests in such stories' (Tree and Leaf, pp. 39-40).
    831-2 (III: 105-6): Presently he came
    831 (III: 105-6). a strange squat shape of a man, gnarled as an old stone, and the hairs of his scanty beard straggled on his lumpy chin like dry moss. He was short-legged and fat-armed, thick and stumpy, and clad only with grass about his waist. - After writing The Lord of the Rings Tolkien introduced the Druedain into the stories of the First Age (see especially Unfinished Tales, pp. 380-7). He described the First Age ancestors of Ghan-buri-Ghan thus:
    To the eyes of Elves and other Men [than those of the Folk of Haleth] they were unlovely in looks: they were stumpy (some four foot high) but very broad, with heavy buttocks and short thick legs; their wide faces had deep-set eyes with heavy brows, and flat noses, and they grew no hair beneath their eyebrows, except in a few men (who were proud of the distinction) a small tail of black hair in the midst of the chin. Their features were usually impassive, the most mobile being their wide mouths; and the movement of their wary eyes could not be observed save from close at hand, for they were so black that the pupils could not be distinguished, but in anger they glowed red. Their voices were deep and guttural, but their laughter was a surprise: it was rich and rolling, and set all who heard it, Elves or Men, laughing too for its pure merriment untainted by scorn or malice. In peace they often laughed at work or play when other Men might sing. But they could be relentless enemies, and when once aroused their red wrath was slow to cool, though it showed no sign save the light in their eyes; for they fought in silence and did not exult in victory, not even over Ores, the only creatures for whom their hatred was implacable.

    The Eldar called them Driiedain, admitting them to the rank of Atani [Men who were friends of the Elves], for they were much loved while they lasted. Alas! they were not long-lived, and were ever few in number, and their losses were heavy in their feud with the Ores, who returned their hatred and delighted to capture them and torture them. When the victories of Morgoth destroyed all the realms and strongholds of Elves and Men in Beleriand, it is said that they had dwindled to a few families.. . .
    They had a marvellous skill as trackers of all living creatures . . . for the Driiedain used their scent, like hounds, save that they were also keen-eyed. They boasted that they could smell an Ore to windward further away than other Men could see them, and they could follow its scent for weeks except through running water. Their knowledge of all growing things was almost equal to that of the Elves (though untaught by them); and it is said that if they removed to a new country they knew within a short time all things that grew there, great or minute, and gave names to those that were new to them, discerning those that were poisonous, or useful as food. [The Driiedain in Unfinished Tales, PP- 377-8]
    In an isolated note it is said that most of the Driiedain 'remained in the White Mountains, in spite of their persecution by later-arrived Men, who had relapsed into the service of the Dark' {Unfinished Tales, p. 383).
    832 (III: 106). suddenly he remembered the Pukel-men of Dunharrow. Here was one of those old images brought to life, or maybe a creature descended in true line through endless years from the models used by the forgotten craftsmen long ago. - In Beleriand during the First Age the Driiedain 'showed great talent for carving in wood or stone .. . they delighted in carving figures of men and beasts, whether toys and ornaments or large images, to which the most skilled among them could give vivid semblance of life.... They made also images of themselves and placed them at the entrances to tracks or at turnings of woodland paths. These they called "watch-stones'" (Unfinished Tales, p. 379).
    832 (III: 106): There was a silence
    832 (III: 106). guttural - Producing sounds in the throat.
    832 (III: 106): 'No, father of Horse-men'
    832 (III: 106). gorgun - Ores. Gorgun is the only word of the language of the Woses given in The Lord of the Rings.
    832 (III: 106). Stone-houses - cDrii[edain] name == Gondor, also Stone-City' (Index).


    832 (III: 106): 'Bring news,' said the Wild Man
    832 (III: 106). Stone-city is shut. Fire burns there outside; now inside
    too. - This seems to occur near dawn on 14 March. The previous chapter suggests that there were no fires inside the city until daylight.
    832 (III: 106): The old man's flat face
    832 (III: 106). I count many things.... You have a score of scores counted ten times and five. - Ghan-buri-Ghan seems able to count both accurately and in quantities that many would find difficult. A score of scores counted ten times and five is 20 x 20 x (10 + 5) = 6,000, the 'six thousand spears to Sunlending' recorded in the poem in Book V, Chapter 3.
    832 (III: 106-7): 'Let Ghan-buri-Ghan finish!'
    832 (III: 106-7). They went through Druadan to Rimmon with great
    wains. They go no longer, the Road is forgotten-----Over hill and
    behind hill it lies still under grass and tree, there behind Rimmon and down to Din, and back at the end to Horse-men's road. - In The Lord of the Rings the beacon nearest Minas Tirith is Amon Din, and then moving west, Eilenach (near which the Rohirrim are encamped in Druadan Forest), Nardol, Erelas, and Min-Rimmon. In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien notes that originally the order of the first three beacons from Minas Tirith was Amon Din, Min Rimmon, and Eilenach. In an early draft the Rohirrim are bivouacked in the forest of Taur-rimmon, out of which rises the hill of Min Rimmon, and Ghan-buri-Ghan says that the men of Gondor 'went to Eilenach with great wains.... Long road runs still under trees and grass behind Rimmon down to Din' (p. 351). In the first complete text
    the Rohirrim are still camped in 'Taur-rimmon Forest' from which rises Min Rimmon beacon. Ghan-buri-Ghan tells of the wains that went to Eilenach passing 'through Rimmon', where he clearly means 'the forest of Rimmon'; and he speaks as in the draft of the lost road that lies 'there behind Rimmon and down to Din'. Changes made to the manuscript in these passages produced the text of RK [The Return of the King] ... but this development is rather puzzling. The host [of Rohan] now lies in the Druadan Forest out of which rises Eilenach beacon; and Ghan-buri-Ghan now says that the wains went 'through Druadan to Rimmon'; but his words about the old road remain unchanged from the draft, 'there behind Rimmon and down to Din'. If we suppose that after the order of the beacons had been changed the ancient wain-road went all the way to Min Rimmon (and the change of 'They went through Rimmon to Eilenach' to 'They went through Druadan to Rimmon' was not casually made: my father wrote Rimmon twice and twice crossed it out before finally settling on this name), it nonetheless seems strange that Ghan-buri-Ghan, in the Druadan Forest, should say 'there behind Rim-


    mon', since Min Rimmon was now the third beacon, not the sixth, and some seventy-five miles to the west of Eilenach. [pp. 351-2]
    It is possible, given Tolkien's deliberation over Rimmon, that he did indeed intend to extend the road considerably further west, in which case 'there behind Rimmon' should probably be 'there behind Eilenach'. But it is more likely that both instances of Rimmon are in error. On the large-scale map of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor the road through the Valley seems to reach only as far as Nardol; and it may be significant that in his late Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor Tolkien says that Nardol 'was on the end of a high ridge, originally part of the Druadan Forest, but long deprived of trees by masons and quarriers who came up the Stonewain Valley. Nardol was manned by a guard who also protected the quarries' (Unfinished Tales, p. 319, n. 51). If the latter was the case, then the text of The Lord of the Rings should probably read 'through Druadan to Nardol... there behind Eilenach'. But since Tolkien's intent is not clear, it seemed best to leave the text unaltered in the revised edition of 2004.
    833 (III: 107): 'Dead men are not friends
    833 (III: 107). leave Wild Men alone in the woods and do not hunt them like beasts any more - In a late scrap of writing Tolkien says that
    in Rohan the identity of the statues of Dunharrow called 'Pukel-men' with the 'Wild Men' of the Druadan Forest was not recognized, neither was their 'humanity': hence the reference by Ghan-buri-Ghan to per­secution of the 'Wild Men' by the Rohirrim in the past. ... Since Ghan-buri-Ghan was attempting to use the Common Speech he called his people 'Wild Men' (not without irony); but this was not of course their own name for themselves. [Unfinished Tales, p. 384]
    833 (III: 107): 'Wild Men go quick on feet'
    833 (III: 107). Stonewain Valley- 'The Common Speech name of the long narrow defile along which the wains (sleds or drays) passed to and fro from the stone-quarries' (Nomenclature). In his unfinished index Tolkien says that the name is a 'translation of Imrath GondraiiH, and notes Imrath as 'a long narrow valley with road or water course running ?lengthwise'.
    835 (III: 109): 'Then since we must look for fell deeds
    835-8 (III: 109-13). Then since we must look for fell deeds... - A
    recording by Tolkien from these words to the end of die chapter is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    835 (III: 109). fell deeds - Here Tolkien uses fell in yet another sense, 'fierce, ruthless'.

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    Chapter 6
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 365-73.
    839 (III: 114): But it was no orc-chieftain
    839 (III: 114). the darkness was breaking too soon - It is dawn on 15 March 1419. The wind from the south is blowing away the darkness thai flowed out of Mordor, and speeding the Haradrim ships captured by Aragorn up the Anduin. Some readers have speculated that this is due to the unseen intervention of Manwe, chief of the Valar, whose province is the winds and breezes and regions of the air; see also notes for pp. 868; 920, 949-
    839 (III: 114): Theoden King of the Mark
    jy \ hi &
    839 (III: 114). black serpent upon scarlet - The serpent is a traditional emblem of evil, a sense emphasized by the colour black.
    o /TTT \ TU TU' J
    839 (III: 114): Then Theoden was aware
    839 (III: 114). long spears and bitter - That is, the spears are long and bitter 'sharp, keen, cutting'.
    839 (III: 114). shivered - Broken, shattered.
    840 (III: 115): The great shadow descended
    840 (III: 115). its vast pinions were as webs of hide between horned fingers - Pinions here must indicate the entire wings of the creature, apparently similar to those of a bat in which 'the hand is formed into a wing with a membrane of skin extending between the hand bones to the forearm, side of body and hind leg' (W.H. Burt and R.P. Grosseneheider A Field Guide to the Mammals (1952), p. 14).
    840 (III: 115). A creature of an older world maybe it was - See note for p. 809.
    840 (III: 115). nursed it with fell meats - This recalls Morgoth in the First Age who, knowing that it was decreed that the hound Huan could be killed only by the mightiest wolf ever to live, chose a young whelp 'and fed him with his own hand upon living flesh, and put his power upon him. Swiftly the wolf grew, until he could creep into no den, but lay huge and hungry before the feet of Morgoth. There the fire and anguish of hell entered into


    him, and he became filled with a devouring spirit, tormented, terrible, and strong. Carcharoth, the Red Maw. ..' (The Silmarillion, p. 180).
    840 (III: 115): Upon it sat a shape
    840 (III: 115). mace - A heavy club with a spiked metal head.
    840 (III: 115): But Theoden was not utterly forsaken
    840 (III: 115). Merry crawled on all fours - Theoden's charge has been described in heroic language by the narrator, viewing the entire battlefield, but we see the encounter between Eowyn and the Witch-king through Merry's eyes. Merry's horror at the scene contrasts with Eowyn's bravery and strength of mind.
    841 (III: 116): 'Begone, foul dwimmerlaik
    841 (III: 116). dwimmerlaik - In the 1966 Index Tolkien says that dwimmer­laik in the language of Rohan means 'work of necromancy, spectre'. It is derived from Middle English dweomer, Old English (ge)dwimor, -er 'illusion, phantom' + Middle English -layk, -laik 'play'. Compare obsolete demerlayk (or dweomerlak, etc.) 'magic, practice of occult art' (OED), and see also The War of the Ring, p. 372, n. 2. The OED notes also under -laik that 'occasionally the suffix representing Old English -lac was in northern or north Midland texts written -laik, so that it became coin­cident in form with the Scandinavian suffix [Old Norse -leikr], e.g. in dwimerlaik'.
    841 (III: 116): 'Hinder me? Thou fool
    841 (III: 116). No living man may hinder me - The prophecy by Glorfindel (see note for p. 819) recalls one of those made to Macbeth in Shakespeare's play (Act IV, Scene 1), that 'none of woman born' shall harm him. In both cases the wording is deceptive. Macbeth is killed by Macduff, who was 'from his mother's womb / Untimely ripped' (Act V, Scene 8), while the Lord of the Nazgul will be destroyed by Eowyn, who is of humankind but not male, and by Merry who is male but, strictly speaking, a Hobbit and not a Man. In draft texts it was foretold first that the Witch-king would be overthrown 'by one young and gallant' (i.e. not by Gandalf), then that he would be slain not by 'men of war or wisdom' but 'by one who has slain no living thing' (The War of the Ring, pp. 326, 334-5). The latter, at least, would be unlikely on a busy field of battle, and a less satisfying denouement than that Tolkien finally devised.
    Readers have debated, inevitably to no firm conclusion, whether Eowyn or Merry killed the Witch-king. Some have held that Merry plays the greater part, because of the remark that 'no other blade, not though mightier hands had wielded it, would have dealt that foe a wound so bitter, cleaving the undead flesh, breaking the spell that knit his unseen sinews to his will' (Book V, Chapter 6, p. 844, III: 120). Writing in Beyond Bree


    for October 1990, Nancy Martsch says that she took this passage to mean 'that Merry was able to hamstring the Witch-king and Eowyn was able to finish him off with a thrust to the throat. Perhaps an enchanted blade could do greater damage' (p. 6). Later, in Beyond Bree for February 1992, in light of draft texts for The Lord of the Rings, she concludes that the larger question of credit for the Witch-king's death is best summed up in Gandalf's words in the fair copy manuscript: 'Not by the hand of man was the Lord of the Nazgul doomed to fall, and in that doom placed his trust. But he was felled by a woman and with the aid of a halfling' (The War of the Ring, p. 390).
    841 (III: 116): The winged creature screamed
    841 (III: 116). she whom he had called Dernhehn. But the helm of her secrecy had fallen from her, and her bright hair, released from its bonds
    - Dernhelm means literally 'helm of secrecy', that with which Eowyn

    concealed her hair and identity.
    842 (III: 117): Still she did not blench
    842 (III: 117). blench - Flinch, shrink, give way.

    842 (III: 117): 'Eowyn! Eowyn!' cried Merry
    842 (III: 117). and was never heard again in that age of this world -
    Surely Tolkien is being merely rhetorical, and not suggesting that the Lord of the Nazgul would return in a later age. Ten days later, the Ring that had extended the Witch-king's life will lose all power when the One is destroyed.
    842 (III: 117): And there stood Meriadoc
    842 (III: 117). he looked on the face of the king, fallen in the midst of his glory. For Snowmane in his agony had roiled away from him again; yet he was the bane of his master. - In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey suggests that 'on a larger scale the Battle of the Pelennor Fields closely follows the account, in Jordanes' Gothic History, of the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, in which also the civilisation of the West was preserved from the "Easterlings", and in which the Gothic king Theodorid was trampled by his own victorious cavalry with much the same mixture of grief and glory as Tolkien's Theoden' (2nd edn., p. 14).
    843 (III: 118): New forces of the enemy
    843 (III: 118). footmen - Foot soldiers, infantry.
    843-4 (HI: 119): But Eomer said to them
    843 (III: 119). meet was his ending - That is, he died in a way that was worthy, fitting.


    844 (III: 119): And still Meriadoc the hobbit
    844 (III: 119). there lay his weapon, but the blade was smoking like a dry branch that has been thrust in a fire; and as he watched it writhed and withered and was consumed. - Compare Aragorn's statement in Book I, Chapter 12, of Frodo's sword: 'all blades perish that pierce that dreadful King' (p. 198,1: 210). See further, note for p. 198.
    844 (III: 119-20): So passed the sword
    844 (III: 119-20). But glad would he have been to know its fate who wrought it slowly long ago in the North-kingdom when the Dunedain were young, and chief among their foes was the dread realm of Angmar and its sorcerer king. No other blade, not though mightier hands had wielded it, would have dealt that foe a wound so bitter, cleaving the undead flesh, breaking the spell that knit his unseen sinews to his will. - On 18 April and 6 May 1963 Tolkien wrote to Anneke C. Kloos-Adriaansen and P. Kloos that the incidents of the Witch-king's knife in Book I, Chapter 12, and of Merry's sword in the present chapter
    were intended to be integrated with the entire mytho-historical back­ground, events in an agelong war. Frodo received his wound from the Witchking under Weathertop, the bulwark of the ancient fortified line made by the Numenoreans against his kingdom; Meriadoc's dagger was taken from the gravemounds of the same people. It was made by smiths who knew all about Sauron and his servants, and made in prophetic vision or hope of ending just as it did. [spellings sic; courtesy of Christopher Tolkien]
    845 (HI: 120): Men now raised the king
    845 (III: 120). Snowmane's Howe - A howe is an artificial mound, a barrow or burial mound.
    845 (III: 120): Now slowly and sadly
    845 (III: 120). A great rain came out of the Sea, and it seemed that all things wept for Theoden and Eowyn, quenching the fires in the City with grey tears. - In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien describes this passage as 'recalling the grief for Baldr', one of the Norse gods (p. 369). According to Norse legend, when Baldr was killed Hel agreed to release him 'if all things in the world, alive and dead, weep for him', and 'all did this, the people and animals and the earth and the stones and trees and every metal, just as you will have seen that these things weep when they come out of frost and into heat' (Snorri Sturluson, Edda, trans, by Anthony Faulkes (1995), pp. 50-1).
    845 (III: 121): Then the prince seeing her beauty
    845 (III: 121). leeches - Healers, physicians; see note for p. 519.


    845 (III: 121). the bright-burnished vambrace - Highly polished armour for the forearm.
    845 (III: 121). a little mist was laid on it - This is one of several similarities to King Lear which Michael D.C. Drout ('Tolkien's Prose Style and its Literary and Rhetorical Effects', Tolkien Studies 1 (2004)) finds in this part of The Lord of the Rings. In Act V, Scene 3 of Shakespeare's play, Lear, hoping that Cordelia is not dead, says: 'Lend me a looking glass / If that her breath will mist or stain the stone, / Why, then she lives.'
    845-6 (III: 121): And now the fighting
    846 (III: 121). Hiirin the Tall - The same name was earlier borne by one of the great heroes of the First Age: see note for pp. 270-1.
    o * ^TTT ^ XT * t tU • -A
    846 (III: 121): Not too soon came their aid
    846 (III: 121). But wherever the mutnakil came there the horses would not go, but blenched and swerved away - In Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs Adrienne Mayor comments that in the Hellenistic era
    elephants were carefully trained from birth [for use in war] by the traditional suppliers in India and they were very effective, especially against men and horses who had never set eyes on such creatures before. Elephants ... were fitted with coats of armor and iron tusk covers, and carried crenellated 'castles' with archers on top. An elephant could charge at fifteen miles per hour (but at that momentum, it had difficulty coming to a halt). The stampeding animals could plow through tight phalanxes of men, crushing them or causing them to scatter to avoid being trampled.
    The Romans were first introduced to war elephants when Pyrrhus of Epirus invaded Italy in 280 BC with Indian war elephants. The 'bulk and uncommon appearance' of Pyrrhus's twenty pachyderms, each one carrying a tower with one or two men with bows and javelins, undid the Romans, and their terrified cavalry horses refused to face the beasts. In the panic, many Roman soldiers were impaled by the elephants' tusks and crushed under their feet. [pp. 194-5]
    846 (III: 121). Gothmog the lieutenant of Morgul - Christopher Tolkien notes that 'the name Gothmog is one of the original names of the tradition, going back to The Book of Lost Tales; Lord of Balrogs, slayer of Feanor and Fingon', himself slain in the assault on Gondolin (The War of the Ring, p. 372, n. 9). Readers' suggestions that the later Gothmog was a Nazgul or a Black Numenorean are no more than speculation, in the absence of further details by Tolkien.
    It is not clear if lieutenant here means the second-in-command of Minas Morgul or, more likely, second-in-command to the Witch-king, who is sometimes called the Morgul-lord.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 374-82.
    851-2 (III: 128): Even as Gandalf and Pippin
    852 (III: 128). Slay me this renegade - A renegade is 'one who deserts a party, person, or principle, in favour of another; a turn-coat' (OED).
    The order of Denethor's words (rather than 'Slay this renegade for me') is another example of archaism used by Tolkien for dramatic effect; see note for p. 518.
    852 (III: 129): 'What is this, my lord?'
    852 (HI: 129). Hallows - 'A Common Speech translation ... of the Gondor name (not given) for the Sacred Places of the tombs' (Nomenclature).
    852 (III: 129): 'Since when has the Lord of Gondor
    852 (III: 129). answerable to thee - Compare also p. 853, III: 129 ('Didst thou think that the eyes of the White Tower were blind? Nay, I have seen more than thou knowest, Grey Fool. For thy hope is but ignorance.'), etc., in which Denethor addresses Gandalf with thee, thou, thy. In an isolated note related to work on Appendix F Tolkien wrote:
    Where thou, thee, thy appears it is used mainly to mark a use of the familiar form where that was not usual. For instance its use by Denethor in his last madness to Gandalf, and by the Messenger of Sauron [Book V, Chapter 10], was in both cases intended to be contemptuous. But elsewhere it is occasionally used to indicate a deliberate change to a form of affection or endearment. [ The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 68]
    (See note for p. 775.) Christopher Tolkien notes that 'in Denethor's speeches to Gandalf there are some occurrences of "you" that were not corrected' {The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 68); see further, final note for p. 853.
    853 (III: 129): 'Authority is not given
    853 (III: 129). Authority is not given to you, Steward of Gondor - As
    first published this passage read: 'Authority is not given to you, nor to any other lord'. It was revised in the second edition (1965). The change was made possibly because it was realized that in The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen Aragorn, as a descendant of the kings of Numenor, did choose the hour of his death, though he did not slay himself, but fell asleep.


    853 (III: 129). only the heathen kings, under the domination of the Dark Power, did thus, slaying themselves in pride and despair, murdering their kin to ease their own death - Alexei Kondratiev has pointed out that
    Tolkien's view of suicide as presented in this chapter is different from that of the source cultures he was drawing from (Anglo-Saxon, for instance), in which suicide was an honorable way out for a man who, like Denethor, had lost everything he most cared for. While the trap­pings of Middle-earth come from pagan cultures, Christian elements enter in when you come to ethical structures. Gandalf, certainly the voice of the author here (among other things) tells Denethor that 'authority is not given to you to order the hour of your death'. [Romenna Meeting Report, 26 October 1986, p. 1]
    Suicide is regarded as a sin by many Christians, notably by Roman Cath­olics like Tolkien. During this same discussion it was also observed that 'Denethor's sin, in Christian terms, is despair, the denial of hope, and that if he wanted to die, what he should have done was gone out on the battlefield to fight to the death' (p. 1).
    In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey comments that
    'heathen' of course is a word used normally only by Christians and so out of place in Middle-earth. In Appendix © to his British Academy lecture [Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics] Tolkien had remarked on the one place where the Beowulf-poet used this word of men, thinking it a mistake or an interpolation. By the 1950s he may have changed his mind, accepting stronger Christian and anti-heroic elements in Beowulf, Maldon and his own fiction. [2nd edn., p. 316, n. 14]
    If asked about the word heathen in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien might have replied that he was only 'translating', and had used the most suitable word available. What he meant by heathen was someone who did not recognize Eru, and especially anyone who worshipped Morgoth or Sauron: see notes for pp. 267 and 676.
    Examples in our history of leaders slaying themselves in defeat rather than face capture and ignominy include Hannibal, Brutus, and Cleopatra, and contemporary with Tolkien, leaders of Nazi Germany who murdered their own children before committing suicide as the Russian army closed on Berlin. Archaeology meanwhile has revealed many instances of burials of important persons which also contain the bodies of those deliberately killed to accompany the primary occupant, e.g. the Royal Tombs of Ur (c. 2750 BC). It is generally thought that those so slain were servants and concubines who (it was believed) would continue to serve their master in the afterlife.
    853 (III: 129). throes - Intense struggle, agony of mind. Denethor hesitates before rejecting the last chance offered him by Gandalf.

    853 (III: 129): Then suddenly Denethor laughed
    853 (III: 129). and lo! he had between his hands a palantir - In Tolkien's writings on the palantiri it is said that the last kings of Gondor, and then the Stewards, realized that the Ithil-stone had probably fallen into Sauron's hands when Minas Ithil was captured in Third Age 2002. But
    the Stone would be of little use to him for the damage of Gondor, unless it made contact with another Stone that was in accord with it. It was for this reason, it may be supposed, that the Anor-stone, about which all the records of the Stewards are silent until the War of the Ring, was kept a closely-guarded secret, accessible only to the Ruling Stewards and never by them used (it seems) until Denethor II. [Palan­tiri: Unfinished Tales, p. 403]
    853 (III: 129): 'Pride and despair!'
    853 (III: 129). I have seen more than thou knowest-----For a little space
    you may triumph on the field, for a day. But against the Power that now arises there is no victory. To this City only the first finger of his hand has yet been stretched. All the East is moving. And even now the wind of thy hope cheats thee and wafts up Anduin a fleet with black sails. - Denethor must have looked in the palantir again since 13 August. It is now 15 August, and it was not until after midnight, early on 15 August, that the wind began to blow and the black fleet was able to make sail. In draft texts Denethor knew that Aragorn was leading the fleet and would seek to displace him as ruler of Gondor, but Tolkien rejected this idea (see further, note for p. 855). The fact that Denethor does not taunt Gandalf with Sauron having captured the Ring seems to confirm that his earlier statement to this effect was only a surmise (see note for p. 821). It is clearly the sight of the vast forces of Sauron, which Gondor cannot hope to overcome, which has led him to despair.
    853 (III: 129-30): 'Hope on then!'
    853 (III: 129). Do I not know that this halfling was commanded by thee to keep silence? That he was brought hither to be a spy within my very chamber? - Prior to the edition of 2004 these sentences read: 'Do I not know that you commanded this halfling here to keep silence? That you brought him hither to be a spy within my very chamber?' In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien comments:
    When writing a very rapid draft my father would move from 'thou' to 'you' in the same speech, but his intention from the first was certainly that in this scene Denethor should 'thou' Gandalf, while Gandalf should use 'you'. In one passage confusion between 'thou' and 'you' remains in [The Return of the King]. ... In the fair copy manuscript my father wrote: 'Do I not know that you commanded this halfling here to


    keep silence?'; subsequently he changed 'y°u commanded' to 'thou commandedst', but presumably because he disliked this form he changed the sentence to 'Do I not know that this halfiing was com­manded by thee ...' At the same time he added the sentence 'That you brought him hither to be a spy within my very chamber?' changing it immediately and for the same reason to 'That he was brought hither ...' For some reason the 'you' constructions reappeared in the first type­script and so remained, [p. 382, n. 4]
    853-4 (III: 130): 'But I say to thee, Gandalf
    854 (III: 130). I will not step down to be the dotard chamberlain of an upstart. - That is, 'I will not yield rule to be the weak (or senile) attendant (steward, subordinate) of one who has newly risen to importance'.
    854 (III: 130). Even were his claim proved to me, still he comes but of the line of Isildur. I will not bow to such a one, last of a ragged house long bereft of lordship and dignity. - Denethor pays lip-service to being a Steward, as when he told Boromir that in Gondor no length of time would suffice to make a steward a king; but when the possibility of not wielding royal power arises, he refuses to accept a subordinate position.
    854 (III: 130): 'I would have things
    854 (III: 130). longfathers - Forefathers, ancestors.
    854 (III: 131): 'Come hither!' he cried
    854 (III: 131). recreant - Cowardly, faint-hearted, but also 'false, unfaithful to duty'.
    854-5 (III: 131): 'So passes Denethor
    855 (III: 131). You have been caught in a net of warring duties that you did not weave. But think, you servants of the Lord, blind in your obedience, that but for the treason of Beregond Faramir, Captain of the White Tower, would now also be burned. - That is, it is not the servants' fault that they were faced with opposing duties of obeying the orders of Denethor to whom they had sworn service, and of saving Faramir. But Gandalf's next words, that the servants were 'blind in your obedience', imply that he thinks that they made the wrong choice. In a draft manu­script of this chapter Gandalf argued more expansively that the servants owed obedience to Denethor only, 'and he who says: "my master is not in his mind, and knows not what he bids; I will not do it", is in peril, unless he has knowledge and wisdom. But to Berithil [later Beregond] of the guard such discernment was a duty, whereas also he owed allegiance first to his captain, Faramir, to succour him while he lived' {The War of the

    Ring, p. 379)-


    855-6 (III: 132): But even as Gandalf
    855 (III: 132). a great cry went up - The cry that marked the passing of the Witch-king in Book V, Chapter 6. Thus Tolkien synchronizes Gandalf's arrival at the Houses of Healing with events on the battlefield. In the previous chapter little time seemed to elapse between the charge of the Rohirrim at dawn, the unhorsing of Theoden, and the defeat of the Witch-king, while during the same period Gandalf rode through six circles of the city, made his way to the House of Stewards, rescued Faramir, argued with Denethor, and carried Faramir to the Houses of Healing.

    856 (III: 132): 'Though the Stewards deemed

    856 (III: 132). long ago I guessed that here in the White Tower, one at least of the Seven Seeing Stones was preserved - As first published this passage read: 'long have I known that here in the White Tower, as at Orthanc, one of the Seven Stones was preserved'. It was revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin edition.
    856 (III: 132). In the days of his wisdom Denethor would not presume
    to use it - Prior to the edition of 1994 'would not presume' read 'did not presume'. In Tolkien's writings on the palantiri while preparing the second edition it is said that 'Gandalf should have been reported as saying that he did not think that Denethor had presumed to use [the Anor-stone], until his wisdom failed. He could not state it as a known fact, for when and why Denethor had dared to use the Stone was and remains a matter of conjecture' {Unfinished Tales, p. 406). On this Christopher Tolkien com­ments: 'My father's emendation (arising from the present discussion) of "Denethor did not presume to use it" to "Denethor would not presume to use it" was (apparently by mere oversight) not incorporated in the revised edition' {Unfinished Tales, p. 413, n. 11).
    The Palantiri also includes a lengthy discussion of Denethor and how at least one of his motives for consulting the Anor-stone soon after he succeeded his father as Steward was jealousy of 'Thorongil', the captain who had achieved such fame (i.e. Aragorn in other guise) that Denethor's own position was weakened, and hostility to Gandalf, whom Denethor also saw as a 'usurper' of knowledge and information. Denethor had, in any case, inherited authority to use the Stone if he wished. Among much else, it is said that
    Denethor remained steadfast in his rejection of Sauron, but was made to believe [through Sauron's mental deceits] that his [Sauron's] victory was inevitable, and so fell into despair.... Denethor was a man of great strength of will, and maintained the integrity of his personality until the final blow of the (apparently) mortal wound of his only surviving son. He was proud, but this was by no means merely personal: he loved Gondor and its people, and deemed himself appointed by destiny to

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    Chapter 8

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 384-96.
    858 (III: 134): Already men were labouring
    858 (III: 134). litters - A litter is a 'framework supporting a bed or couch for the transport of the sick and wounded' {OED).
    859 (III: 135): 'Don't!' said Pippin
    859 (III: 135). perian - See note for p. 768.
    859-60 (III: 135-6): It was not long before Gandalf
    859 (III: 135-6). He has well repaid my trust; for if Elrond had not yielded to me, neither of you would have set out; and then far more grievous would the evils of this day have been. - Prior to the galley proof of The Return of the King this passage read: 'Greater was the wisdom of Elrond than mine; for if I had had my way, neither you, Pippin, nor he would have set out; and then far more grievous would the evils of this day have been.' In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien notes that this statement
    is decidedly strange: for the form of the Choosing of the Company in The Fellowship of the Ring ... in which it was through Gandalf's advo­cacy against Elrond that Merry and Pippin were included, had been reached long before in the second version of 'The Ring Goes South' [Book II, Chapter 3]. ... Earlier than this, it is true, Gandalf had also been opposed to their inclusion ("Elrond's decision is wise", he had said [The Treason of Isengard, p. 115]), but only here, and again in [an early text of] 'The Last Debate' [Book V, Chapter 9], is there any suggestion that it was Elrond who advocated their inclusion in oppo­sition to Gandalf. [p. 387]
    860 (III: 136): So at last Faramir
    860 (III: 136). Save old age only. For that they had found no cure; and indeed the span of their lives had now waned to little more than that of other men, and those among them who passed the tale of five score years with vigour were grown few, save in some houses of purer blood.
    - In Appendix A it is said that the Numenoreans had originally been granted a life-span 'thrice that of lesser Men' (p. 1035, III: 315). This span is also mentioned in The Line of Elros, written some years after the publication of The Lord of the Rings. Christopher Tolkien comments,


    however, that in his father's latest writing 'to the Numenorean people as a whole is ascribed a life-span some five times the length of that of other Men' (Unfinished Tales, p. 224, n. 1).
    860 (III: 136). Still at whiles - At times.
    860 (III: 136): Then an old wife
    860 (III: 136). Ioreth - On 28 August 1967 Tolkien wrote in his letter to Mr Joukes that Ioreth (in draft spelt Yoreth) 'was invented just to fit the character of the old nurse in the hospital, and its Elvish meaning is "old woman".... Quenya yarn - old, Sindarin iaur in composition ior-; eth is a feminine ending' (reproduced in Rene van Rossenberg, Hobbits in Holland, p. 68).
    860 (III: 136). as there were once upon a time, they say - To the people of Minas Tirith the kings are at best a distant memory, the stuff of story. The last king rode to Minas Morgul in Third Age 2050 and never returned; it is now 3019.
    860 (III: 136). The hands of the king are the hands of a healer. - In his
    article 'The Hands of a King', Beyond Bree, September 1986, David Cofield writes:
    During the Middle ages the monarchs of France and England were believed to possess the divine power to heal scrofula, a term then applied to various skin diseases and infections. Indeed, another name for scrofula was 'King's Evil'. The power to heal scrofula was believed to descend on the rulers at their coronations when they were anointed with holy oil. French monarchs claimed this ability from the time of Clovis in AD 481 through Louis XVI, who was beheaded in 1793. In England, the practice evidently began with King Edward the Confessor before the Norman Conquest and lasted until the death of Queen Anne in 1714. [p. 2]
    Cofield argues that Tolkien gave 'Aragorn, the Heir of Elendil, a similar but greater ability as part of his royal inheritance' (p. 2). Healing involved the sovereign touching the sores and ulcers. The practice is mentioned in Shakespeare's Macbeth, Act IV, Scene 3:
    A most miraculous work in this good king, Which often since my here-remain in England I have seen him do. How he solicits heaven Himself best knows; but strangely-visited people, All swol'n and ulcerous, pitiful to the eye, The mere despair of surgery, he cures, Hanging a golden stamp about their necks, Put on with holy prayers; and 'tis spoken, To the succeeding royalty he leaves The healing benediction.


    862 (III: 138): And Gandalf answered
    862 (III: 138). his house is in ashes - The burial place of his House is literally in ashes. But the phrase also recalls 'ashes to ashes', an expression of finality, as used in the Christian burial service.
    863 (III: 139): 'Strider! How splendid!
    863 (III: 139). I guessed it was you in the black ships. - It is not explained why Pippin should think so; in fact these words are a shadow of Tolkien's abandoned idea that Denethor had known from the palantir that Aragorn was in command of the black fleet (see note for p. 853). In drafts of Book V, Chapter 7 Pippin learned of this from Denethor, and in draft for the present chapter conveyed the news to Berithil (= Beregond), later remarking to Aragorn when he appeared at the Houses of Healing that 'Denethor was right after all' {The War of the Ring, p. 390).
    863 (III: 139): And Aragorn hearing him
    863 (III: 139). in the high tongue of old I am Elessar, the Elfstone, and Envinyatar, the Renewer - Envinyatar, the Quenya word for Renewer, was added in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition. It is an appropriate name for one who will restore the kingship to both Gondor and Arnor.
    863 (III: 139). the high tongue - Quenya.
    863 (III: 139). Telcontar - Presumably from Quenya telko 'leg'.
    863 (III: 139). the heirs of my body - A legal phrase, meaning 'heirs who are direct descendants'.
    864 (III: 140): I drew it forth
    864 (III: 140). staunched the wound - Staunched (or stanched) 'stopped the flow of blood'.
    864 (III: 140-1): 'Weariness, grief for his father's mood
    864 (III: 140). staunch will - Strong, resolute.
    864 (III: 141): Thereupon the herb-master
    864 (III: 141). for kingsfoil as the rustics name it ... or athelas in the noble tongue, or to those who know somewhat of the Valinorean - In
    Nomenclature Tolkien notes of kingsfoil: 'translate: -foil (from Old French foil) = "leaf", as in cinquefoil, etc. Only the -leaf of asea was valued.'
    The Valinorean language is Quenya. In the following paragraph Aragorn gives the corresponding name of the plant in Quenya, asea aranion 'leal of kings'.
    Rustics are country folk.


    864 (III: 141). no virtue that we know of, save perhaps to sweeten a fouled air, or to drive away some passing heaviness - The herb-master quotes 'virtues' of the plant in the manner of medieval herbals, compendia which describe the physical attributes and purported uses of plants (or of animals, minerals, etc.) according to the wisdom of the ancients, sup­plemented by more recent authorities. At this moment in the history of Gondor knowledge of the special virtue of aihelas has been lost, for it depends upon a king, and there has been no king in Gondor for nearly a thousand years.
    865 (III: 141): 'Your pardon lord!'
    865 (III: 141). doggrel - Misspelt 'doggerel' in some printings, the more common spelling, but doggrel here is original and intended. 'An epithet applied to comic or burlesque verse, usually of irregular rhythm; or to mean, trivial, undignified verse' (OED).
    865 (III: 141). infusion of the herb - An infusion is a drink or extract made by soaking leaves, as for tea.
    865 (III: 141): 'Then in the name of the king
    865 (III: 141). less lore and more wisdom - Gandalf is making a distinction between knowledge without understanding, and wisdom as defined in the Oxford English Dictionary: 'capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of judgement in the choice of means and ends; sometimes, less strictly, sound sense, especially in practical affairs'.
    865 (III: 141): Now Aragorn knelt beside Faramir
    865 (III: 141). and walked afar in some dark vale, calling for one that was lost - This seems to echo, perhaps deliberately, Psalm 23:4, 'though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death'.
    865 (III: 141-2): But Aragorn smiled
    865 (III: 141). breathed on them - An analysis of this chapter by a Tolkien discussion group comments: 'We felt it significant that Aragorn breathes on the aihelas leaves before infusing them. Symbolically he is imparting his life-force, his mana, to the victims of the Black Breath, countering the evil Breath with his own' (Romenna Meeting Report, 26 October 1986, p. 3).
    865 (III: 142). the fragrance that came to each was like a memory of dewy mornings of unshadowed sun in some land of which the fair world in spring is itself but a fleeting memory - In J.R.R. Tolkien Katharyn W. Crabbe points out that it is significant that the three individuals tended by Aragorn
    wake to impressions of those things that are most important to them. For Faramir, the image of 'some land of which the fair world of Spring


    is but a fleeting memory' is appropriate because it evokes the pervasive myth of the golden age, to which he has always felt allegiance, though to his father's sorrow. For Eowyn, the image of unbreathed air and high stars is appropriate because it represents the purity for which she had pined during the long years she has felt her life and that of her race being defiled by the works of Wormtongue. Placed next to the elevated images associated with Eowyn, those associated with Merry strike the reader as distinguished by their domesticity. The evocation of orchards, heather, and bees is an evocation of the rural paradise that is the Shire. What this tailoring of sense impressions to the greatest joys of the three wounded warriors suggests is that athelas heals by helping people to be more fully themselves, [rev. and expanded edn., pp. 95-6]
    865-6 (III: 142): 'Well now! Who would have believed it?'
    866 (III: 142). Imloth Melui - In his unfinished index Tolkien notes: 'Imloth flowery vale in Imloth Melui (lovely) ... [illegible] vale in Lossar-nach'. In The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor the name is glossed 'sweet flower-valley' (Vinyar Tengwar 42 (July 2001), p. 18).
    867 (HI: 143): Think you that Wormtongue
    867 (III: 143). the bitter watches of the night - Those times {watches) when Eowyn was wakeful, when she did not or could not sleep for bitter feelings of misery or grief.
    867 (III: 143). the walls of her bower closing in about her, a hutch to trammel some wild thing in - A bower is a lady's private rooms, here compared with a hutch, a box or cage for a small domesticated animal such as a rabbit.
    Trammel is 'to restrain, fetter, confine'. Eowyn felt herself a prisoner with no freedom of movement.
    868 (III: 144): Then, whether Aragorn
    868 (III: 144). it seemed to those who stood by that a keen wind blew through the window, and it bore no scent, but was an air wholly fresh and clean and young, as if it had not before been breathed by any living thing and came new-made from snowy mountains high beneath a dome of stars, or from shores of silver far away washed by seas of foam. - If, as some readers familiar with The Silmarillion have thought and as Tolkien sometimes seems to hint, the peoples arrayed against the evil of Sauron are watched over by powers that occasionally and in small ways intervene, the wind that at this moment blows into the Houses of Healing again suggests the agency of Manwe (see note for p. 839). 'Snowy mountains high beneath a dome of stars' recalls Manwe's home on Taniquetil (see note for p. 79), and 'shores of silver far away' brings to mind the shining beaches of Eldamar in the Uttermost West.

    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:59 | Сообщение # 60
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    Chapter 9 THE LAST DEBATE
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 397-429.
    872 (III: 148): The morning came 872 (III: 148). The morning came - It is 16 March 1419.
    872 (III: 148): 'They need more gardens'
    872 (III: 148). people of the Wood - The Elves of Mirkwood, Greenwood the Great.
    872 (III: 148): At length they came to the Prince Imrahil
    872 (III: 148). Legolas ... saw that here was one who had elven-blood in his veins.... It is long since the people of Nimrodel left the wood­lands of Lorien, and yet still one may see that not all sailed from Amroth's haven west - In a note written in December 1972 or later, discussing the Elvish strain in Men as being observable in the beardlessness (a characteristic of Elves) of those who were so descended, Tolkien said:
    As Legolas's mention of Nimrodel shows, there was an ancient Elvish port near Dol Amroth, and a small settlement of Silvan Elves there from Lorien. The legend of the prince's line was that one of their earliest fathers had wedded an Elf-maiden: in some versions it was indeed (evidently improbably) said to have been Nimrodel herself. In other tales, and more probably, it was one of Nimrodel's companions who was lost in the upper mountain glens. [ Unfinished Tales, p. 248]
    Elsewhere he wrote that 'Galador, first Lord of Dol Amroth (c. Third Age 2004-2129). .. was the son of Imrazor the Numenorean, who dwelt in Belfalas, and the Elven-lady Mithrellas', one of the companions of Nimrodel, lost on the journey to the haven. 'But when she had borne him a son, Galador, and a daughter, Gilmith, she slipped away by night and he saw her no more. But although Mithrellas was of the lesser Silvan race (and not of the High Elves or the Grey) it was ever held that the house and kin of the Lords of Dol Amroth was noble by blood as they were fair in face and mind' (p. 248). The disappearance of a fairy or selkie bride after bearing a child or children to a mortal is a common theme in folk- and fairy-lore.
    874 (III: 150): 'And by the love of him also'
    874 (III: 150). It was at early morn of the day ere you came there . .. that we left Dunharrow - The Grey Company left Dunharrow early on 8 March. Merry arrived there on the evening of 9 March.


    874 (III: 150): He fell silent
    874 (III: 150). I will tell you enough - On 24 June 1957 Tolkien wrote to Caroline Everett about difficulties in writing The Return of the King:
    The last volume was naturally the most difficult, since by that time I had accumulated a large number of narrative debts, and set some awkward problems of presentation in drawing together the separated threads. But the problem was not so much 'what happened?', about which I was only occasionally in doubt... as how to order the account of it. The solution is imperfect. Inevitably.
    Obviously the chief problem of this sort, is how to bring up Aragorn unexpectedly to the raising of the Siege, and yet inform readers of what he had been up to. Told in full in its proper place (Vol. Ill [Book V], ch. 2), though it would have been better for the episode, it would have destroyed Chapter 6. Told in full, or indeed in part, in retrospect it would be out of date and hold up the action (as it does in Chapter 9).
    The solution, imperfect, was to cut down the whole episode (which in full would belong rather to a Saga of Aragorn Arathorn's Son than to my story) and tell the ending of it briefly during the inevitable pause after the Battle of the Pelennor. [Letters, p. 258]
    Tolkien's first attempt at telling the story in retrospect (called by Chris­topher Tolkien for convenience in The War of the Ring, and here as well, 'The Tale of Gimli and Legolas') was fuller than the published text, and no doubt he abandoned some of the material for the reasons given in his letter to Caroline Everett.
    874-5 (III: 150-1): Swiftly then he told
    874 (III: 150). ninety leagues and three from Erech to Pelargir ... four days and nights and on into the fifth - 'Ninety leagues and three' is 279 miles. The Company left Erech on the morning of 9 March and reached Pelargir on 13 March. In 'The Tale of Gimli and Legolas' Gimli reckons that it is 'some 60 leagues as birds fly from Erech, over Tarlang's Neck into Lamedon, and so, crossing Kiril [later Ciril] and Ringlo [later Ringlo], to Linhir beside the waters of Gilrain, where there are fords that lead into Lebennin. And from Linhir it is a hundred miles ... to Pelargir on Anduin' [The War of the Ring, pp. 411-12) - that is, 280 miles, which differs by only one mile from the distance given in The Return of the King.
    875 (III: 151): 'One day of light we rode
    875 (III: 151). One day of light we rode - This was 9 March, the last day before the Great Darkness. The day has already been described at the end of Book V, Chapter 2: 'They passed Tarlang's Neck and came into Lamedon ... until they came to Calembel upon Ciril, and the sun went down like blood behind Pinnath Gelin away in the West behind them. The township


    and the fords of Ciril they found deserted.... But the next day there came no dawn ...' (p. 790, III: 63). The Tale of Years agrees with this account: 'Aragorn sets out from Erech and comes to CalembeP. Scheme has: 'March 9: Aragorn leaves Erech at 8 a.m. and crosses Tarlang's Neck into Lamedon reaching Calembel on Ciril' The large-scale map of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor places Calembel a short distance east of the Ciril (Kiril), though the text indicates that it was on the river.
    875 (III: 151). then came the day without dawn, and still we rode on, and Ciril and Ringlo we crossed - This was 10 March. Both The Tale of Years and Scheme mention only the crossing of the Ringlo on that date. Here Legolas seems to suggest that the Company crossed both rivers on 10 March.
    For Ringlo, see note for p. 770 on the Ringlo Vale.
    875 (III: 151). on the third day we came, to Linhir above the mouth of Gilrain. And there the men of Lamedon contested the fords - The 'third day' was 11 March. For this The Tale of Years has 'Aragorn reaches Linhir and crosses into Lebennin', and Scheme has Aragorn reaches Linhir on Gilrain and forces crossing into Lebennin.' In 'The Tale of Gimli and Legolas', omitting slight differences of timing between draft and final accounts, Gimli says
    Thus we came at nightfall ... to Linhir. There the men of Lamedon had been contesting the passage of Gilrain with a great strength of the Haradrim, and of their allies the Shipmen of Umbar, who had sailed up Gilrain-mouth and far up the waters of Anduin with a host of ships and were now ravaging Lebennin and the coast of Belfalas. But defenders and invaders alike fled at our approach. And thus we crossed into Lebennin unopposed, and there we rested.... [The War of the Ring, p. 412]
    Linhir is defined in Tolkien's unfinished index as 'a haven with ferry­bridge over Gilrain near its mouth, propferly] a river name = fair stream, name of the joint course of Gilrain and Ringlo [i.e. Serni] bet[ween] their junction and the sea'.
    Gilrain is a 'river of Gondor, joining Serni and fl[owing] to [the] Sea beyond the Ethir' {Index). Tolkien discusses the name in The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor:
    This resembles the name of Aragorn's mother, Gilraen; but unless it is misspelt must have had a different meaning. . .. The element gil- in both is no doubt S[indarin] gil 'spark, twinkle of light, star', often used of the stars of heaven in place of the older and more elevated el-, elen-stem. ... The element raen was the Sindarin form of Qfuenya] raina 'netted, enlaced'....
    In Gilrain the element -rain though similar was distinct in origin.


    Probably it was derived from base RAN 'wander, stray, go on uncertain course', the equivalent of Q[uenya] ranya... . This would not seem suitable to any of the rivers of Gondor; but the names of rivers may often apply only to part of their course, to their source, or to their lower reaches, or to other features that struck explorers who named them. In this case, however, the fragments of the legend of Amroth and Nimrodel offer an explanation. The Gilrain came swiftly down from the mountains as did the other rivers of that region; but as it reached the end of the outlier of Ered Nimrais that separated it from the Celos it ran into a wide shallow depression. In this it wandered for a while, and formed a small mere at the southern end before it cut through a ridge and went on swiftly again to join the Serni. When Nimrodel fled from Lorien it is said that seeking for the sea she became lost in the White Mountains, until at last (by what road or pass is not told) she came to a river that reminded her of her own stream in Lorien. Her heart was lightened, and she sat by a mere, seeing the stars reflected in its dim waters, and listening to the waterfalls by which the river went again on its journey down to the sea. There she fell into a deep sleep of weariness, and so long she slept that she did not come down into Belfalas until Amroth's ship had been blown out to sea, and he was lost trying to swim back to Belfalas. This legend was well known in the Dor-en-Ernil (the Land of the Prince), and no doubt the name [Gilrain] was given in memory of it, or rendered in Elvish form from an older name of the same meaning. [Vinyar Tengwar 42 (July 2001), pp. 11-12, and Unfinished Tales, pp. 242-3]
    875 (III: 151). Angbor - Sindarin 'iron-fist'.
    875 (III: 151): Thus we crossed over Gilrain
    875 (III: 151). But soon Aragorn arose - It was still dark, early on 12 March. On that date Faramir retreated from Osgiliath to the Causeway Forts.
    875 (III: 151): Legolas paused and sighed
    875 (III: 151). from Celos to Erui - Celos is one of the rivers of Lebennin, a tributary of the Sirith. Tolkien wrote in The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor: 'The name must be derived from the root kelu- "flow out swiftly", formed with an ending -sse, -ssa, seen in Quenya kelusse "freshet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring"' (Unfinished Tales, p. 426). On the original Unfinished Tales map the branching of the River Sirith and its tributary, the Celos, were marked in reverse order; this was corrected in 2004. The name is spelt Kelos on the large-scale map made for The Return of the King.
    Erui is the first river of Lebennin, and the first tributary of the Anduin south of Minas Tirith. Tolkien wrote of the Erui in The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor:


    Though this was the first of the Rivers of Gondor it cannot be used for 'first'. In Eldarin er was not used in counting in series: it meant 'one, single, alone'. Erui is not the usual Sindarin for 'single, alone': that was ereb ... but it has the very common adjectival ending -ui of Sindarin. The name must have been given because of the Rivers of Gondor it was the shortest and swiftest and was the only one without a tributary. [Vinyar Tengwar 42 (July 2001), p. 10]
    875 (III: 151). the golden bells are shaken ofmallos and alfirin - Tolkien says nothing more of these flowers. In Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan he uses alfirin as another name of the white flower simbelmyne; but Christopher Tolkien comments {Unfinished Tales, p. 316, n. 38) that this is apparently a different flower to that in Legolas's song.
    875 (III: 151): 'Green are those fields
    875 (III: 151). we hunted our foes through a day and a night - From early on 12 March and through the night of 12/13 March, reaching Pelargir the next day. According to The Tale of Years, on 12 March 'Aragorn drives the enemy towards Pelargir', and on 13 March Aragorn reaches Pelargir and captures the fleet'. According to Scheme, on 13 March Aragorn 'reaches Pelargir and destroys enemy. Captures large part of the fleet, and prepares to embark. Musters men of Lamedon & Lebennin and sends those march­ing north that he does not put on board.'
    876 (III: 152): 'To every ship they came
    876 (III: 152). save the slaves chained to the oars - Large ships propelled primarily by oars, such as those of the Barbary pirates in the Mediter­ranean, were often manned by slaves or prisoners or convicted criminals, secured to rowing benches by a fetter round the ankle.
    876 (III: 152): 'Strange indeed,' said Legolas
    876 (III: 152). I... thought how great and terrible a Lord he might have become ... had he taken the Ring to himself- In his draft letter to Eileen Elgar, September 1963, Tolkien wrote that no mortal, not even Aragorn, could have withheld the Ring from Sauron 'in his actual presence' {Letters, P- 33 )•
    877 (III: 153): 'That night we rested
    877 (III: 153). That night we rested - The night of 13/14 March. 877 (III: 153): 'And that is near the end
    877 (III: 158). in the morning the fleet set forth - On 14 March.
    877 (III: 158). yet it was but the morn of the day ere yesterday, the sixth since we rode from Dunharrow - This is being told on 16 March. The Company left Dunharrow on 8 March, and Pelargir on 14 March.

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