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    Форум » Дж.Р.Р. Толкин » Произведения Толкина » The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:51 | Сообщение # 31
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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 378-88.
    413 (II: 15): Aragorn sped on up the hill
    413 (II: 15). Aragorn sped on up the hill. - Until this moment the narrative of The Lord of the Rings has had only one thread, with Frodo (after Book I, Chapter 1) at the centre of a tale with a varying number of companions. Although attention has been paid to concurrent events, these are invariably told in retrospect at a specific point in Frodo's story. But at the end of Book II the Nine Walkers are scattered, and those that survive will not all be together again until Book VI, Chapter 4. Until that point, Tolkien deals with events experienced by one or more members of the Company in turn, carrying the story forward in overlapping and related chapters.
    Richard C. West, in 'The Interlace Structure of The Lord of the Rings', A Tolkien Compass (1975), points out that this overlapping or 'interlacing' was a medieval form of storytelling, very different from
    the modern structural technique of 'organic unity' . . . [which] seeks to reduce a chaotic flux of reality to manageable terms by imposing a clear and fairly simple pattern on it. It calls for a progressive and uncluttered narrative line in which there is a single major theme to which a limited number of other themes may be related so long as they are kept subordinate.... It is considered preferable to have a limited number of characters and to have no more than one or two dominate the action. . . .
    Interlace, by contrast, seeks to mirror the perception of the flux of events in the world around us, where everything is happening at once. Its narrative line is digressive and cluttered, dividing our attention among an indefinite number of events, characters, and themes, any one of which may dominate at any given time... . The paths of the character cross, diverge, and recross, and the story passes from one to another and then another but does not follow a single line. Also, the narrator implies there are innumerable events that he has not had time to tell us about. ...
    Yet the apparently casual form of the interlace is deceptive: it actually has a very subtle kind of cohesion. No part of the narrative can be removed without damage to the whole, for within any given section there are echoes of previous parts and anticipations of later ones, [pp. 78-9]


    In J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century Tom Shippey comments on how Tolkien uses this interlace structure in Books III and IV. The adventures of the separated members of the Fellowship of the Ring 'are never told for long in strict chronological order, and continually "leapfrog" each other'. In the first two chapters of Book III
    we follow Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli from February 26th to February 30th. In chapters 3 and 4 we follow Pippin and Merry from their capture by the Uruk-hai to their meeting with Treebeard; but though these chapters start at (almost) the same time as the first two, the story here goes further, to March 2nd. Chapters 5 through 8 return us to Aragorn and his companions, soon including Gandalf, picking up at March 1st and continuing this time on to March 5th. Chapter 5 includes Gandalf's necessary 'flashback' explaining his return from the dead, which runs from January 15th. The two groups meet eventually at Isengard, when Gandalf, Aragorn, Theoden and the others find ... Merry and Pippin, but their appearance is a complete surprise to all including the reader - all, that is, apart from Gandalf, who had met Pippin during his brief detour to Treebeard in chapter 7. The hobbits' explanation of how they got there ... is given in their own narrative, which starts where chapter 4 left off on March 2nd and takes them up to the moment, March 5th. The six members of the Fellowship stay together for two chapters, 10 and ii, but then separate again. The story as far as they are concerned does not resume till the start of The Return of the King more than a hundred pages later, [p. 105]
    In between comes Book IV, devoted to the journey of Frodo and Sam towards Mordor, not interlaced within itself, and ending at a point in the story over a week later than Book III. Shippey comments: 'As a general rule one may say that none of the five or six major strands of narrative in the central section of The Lord of the Rings ever matches neatly with any of the others in chronology: some are always being advanced, some retarded' (p. 106). He points out that the interlacing technique creates 'a profound sense of reality, of that being the way things are. There is a pattern in Tolkien's story, but his characters can never see it (naturally, because they are in it)' (p. 107).
    413 (II: 15): Aragorn hesitated
    413 (II: 15). But the sun seemed darkened, and the world dim and remote ... and saw nothing save the distant hills - It seems strange that Aragorn, who is of Niimenorean blood, should see nothing on Amon Hen, when Frodo saw so much, and when it seems clear that it was the Seat and not the Ring that gave Frodo his enhanced vision. In a draft of this chapter Trotter sees ores, and an eagle, and the same figure of an old man in rags that Frodo sees in Galadriel's Mirror. At the end of this text Tolkien wrote:


    'The second vision on Anion Hen is inartistic. Let Trotter be stopped by noise of ores, and let him see nothing' (The Treason of Isengard, p. 380).
    413 (II: 15). a great bird like an eagle high in the air - Legolas saw an eagle on 23 February, the eighth day of the journey down the Anduin, and will see another as he, Aragorn, and Gimli pursue the captured hobbits. When Gandalf meets them in Fangorn Forest, he tells them that at least the last of the eagles seen by Legolas was Gwaihir the Windlord.
    413 (II: 15): Even as he gazed
    413 (II: 15). a great horn blew - Boromir blowing his horn to summon help recalls Count Roland in the c. mid-eleventh-century Chanson de Roland who, when as rearguard he was waylaid by the Paynim, blew his horn to call Charlemagne to return.
    413-14 (II: 15-16): A mile, maybe, from Parth Galen
    413-14 (II: 15-16). He was sitting with his back to a great tree ... his horn cloven in two was at his side. - Roland also dies beneath a tree, with a broken horn beside him.
    414 (II: 16): Aragorn knelt beside him
    414 (II: 16). 'I tried to take the Ring from Frodo,' he said. 'I am sorry. I have paid.' - The manner of Boromir's passing has struck some readers as nearly a Christian death, his final words in effect a confession. He makes 'a good end according to the warrior ethic (fighting in a noble cause), and more importantly, he died in a spiritual "state of grace", having at last fought off the spell of the Ring. His death is in part an atonement for trying to take the Ring from Frodo' (Romenna Meeting Report, 21 July 1985, p. 2). It is also significant that his last thought was for the people of his city.
    414 (II: 17): 'First we must tend the fallen'
    414 (II: 17). carrion - Dead flesh, food for scavenging birds and animals.
    415 (II: 17): 'Then let us lay him in a boat
    415 (II: 17). lay him in a boat with his weapons, and the weapons of his vanquished foes - Ship-burial, in which the deceased is sent out to sea in a boat, of its nature leaves no traces but is well attested in literature. In Beowulf, for instance, Scyld is laid in a ship with many treasures, weapons, and coats of mail (see note for p. 416), then given to the ocean, as it would bear him. In most accounts, however, a pyre is built on the ship before it is sent out to sea, so that ship and body are consumed, as in the funeral of King Haki described by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga Saga.


    415 (II: 17-18): There were four goblin-soldiers
    415 (II: 18). bows of yew - In medieval England yew was considered the best wood for making bows, especially the famous English longbow.
    416 (II: 18): 'Neither does he use his right name
    416 (II: 18). by some means the traitor Saruman has had news of our journey.... Pursuers from Moria may have escaped the vigilance of Lorien - Scheme gives a detailed account of events since the Company escaped from Moria:
    January 15: Moria-orcs pursue Co[mpan]y over Silverlode. Driven off by Elves. Messengers leave Moria to Isengard, bringing news of events to Saruman, and also mentioning the appearance of Gollum. (Moria is 260 miles direct to Isengard; but ore-runners cover this in less than 4 days.) Messages also go to Barad-dur, some by evil birds. Barad-dur is about 680 miles from Moria as crow flies, but rumour reaches Sauron in 3 days and Grishnakh and Ores of Mordor are despatched.
    January 18: Ore-runners reach Isengard. Saruman is greatly moved but dare not act independently of Sauron, until he is certain. Sends out scouts under his ore-captain Ugluk. Grishnakh sets out from Mordor.
    January 22: Saruman's scouts return to Moria, and gather a force of mountain-ores. They cannot penetrate Lorien, but lurk outside especi­ally watching the river-exit.
    January 24: Isengarders capture Gollum, and torment him for news. Gollum ... escapes after revealing that Hobbits of Shire were with Gandalf, and enough is said to make Ugluk certain that Ring was with the Company. Ugluk sends news to Isengard of Hobbits; but not of the Ring.
    January 26: Grishnakh, having crossed Anduin near rapids, comes up west side, and intercepts Ugluk's messengers, and learns their news. (He retreats, makes contact with a Nazgul near Sarn Gebir and awaits orders.)
    January 30: Saruman receiving news decides to act on his own. Sends out strong force to join Ugluk, orders them to bring Hobbits alive to Isengard.
    February 2: Grishnakh reinforced. Ordered to cooperate with Ugluk

    (Sauron does not yet suspect Saruman).

    February 6: Ugluk scours northern Rohan.
    February 10: Ugluk & Grishnakh make contact above Sarn Gebir. Rohirrim drive off Isengarders, who retreat to Emyn Muil, leaving west bank unguarded. Grishnakh watches east bank near Sarn Gebir.
    February 22: Grishnakh's scouts get wind of approach of Coy. A Nazgul is summoned, but Sauron will not yet permit the Nazgul to cross west of Anduin.


    February 23: Ores are foiled. Legolas shoots down Nazgul. The Ores dismayed, but Grishnakh crosses Anduin and daringly pushes down west shore in pursuit. He believes Coy. is making for Minas Tirith.
    February 25: Grishnakh and Ugluk meet in western Emyn Muil. They go in search of the Coy.
    416 (II: 18): At the water-side Aragorn remained
    416 (II: 18). Aragorn remained, watching the bier - In 'Funeral Customs in Tolkien's Fiction', Mythlore 19, no. 2, whole no. 72 (Spring 1993), Patricia Reynolds comments: 'We can note Aragorn's watch over Boromir's body: the three words used for the activity of sitting by the body on the night before burial in English are "watch", "wake" and "vigil". Sitting by the dead person's body on the eve of the funeral is a practice found in many cultures.... It is Aragorn, the most noble of the company, who undertakes to watch Boromir's body. Indeed, the whole funeral is arranged by Aragorn' (p. 48).
    In an early draft at this point in the text, Tolkien drew a hasty sketch (reproduced in The Treason oflsengard, p. 383), in which 'are seen the rill that flowed through the greensward there, and the two remaining boats (the third having been taken by Frodo) moored at the water's edge, with Tol Brandir and Amon Lhaw beyond; X marks the battle where Boromir died. At the shore is the boat brought back by Legolas, marking the place where Boromir's body was set aboard it' (Christopher Tolkien, p. 381).
    416-17 (II: 19): Now they laid Boromir
    416 (II: 19). they laid Boromir in the middle of the boat ... his helm they set beside him, and across his lap they laid his cloven horn and the hilt and shards of his sword; beneath his feet they put the swords of his enemies - In Beowulf Scyld's funeral is described:
    They laid then the beloved chieftain, giver of rings, on the ship's bosom, glorious by the mast. There were brought many treasures, ornaments from far-off lands. Never have I heard that a vessel was more fairly fitted-out with war-weapons and battle-raiment, swords and coats of mail. On his bosom lay a host of treasures, which were to travel far with him into the power of the flood. [Clark Hall translation, p. 21]
    416 (II: 19). the hilt and shards of his sword - In editions prior to 2004 the word 'hilt' was here printed as 'hilts'. Other instances of the latter form in The Lord of the Rings were emended by Tolkien, and posthumously, beginning with the second printing of The Two Towers (1955).
    417 (II: 19): Sorrowfully they cast loose
    417 (II: 19). the White Tower - 'The chief tower of the citadel of Minas Tirith [also called] Tower of Ecthelion, Tower of Denethor. Sometimes

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 389-407-
    421 (II: 23): Dusk deepened
    421 (II: 23). Dusk deepened ... the waxing moon was riding in the West
    - It is the evening of 26 February 1419. The moon is only four days past new, and still sets in the west early in the night.
    421 (II: 23): There in the still cool hour
    421 (II: 23). There in the still cool hour before dawn - It is 27 February 1419.
    423 (II: 25): Gondor! Gondor
    423 (II: 25). Silver Tree - The emblem of Gondor, from the White Tree planted by Isildur.
    423 (II: 25). O winged crown and throne of gold! - The winged crown is the crown of Gondor as described in Book VI, Chapter 5. In draft these words originally ended 'many-footed throne of gold!' {The Treason of Isen­gard, p. 395); thus Tolkien's design for a dust-jacket for The Return of the King {Artist and Illustrator, fig. 182) shows the throne with four feet, together with the winged crown and white-flowering ('silver') tree.
    423 (II: 25): The ridge upon which
    423 (II: 25). the East Wall of Rohan - The East Wall is the 'name in Rohan of the sheer sides of Emyn Muil on [the] east side of Rohan' {Index). In Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan the eastern and southern boundaries of Rohan are described:
    In the east its bounds were the Anduin and the west-cliff of the Emyn Muil down to the marshes of the Mouths of Onodlo [Entwash], and beyond that river the stream of the Glanhir [Mering Stream, both meaning 'boundary stream'] that flowed though the wood of Anwar [Firien Wood] to join the Onodlo; and in the south its bounds were the Ered Nimrais as far as the end of their northward arm, but all those vales and inlets that opened northwards were to belong to the Eotheod, as well as the land south of the Hithaeglir that lay between the rivers Angren [Isen] and Adorn. [Unfinished Tales, pp. 305-6]
    For the western and northern boundaries of Rohan, see note for p. 374.


    423 (II: 25): 'Many things'
    423 (II: 25). They are many leagues away: twelve, I guess - Twelve leagues are the equivalent of 36 miles. Scheme notes: 'Aragorn reaches East Wall at sunrise'; 'At 8 a.m. the Isengarders are 36 miles out on plain.'
    423 (II: 25-6): They followed their enemies
    423 (II: 25). escarpment - A long steep slope at the edge of a plateau 01 separating areas of land at different heights' (Concise OED).
    423-4 (II: 26): At the bottom they came
    424 (II: 26). cresses - 'The common name of various cruciferous plants, having mostly edible leaves of a pungent flavour' (OED), here probably watercress (Nasturtium officinale).
    424 (II: 26): 'Yes,' he said, 'they are quite plain
    424 (II: 26). He is smaller than the others. - In editions prior to 2004 this sentence read: 'He is smaller than the other.' Christopher Tolkien remarks in The Treason oflsengard that Aragorn 'would not refer to Merry [the other hobbit being sought] in such a remote tone' (p. 404, n. 15). The words are intended to mean that Pippin is smaller than Merry, Frodo, and Sam.
    425 (II: 27): As nightshade was closing
    425 (II: 27). nightshade - Twilight.
    426 (II: 28): He cast himself on the ground
    426 (II: 28). Before dawn was in the sky - It is 28 February 1419.
    426-7 (II: 29): 'The rumour of the earth
    426-7 (II: 29). Faint and far are the feet of our enemies. But loud are the hoofs of the horses. It comes to my mind that I heard them, even as I lay on the ground in sleep.... But now they are drawing ever further from us, riding northward. - The ores are far away, but Aragorn hears the sound of the Rohirrim pass to the west, pursuing the ores northward.
    427 (II: 29): All day the track
    427 (II: 29). Eastemnet - In his unfinished index Tolkien describes Eastern-net as 'the eastern plains (beyond Entwash) of Rohan'. In Nomenclature he instructs that the name should be retained in translation because, although 'it contains east, it is not a Common Speech name, but Rohan for "east-plain"', and he glosses emnet as 'flat land, plain' (compare Old English emnet 'level ground, a plain').

    428 (II: 30): As before Legolas was first afoot
    428 (II: 30). It is a red dawn. Strange things await us by the eaves of the forest. - It is 29 February 1419. At dawn, far to the north, the Rohirrim attack and destroy the ores.
    428 (II: 30-1): 'They rested here a while'
    428 (II: 30). It is thrice twelve hours, I guess, since the Ores stood where we now stand. - They reach the downs at 11.00 a.m. on 29 February. According to Scheme the ores reached that place at 9.00 p.m. on 27 February.
    429 (II: 31): 'Nothing can we see to guide us here'
    429 (II: 31). Well, now we must halt again - Scheme notes that on 29 February Aragorn starts at sunrise. At 11 a.m. reaches Downs (85 miles out). Goes on all rest of day and reaches N[orthern]. end of Downs at nightfall. (110 miles out). Wind turns east at night.'
    429 (II: 31): 'And ere morning it will be in the East' 429 (II: 31). Rede - An archaic word for 'advice, counsel'.
    429 (II: 31-2): The night grew ever colder 429 (II: 32). Together they watched the dawn - It is 30 February 1419.
    429 (II: 32): Ahead and eastward
    429 (II: 32). Methedras - 'Methedras "last peak", the southernmost of the ?last major peaks of the Misty Mountains' (Index).
    430 (II: 32): Following with his keen eyes
    430 (II: 32). Aragorn saw a shadow on the distant green___But Legolas
    ... saw ... the small figures of horsemen - Scheme notes: 'Riders leave battlefield and start out on long ride to Edoras at sunrise (7 a.m.)'; 'At sunrise Aragorn sees cold clear day open. About 9 a.m. the Riders approach. About 10 a.m. Eomer and Aragorn meet at N[orth] end of Downs.'
    430-1 (II: 33): 'I have been among them'
    430 (II: 33). I have been among them - In The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen it is said that Aragorn 'went [abroad] in many guises, and won renown under many names. He rode in the host of the Rohirrim' (p. 1060, III: 341).
    430 (II: 33). the children of Men before the Dark Years - The Dark Years are presumably the same as the Black Years (see note for p. 51), though refer­ence to 'the children of Men' seems to suggest a time early in the First Age.
    431 (II: 33). It was in forgotten years long ago that Eorl the Young brought them out of the North - In fact, it was only just over 500 years


    earlier, in Third Age 2510, that Cirion, the Steward of Gondor, appealed to Eorl and his people for help against invaders from the East. Eorl and his men rode from the far North, and in reward for their help were granted the northern lands of Gondor, Calenardhon, which became known as Rohan. See further, note for p. 1053.
    Most of the names of the kings of Rohan are Old English words or epithets meaning 'king', 'ruler', 'lord', etc. Eorl is Old English 'warrior, nobleman', from which derives Modern English earl.
    431 (II: 33). kinship with the Bardings of Dale, and with the Beornings
    - That is, kinship with Men still living in the North, rather than with Men native to the lands of Gondor or of Numenorean descent.
    431 (II: 33-4): Their horses were of great stature
    431 (II: 33). flaxen-pale - The pale yellow colour of dressed flax.
    431 (II: 34). their burnished shirts of mail hung down upon their knees
    - On 14 October 1958 Tolkien wrote to Rhona Beare: 'The Rohirrirn were not "mediaeval", in our sense. The styles of the Bayeux Tapestry I made in England) fit them well enough, if one remembers that the kind of tennis-nets [the] soldiers seem to have on are only a clumsy conventional sign for chain-mail of small rings' (Letters, pp. 280-1).
    431-2 (II: 34): Without a word or cry
    432 (II: 34). a man taller than all the rest - Eomer. In a note associated
    with the late Disaster of the Gladden Fields Tolkien says that
    the Rohirrirn were generally shorter [than the Dunedakf. for in their far-off ancestry they had been mingled with men of broader and heavier build. Eomer was said to have been tall, of like height with Aragom; but he with other descendants of King Thengel were taller than the norm of Rohan, deriving this characteristic (together in some cases with darker hair) from Morwen, Thengel's wife, a lady of Goodor of high Numenorean descent. [Unfinished Tales, p. 286]
    432 (II: 34). from his helm as a crest a white horsetail flowed -Toe: ?hirrev comments in The Road to Middle-earth that 'a horsetafl phone ■ the traditional prerogative of the Huns and the Tartars and the stepf
    1 — : r. un-English decoration, at least by tradition' (2nd edn 77 ..•-:-
    _;: I: 35): 'As for that'
    432 I: 35 . Eomer son of Eomund - Many of the names and words
    :.::j:u. ::r.::_". Old English eoh 'war-horse, charger'. E: r >a: derive from eoh + Old English mcere (or mere) 'grand, excellent (cf. \V7~i"-,-— H:- ■ 1 r 1 I-reen, The Hobbit and Other Fiction by J.RJL (1969)). The name Eomer appears twice in the Anglo-Saxor. C'-.t-.
    most noiibjv u: 1 irneilrgical list as the grandson of Offa, King --" *-■?-'-


    on the Continent, ancestor of the kings of Mercia; the other Eomer was an assassin sent by Cwichelm, King of the West Saxons, to try to kill King Edwin of Northumbria.
    Eomund contains the Old English elements eoh + mund 'protector'.
    432 (II: 35). the Third Marshal of Riddermark - In an appendix to the late work The Battles of the Fords oflsen it is said that
    Marshal of the Mark (or Riddermark) was the highest military rank and the title of the King's lieutenants (originally three), commanders of the royal forces of fully equipped and trained Riders. The First Marshal's ward was the capital, Edoras, and the adjacent King's Lands (including Harrowdale). He commanded the Riders of the Muster of Edoras, drawn from this ward, and from some parts of the West-mark and East-mark for which Edoras was the most convenient place of assembly. The Second and Third Marshals were assigned commands according to the needs of the time. In the beginning of the year [Third Age] 3019 the threat from Saruman was most urgent, and the Second Marshal, the King's son Theodred, had command over the West-mark with his base at Helm's Deep; the third Marshal, the King's nephew Eomer, had as his ward the East-mark with his base at his home, Aldburg in the Folde.
    In the days of Theoden there was no man appointed to the office of First Marshal. He came to the throne as a young man . .. vigorous and of martial spirit, and a great horseman. If war came, he would himself command the Muster of Edoras; but his kingdom was at peace for many years.... In this peace the Riders and other armed men of the garrison of Edoras were governed by an officer of the rank of marshal (in the years 3012-19 this was Elfhelm). When Theoden became, as it seemed, prematurely old, this situation continued, and there was no effective central command. [Unfinished Tales, p. 367]
    433 (II: 35-6): 'I serve only the Lord of the Mark
    433 (II: 35). the Lord of the Mark, Theoden King son of Thengel -
    Theoden is the King of Rohan who, as Gandalf told the Council in Riven-dell, would not listen to his warnings and bade Gandalf take a horse and begone. His name is derived from Old English peoden 'chief of a people, prince, king'. Thengel is Old English (pengel) for 'prince'.
    In a galley proof of The Two Towers a reader queried the construction 'Theoden King' (as used by the Men of Rohan and by others effecting the style of their speech) instead of 'King Theoden'. Tolkien replied: 'The difference is deliberate. T.K. [Theoden King] represents "Anglo-Saxon" in which the title follows. K.T. [King Theoden] is Modern Efnglish]' (Mar­quette Series 3/5/38).

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    Chapter 3 THE URUK-HAI
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 408-10.
    444 (II: 47): He woke
    444 (II: 47). He woke.... Evening was coming - It is late afternoon on 26 February 1419.
    444 (II: 47). a great company of Ores - In the Quenta Silmarillion, a prose narrative of the 'Silmarillion' mythology begun in the mid-i930s and abandoned at the end of 1937, Tolkien introduced the idea that Ores originated in mockery of the Elves, as a 'creation' of Morgoth, made of stone and brought into being by the powers of that mighty Vala. Thus Treebeard's statement in Book III, Chapter 4 of The Lord of the Rings, that 'Trolls are only counterfeits, made by the Enemy in the Great Darkness, in mockery of Ents, as Ores were of Elves' (p. 486, II: 89). In work on 'The Silmarillion' between the completion and the publication of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien speculated that Morgoth had captured and enslaved some of the Elves soon after they woke in Middle-earth, and 'of these slaves it is held came the Orkor [Ores] that were afterward chief foes of the Eldar' (Morgoth's Ring, p. 73).
    In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey comments that 'there can be little doubt that ores entered Middle-earth originally just because the story [of 'The Silmarillion'] needed a continual supply of enemies over whom one need feel no compunction. ... But several readers [of The Lord of the Rings] had pointed out that if evil could not create, was only good per­verted, then presumably the ores had been by nature good and might in some way be saved' (2nd edn., p. 207). On 25 April 1954 Tolkien wrote to Naomi Mitchison that Ores
    are nowhere clearly stated to be of any particular origin. But since they are servants of the Dark Power, and later of Sauron, neither of whom could, or would, produce living things, they must be 'corruptions'. They are not based on direct experience of mine; but owe, I suppose, a good deal to the goblin tradition . .. especially as it appears in George MacDonald [The Princess and the Goblin], except for the soft feet which I never believed in. [Letters, p. 178]
    Later that same year, he drafted a letter in reply to queries by Peter Hastings, who had noted Treebeard's statement about the creation of

    Free Will is derivative, and is therefore only operative within provided circumstances; but in order that it may exist, it is necessary that the Author should guarantee it, whatever betides: sc. when it is 'against his Will', as we say, at any rate as it appears on a finite view. He does not stop or make 'unreal' sinful acts, and their consequences. So in this myth, it is 'feigned' . .. that He [Iluvatar] gave special 'sub-creative' powers to certain of His highest created beings [the Ainur]: that is a guarantee that what they devised and made should be given the reality of Creation. Of course within limits, and of course subject to certain commands or prohibitions. But if they 'fell', as the Diabolus Morgoth did, and started making things 'for himself, to be their Lord', these would then 'be', even if Morgoth broke the supreme ban against making other 'rational' creatures like Elves or Men. They would at least 'be' real physical realities in the physical world, however evil they might prove, even 'mocking' the Children of God. They would be Morgoth's greatest Sins, abuses of his highest privilege, and would be creatures begotten of Sin, and naturally bad. (I nearly wrote 'irredeemably bad'; but that would be going too far. Because by accepting or tolerating their making - necessary to their actual existence - even Ores would become a part of the World, which is God's and ultimately good.) But whether they could have 'souls' or 'spirits' seems a different question; and since in my myth at any rate I do not conceive of the making of souls or spirits, things of an equal order if not an equal power to the Valar, as a possible 'delegation', I have represented at least the Ores as pre-existing beings on whom the Dark Lord has exerted the fullness of his power in remodelling and corrupting them, and not making them.... There might be other 'makings' all the same which were more like puppets filled (only at a distance) with their maker's mind and will, or ant-like operating under direction of a queen-centre. [Letters, p. 195]
    After The Lord of the Rings was published Tolkien returned to work on his larger mythology, and in late writings expressed doubts about signifi­cant aspects. The nature and origin of Ores 'require more thought', he wrote. 'They are not easy to work into the theory and system [of the mythology].' Only Eru, Iluvatar, 'could make creatures with independent wills, and with reasoning powers. But Ores seem to have both.' Therefore, could they be 'corruptions of something pre-existing'? Not of Men: 'Men had not yet appeared when the Ores already existed.. .. Eru would not sanction the work of Melkor [Morgoth] so as to allow the independence of the Ores [if Melkor had created them]. (Not unless Ores were ultimately remediable, or could be amended and "saved"?)' He could not contemplate the 'absolute perversion' by Melkor 'of a whole people, or group of peoples, and his making that state heritable [capable of being transmitted from parent to offspring].' Thus Elves are 'very unlikely' as a source for Ores. And are Ores "immortal", in the Elvish sense?' Is it 'likely or possible that

    THE URUK-HAI 377
    even the least of the Maiar would become Ores? Yes: both outside Arda and in it ... Melkor had corrupted many spirits - some great, as Sauron, or less so, as Balrogs.' At length Tolkien concluded - for the moment -that 'Ores were beasts of humanized shape (to mock Men and Elves) deliberately perverted / converted into a more close resemblance to Men. Their "talking" was really reeling off "records" set in them by Melkor. Even their rebellious critical words - he knew about them' (Morgoth's Ring, pp. 409-10). But the issue lingered.
    When at the end of the 1950s Tolkien considered whether to revise the cosmology of Arda, another solution emerged. If the Sun existed from the beginning of the world, and the waking of Men was no longer tied to the first rising of the Sun long after Ores first appeared, then Men might have been the stock from which Ores were bred. Tolkien put forward this theory in a brief essay on Ores, published in Morgoth's Ring, pp. 416-22.
    445 (II: 48): He struggled a little
    445 (II: 48). One of the Ores sitting near laughed - Until now in The Lord of the Rings the reader has seen Ores only at a distance, as a collective body of evil; now they are shown to be individuals, if singularly unpleasant
    445 (II: 48). the Common Speech, which he made almost as hideous as his own tongue - It is said in Appendix F that Ores 'quickly developed as many barbarous dialects as there were groups or settlements of their race, so that their Orkish speech was of little use to them in intercourse between different tribes. So it was that .. . Ores used for communication between breed and breed the Westron tongue' (p. 1131, III: 409).
    445 (II: 48): 'If I had my way
    445 (II: 48). Ugliik u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob bubhosh skai
    - The penultimate draft of the section 'Ores and the Black Speech' in Appendix F explained that 'the curse of the Mordor-orc in Chapter 3 of Book Three is in the more debased form used by the soldiers of the Dark Tower, of whom Grishnakh was the captain. Ugluk to the cesspool, sha! the dungfilth; the great Saruman-fool, skai? {The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 83, n. 6). In a later typescript the curse is translated as 'Ugluk to the dung-pit with stinking Saruman-filth - pig-guts gah!' (The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. xii; see also Carl F. Hostetter, 'Ugliik to the Dung-pit', Vinyar Tengwar 26 (November 1992)). Christopher Tolkien discovered a third version, and notes that 'all three differ significantly (bagronk, for example, being rendered both as "cesspool" and as "torture (chamber)"); from which it seems clear that my father was at this time devising interpretations of the words, whatever he may have intended them to mean when he first wrote them' (The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. xii).

    446 (II: 49): 'Is Saruman the master
    446 (II: 49). Lugbiirz - The Black Speech name for Barad-dur, the Dark Tower.
    447 (II: 50): 'Now,' thought Pippin
    447 (II: 50). snicked - Made a small cut.
    447 (II: 50): The Ores were getting ready to march
    447 (II: 50). getting ready to march - According to Scheme, 'after attacking and destroying the Co[mpan]y Ores hurry towards Isengard. Quarrel bet[ween] Ugluk and Grishnakh (sundown). Grish[nakh] flies north to Sarn Gebir. Ug[luk] descends into Rohan and begins a wild forced march towards Fangorn with his prey (Merry and Pippin).' In his time-schemes Tolkien took great care that times and clues in the account of the Three Hunters' chase should correspond exactly with events as seen and experi-enced by Pippin and Merry.
    448 (II: 51): 'Only a single horseman
    448 (II: 51). Only a single horseman - The scout that told Eomer of the Ores; see note for p. 437.
    448 (II: 52): 'Hullo, Pippin!'
    448 (II: 52). bed and breakfast - A night's lodging in a hotel or guest house. Even in such fearful captivity, Merry presents a brave face and makes a joke.
    It is still the night of 26/27 February 1419.
    450 (II: 53): Neither Pippin nor Merry
    450 (II: 53). Neither Pippin nor Merry remembered much of the later part of the journey. - According to Scheme: 'February 27: At 8 a.m. the Isengarders are 36 miles out on plain: seen by Legolas. By nightfall Ores are going faster, are 72 miles on way (47 ahead of Aragorn). They reach S[outh] end of Downs at 9 p.m.'
    450 (II: 53): Dimly he became aware
    450 (II: 53). He came back to the waking world and found it was morning
    - It is 28 February 1419.
    451 (II: 54): At that moment
    451 (II: 54). there was Grishnakh again - According to Scheme:
    February 27: Grishnakh reaches Sarn Gebir. Another Nazgul has arrived with advice. He is to pursue Ugluk. Nazgul sets his Ores across the river. G[rishnakh] hastens off N.W. [north-west] to intercept Ugluk.
    February 28: Isengarders pass N[orth] end of Downs at 4.30 am.;

    THE URUK-HAI 379

    rest at a point 5 miles beyond [sic in both this and the previous time-scheme, with no time allowed to cover the stated 5 miles before starting again]. At 5 a.m. they go on till 10 a.m. (seen by Riders) and are then 25 miles N. of Downs and turn towards eaves of Fangorn (25 m[iles] further on). Rest till 10.30 a.m. They then see Riders following; also they see Grishnakh and his Ores coming from River. From 11.25 all Ores fly together without rest; but one mile short of Fangorn they are overtaken.
    [With extra note below. Forced march of Grishnakh. Flies from Emyn Muil when defeated by Ugliik evening 26 [February]. Reaches Sarn Gebir late on 27. He has more than 100 miles to go to point where he intercepts Ugluk about 30 m[iles] N. of Downs, about 11.20 a.m. on 29th. This he does between midnight 27/8 and 11.20 on 29th, about 35 hours.]
    [In another column, also February 28:] Riders' scouts descry the Ores (about 10 a.m.) from afar. Main eored crosses Entwash, N. of Downs late in afternoon. They break up in companies surrounding and heading off the Ores. Eomer overtakes Ores at sunset and besieges them. (Worm-tongue's spies report the disobedience of Eomer, and the King is angered.)]
    In an early note Tolkien worked out that
    Ores usual pace is a steady 4 m[iles] p[er] h[our]. They can keep this up for 5 hours but then need one hour rest. They can thus cover at need 4 x 20 = 80 miles per diem, and can do this for 5 days & then need long rest so in 5 days they can cover 400 miles but must then rest. At need for short period they can trot ?from 6 mph for about 50 ?miles. Isengarders could go a little faster and need only Vi hr rests. [Marquette MSS 4/2/19]
    451 (II: 54): 'I know,' growled Ugluk
    451 (II: 54). Snaga - Black Speech 'slave'.
    452 (II: 55):'You seem to know a lot'
    452 (II: 55). slavering - Dribbling saliva.
    453 (II: 57): Night came down
    453 (II: 57). Night came down - It is the night of 28/29 February 1419.
    453 (II: 57). Many Ores had fallen, but fully two hundred remained -
    One hundred Northerners had run ahead, leaving eighty Isengarders with Ugliik, and Grishnakh had returned with forty, so about twenty had fallen.
    454 (II: 58): 'There's only one thing
    454 (II: 58). gimlets - That is, with gimlet-eyes, sharp or piercing like a gimlet (auger).

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    Chapter 4

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 411-21.
    463-4 (II: 67): 'Hrum, Hooni
    463 (II: 67). Hrum, Hoom - According to his friend Nevill Coghill, reported in Biography (p. 194), Tolkien 'modelled Treebeard's way of speak­ing ... on the booming voice of C.S. Lewis'.
    464 (II: 67). root and twig - In the fair copy manuscript of this chapter Treebeard said, instead, 'Crack my timbers', words which Tolkien noted were queried by his friend Charles Williams (The Treason of Isengard, p. 419, n. 2).
    464 (II: 67): A queer look came
    464 (II: 67). Ent - On 7 June 1955 Tolkien wrote to W.H. Auden that he 'did not consciously invent' the Ents.
    The chapter called 'Treebeard', from Treebeard's first remark ... was written off more or less as it stands, with an effect on my self (except for labour pains) almost like reading some one else's work. And I like Ents now because they do not seem to have anything to do with me. I daresay something had been going on in the 'unconscious' for some time, and that accounts for my feeling throughout, especially when stuck, that I was not inventing but reporting (imperfectly) and had at times to wait till 'what really happened' came through. But looking back analytically I should say that the Ents are composed of philology, literature, and life. They owe their name to the eald enta geweorc of Anglo-Saxon, and their connexion with stone [from the Old English poem The Wanderer, line 87: 'eald enta geweorc idlu stodon' = 'the old creations of giants (i.e. ancient buildings erected by a former race) stood desolate']. Their part in the story is due, I think, to my bitter dis­appointment and disgust from schooldays with the shabby use made in Shakespeare of the coming of 'Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill' [in Macbeth}: I longed to devise a setting in which the trees might really march to war. And into this has crept a mere piece of experience, the difference of the 'male' and 'female' attitude to wild things, the difference between unpossessive love and gardening. [Letters, pp. 211-12 n., 445]
    In a letter to Mrs L.M. Cutts, 26 October 1958, Tolkien wrote that the Ents could be seen as 'a "mythological" form taken by my life-long love

    of trees, with perhaps some remote influence from George MacDonald's Phantastes (a work I do not actually much like [in which trees take human form]) . ..' (Sotheby's London, English Literature, History, Fine Bindings [etc.], 10 July 2003, lot 474, p. 297).
    On 20 September 1963 Tolkien explained in a draft letter to Colonel Worskett:
    There are or were no Ents in the older stories - because the Ents in fact only presented themselves to my sight, without premeditation or any previous conscious knowledge, when I came to Chapter IV of Book Three. ...
    No one knew whence they (Ents) came or first appeared. The High Elves said that the Valar did not mention them in the 'Music'. But some (Galadriel) were [of the] opinion that when Yavanna discovered the mercy of Eru to Aule on the matter of the Dwarves, she besought Eru (through Manwe) asking him to give life to things made of living things not stone, and that the Ents were either souls sent to inhabit trees, or else that slowly took the likeness of trees owing to their inborn love of trees. ... The Ents thus had mastery over stone. The males were devoted to Orome, but the Wives to Yavanna. [Letters, pp. 334-5]
    Tolkien produced a finished text dealing with the origin of the Ents, which Christopher Tolkien included in The Silmarillion as part of the chapter 'Of Aule and Yavanna'.
    464 (II: 67). The Ent - In an unpublished draft letter of late 1968 Tolkien wrote: 'Eldest was the courtesy title of Treebeard as the oldest surviving Ent. The Ents claimed to be the oldest "speaking people" after the Elves [illegible] until taught the art of speech by the Elves. ... They were there­fore placed after the Dwarves in the Old List .. . since Dwarves had the power of speech from their awaking' (private collection). In any case, according to the account of their origin given in The Silmarillion, the Ents were created in response to the creation of the Dwarves, and like the Dwarves did not wake in Middle-earth until after the Elves.
    464 (II: 67). Fangorn is my name according to some, Treebeard others make it. - Fangorn is Sindarin for 'beard-(of)-tree' (see Appendix F), including the element orn 'tree'. The Oxford English Dictionary defines Treebeard as a name for the lichen Usnea barbata, and also for Tillandsia usneoides, both of which produce long trailing beardlike growths. (Com­pare, p. 459, II: 62, on the trees of Fangorn Forest: 'Great trailing beards of lichen hung from them, blowing and swaying in the breeze.')
    464 (II: 67): 'An EntV said Merry
    464 (II: 67). 'An EntV said Merry. - A recording by Tolkien from these words to Treebeard's 'you do not seem to fit in anywhere' is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.


    464 (II: 67). the old lists - Treebeard's 'lore of living creatures' recalls the list of fish, animals, and so forth, with suitable epithets for poetry, included in the Skaldskaparmal in Snorri Sturluson's Edda.
    465 (II: 68): 'Hm, but you are hasty folk, I see'
    465 (II: 68). There are Ents and Ents, you know; or there are Ents and things that look like Ents but ain't - Ain't is a dialectal contracted form of 'are not', generally pronounced very like 'ent'.
    465 (II: 68). Real names tell you the story of the things they belong to in my language - Tolkien felt much the same about words and names, and what they reveal about those who had spoken the language in which they occurred.
    465-6 (II: 68): 'But now"
    465 (II: 68). a-lalla-lalla-rumba-kamanda-lind-or-burume - In Appen­dix F Tolkien writes that this phrase seems to have been an attempt by the Hobbits (who wrote the Red Book of Westmarch) 'to represent shorter murmurs and calls by the Ents', and 'is the only extant (probably very inaccurate) attempt to represent a fragment of actual Entish'. He also describes the Entish language as 'slow, sonorous, agglomerated, repetitive, indeed long-winded; formed of a multiplicity of vowel-shades and distinc­tions of tone and quality' (pp. 1130-1, III: 409).
    466 (II: 69): 'Hill?' suggested Pippin
    466 (II: 69). shelf- In this context, a ledge of rock.
    467 (II: 70): 'Hmm, did he now?'
    467 (II: 70). Laurelindorenan - See note for p. 335
    467 (II: 70): 'And so is this
    467 (II: 70). Laurelindorenan lindelorendor malinornelion ornemalin... Taurelildmea-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea Lomeanor - This is Quenya. The second line is translated in Appendix F as 'Forestmanyshadowed-deepvalleyblack Deepvalleyforested Gloomyland', meaning 'more or less: "there is a black shadow in the deep dales of the forest"' (p. 1131, III: 409). On 8 June 1961 Tolkien explained the first line in a letter to Rhona Beare:
    Treebeard was not using Entish sounds on this occasion, but using ancient Elvish words mixed up and run together in Entish fashion. The elements are laure, gold, not the metal but the colour, what we should call golden light; ndor, nor, land, country; lin, lind-, a musical sound; mcdina, yellow; orne, tree; lor, dream; nan, nand-, valley. So that roughly he means: 'The valley where the trees in a golden light sing musically, a land of music and dreams; there are yellow trees there, it is a tree-yellow land.' The same applies to the [second line], where the elements


    are taure, forest; tumba, deep valley; mor, darkness; lome, night. [Letters, pp. 307-8]
    468 (II: 71): 'Aye, aye, something like
    468 (II: 71). Great Darkness - The time of Morgoth's domination of Middle-earth.
    468 (II: 71-2): 'Some of my kin
    468 (II: 71). limb-lithe - Limb 'large branch of a tree' + lithe 'flexible, pliant'.
    468 (II: 72). East End - 'Name of Fangorn Forest in the Elder Days' {Index).
    469 (II: 72): Treebeard fell silent
    469 (II: 72). Treebeard fell silent... - A recording by Tolkien from these words to the end of the poem is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    469 (II: 72). In the willow-meads of Tasarinan I ... Nan-tasarion -
    'Tasarinan "willow-vale" a region of Beleriand in the Elder Days, also called Nan-Tasariori, '(nan, nand- "vale")' (Index). Treebeard gives the Quenya names. The Sindarin name is Nan-tathren 'vale of willows' or 'land of willows', named thus on the Silmarillion map where the river Narog flows into Sirion.
    469 (II: 72). Ossiriand ... Seven Rivers of Ossir - 'Ossiriand, "land of Seven Rivers", a region of Beleriand under east-sides of Ered-Luin part of which survived the Floods and became Lindon. Also called Ossir. Otos [sic, for otso] (odo-) 7 [seven] Sir river' (Index). The seven rivers were the Gelion and its six tributaries flowing down from the Ered Luin.
    469 (II: 72). Neldoreth ... Taur-na-neldor! - 'Taur-na-neldor = Beech-forest. Taur "forest"' (Index). Another name for Neldoreth; see note for p. 193-
    469 (II: 72). Dorthonion ... Orod-na-Thon - In his unfinished index Tolkien says in separate entries: 'Dorthonion, land of pines, a highland on north borders of Beleriand' and 'Thon "pine-tree"; Orod-na-Thon "the Pine-mountain" a mountain in Dorthonion, north of Beleriand, in the Elder days', 'dor "land"'.
    469 (II: 72). And now all those lands lie under the wave - As a result of the tumults of the great battle at the end of the First Age in which Morgoth was overthrown, the north-western regions of Middle-earth, including most of Beleriand, were rent asunder and drowned in the Sea.
    469 (II: 72). in Ambarona, in Tauremorna, in Aldalome ... Tauremorna-lome - In his unfinished index Tolkien notes that Ambarona is the 'ancient


    name of a region'. It means 'uprising, sunrise, orient', from Quenya amba 'up(wards)' + rona 'east'. An unpublished gloss of the name in Tolkien's linguistic notes gives 'Eastern (land)' with the annotation 'dawn = amba-rone. Compare note for p. 468 (East End = Fangorn Forest).
    Also noted in Index are 'Tauremorna "black forest"'; 'Aldalome "tree-twilight'; 'Alda "tree"'; and 'Lome High Elven [Quenya] dimness, twilight, night'.
    470 (II: 73): 'Hm! Here you are'
    470 (II: 73). I have brought you about seventy-thousand ent-strides -
    In Marquette MSS 4/2/19 Tolkien made various calculations of the length and speed of an ent-stride, adjusting both to what he felt the distance and length of the journey required. His final conclusion was probably that 'an Ent would take nearly nine hours to do 70,000 strides and presumably in that time would go 70,000 yards at least, probably 4 ft a stride'. This meant about 2.2 strides of 4 feet per second, covering a distance of 53.3 miles, at a speed of about 6 miles per hour. (Other calculations note that at 2 strides per second, 70,000 strides would take 9% hours, and 70,000 strides of 3 feet would be about 40 miles.)
    In another note, Tolkien writes: 'Ents are (as long as they can drink running water) almost tireless. They can go at c. 12 m.p.h. - averaging say 10 hours (even 24) at a stretch. Max[imum] speed of Treebeard was 20 m.p.h. when charging' (Marquette MSS 4/2/19).
    470 (II: 73). the Last Mountain - Methedras.
    470 (II: 73). Wellinghall - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that 'the intended sense' of Wellinghall 'is "hall (under or behind) the outflow of the spring"'.
    471 (II: 74): At last he set the bowl
    471 (II: 74). I will lie down; that will prevent this drink from rising to my head - Trees 'drink' while upright, through capillary action.
    473 (II: 76): 'Saruman is a Wizard'
    473 (II: 76). They appeared first after the Great Ships came over the Sea
    - Whether Treebeard is referring to the return of the Numenoreans to Middle-earth during the Second Age, or to Elendil and his ships after the destruction of Numenor near the end of the Second Age, the Wizards did not appear until many years later, c. Third Age 1000 according to The Tale of Years (Appendix B).
    473 (II: 76). settled down at Angrenost, orlsengard-AngrenosrisSindariri 'iron fortress', from angren 'iron' (adjective) + ost 'fortress'. According tc The Tale of Years Saruman took up residence there in Third Age 2759.

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    Chapter 5 THE WHITE RIDER

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, PP- 425-35-

    488 (II: 91): 'My very bones are chilled'

    488 (II: 91). Day had come at last. - It is 1 March 1419.
    489-90 (II: 92-3): 'Maybe, I could'
    489-90 (II: 92-3). I guess that it was hands ... he was carried to this point - Aragorn's skills as a tracker are now shown to full advantage, when the reader already knows what happened to Merry and Pippin from the previous chapter.
    490 (II: 93): 'I do not know how it happened'
    490 (II: 93). Did they suppose they had captured the Ring-bearer and his faithful comrade? I think not. Their masters would not dare to give such plain orders to Ores ... they would not speak openly to them of the Ring: they are not trusty servants. But I think the ores had been commanded to capture hobbits, alive, at all costs. - Aragorn is only partly right, in deducing why the ores were content with capturing Merry and Pippin. But the actions of Grishnakh and Ugluk, and the entries on Tolkien's time-schemes, show that the ores did have some knowledge about the Ring. Indeed, both of them show considerable loyalty to their masters.
    491 (II: 94): 'That is just as well'
    491 (II: 94). There is something happening inside, or going to happen. Do you not feel the tenseness? - It is the second day of Entmoot.
    495 (II: 98): He stepped down
    495 (H: 98). none of you have any weapon that could hurt me - In a
    note almost certainly pre-dating the writing of this chapter, Tolkien wrote that Gandalf 'passed through fire - and became the White Wizard. "1 forgot much that I knew, and learned again much that I had forgotten." He has thus acquired something of the awe and terrible power of the Ring-wraiths — only on the good side. Evil things fly from him if he is revealed - when he shines. But he does not as a rule reveal himself {The Treason of Isengard, p. 422). In an outline for the Moria chapters of autumn 1939 (see note for p. 331) Tolkien seems not to have anticipated that there would be anything supernatural about Gandalf's return, but as the story developed a darker and more serious tone, so Gandalf was given increased


    power and authority: not just a particularly helpful and concerned wizard, but one of the emissaries of the Valar 'sent to contest the power of Sauron, and to unite all those who had the will to resist him; but they were forbidden to match his power with power, or to seek to dominate Elves or Men by force and fear' (Appendix B, p. 1084, III: 365). See further, note for p. 502.
    495 (II: 98): 'The eagle!' said Legolas
    495 (II: 98). four days ago - In editions prior to 2004 these words read 'three days ago'. In The Treason oflsengard Christopher Tolkien notes:
    At one point . .. the need for correction escaped my father's notice: Legolas' words that the last time he saw the eagle was 'three days ago, above the Emyn Muil'... . This should have been changed to 'four days ago' ... cf. The Tale of Years in LR: 'February 27 Aragorn reaches the west-cliff at sunrise', and (February having 30 days) 'March 1 Aragorn meets Gandalf the White', [p. 425]
    495 (II: 99): 'Yes,' said Gandalf
    495 (II: 99)- Very nearly it [the Ring] was revealed to the Enemy, but it escaped. I had some part in that: for I sat in a high place, and I strove with the Dark Tower; and the Shadow passed. - See note for p. 401.
    496-7 (II: 100): 'What then shall I sa^
    497 (II: 100). for he that strikes the first blow, if he strikes hard enough, may need to strike no more - A version of the traditional saying The first blow is half the battle.
    499 (II: 102-3): 'Ah! now you are asking much
    499 (II: 102). Treebeard is ... the oldest of the Ents, the oldest living thing that still walks beneath the Sun upon this Middle-earth. - In
    The Lord of the Rings Tolkien makes apparently contradictory statements concerning the priority of age in Middle-earth of Treebeard and Tom Bombadil. For the latter, see notes for pp. 119, 124, and 131, in which the cumulative evidence suggests that Tom Bombadil may have existed before Arda was fully fashioned, or at least before growing things appeared. To these may be compared Gandalf's statement about Treebeard as 'oldest' in the present paragraph, his remarks to Theoden in Book III, Chapter 8 ('Treebeard is ... the eldest and chief of the Ents, and when you speak with him you will hear the speech of the oldest of all living things', p. 558, II: 164), and Celeborn's address of Treebeard as 'Eldest' in Book VI, Chapter 6. Tolkien explained the latter as a 'courtesy title' in his draft letter of 1968, quoted in the note for p. 464; otherwise it is worth repeating Christopher Tolkien's comment that his father was given to 'rhetorical superlatives', such as 'the oldest living thing' (compare, as already noted

    for p. 15, the statement at the end of the Prologue that when Celeborn at last sought the Grey Havens 'with him went the last living memory of the Elder Days in Middle-earth').
    The balance of the statements in Tolkien's drafts for the 1968 letter indicate that Treebeard was the oldest surviving Ent, but no one knew the origin of Tom Bombadil or could remember a time when he was not in the world; and Bombadil 'was therefore often referred to as the oldest speaker'. In the 1968 letter Tolkien also said: 'No one knew whence they [Ents] came or first appeared'; yet in his text on the Ents and the Eagles included in The Silmarillion as part of 'Of Aule and Yavanna', he suggests that the Ents did not wake until after or at the same time as the Elves -and Treebeard's list of 'living peoples' places Elves first.
    499 (II: 102-3). I saw him four days ago ... and I think he saw me ... but I did not speak, for I was heavy with thought, and weary after my struggle with the Eye of Mordor - Four days ago was 27 February. Gan-dalf's struggle with the Eye of Mordor had been the previous day, when he fought to influence Frodo on Amon Hen.
    501 (II: 105): 'Yet it has a bottom
    501 (II: 105). His fire was quenched, but now he was a thing of slime, stronger than a strangling snake. - Gandalf's account recalls shape-changers in myth and legend, such as Proteus of whom it is said in Homer's Odyssey: 'He'll make you fight - for he can take the forms / of all the beasts, and water, and blinding fire' (Robert Fitzgerald translation (1990), Book IV, 11. 446-7); and in Vergil's Georgics, Book IV: 'But when thou shalt hold him caught and fettered in thine hands, even then the form and visage of manifold wild beasts shall cheat thee; for in a moment he will turn to bristly boar or a black tiger, a scaly serpent and tawny-necked lioness, or will roar shrill in flame and so slip out of fetters, or will melt into thin water and be gone' (J.W. Mackail translation (1934), p. 348).
    501-2 (II: 105): 'We fought far under the living earth
    501 (II: 105). Ever he clutched at me, and ever I hewed at him, till he fled at last into dark tunnels - Gandalf's fight with the Balrog recalls that of Beowulf with Grendel's mother: 'Then she clutched at him, she seized the warrior with her horrid claws'; he 'seized Grendel's mother by the shoulder ... bursting as he was with rage, so flung the deadly foe that she fell upon the ground. She quickly yielded him a recompense again with fearful graspings, and clutched at him ...' (Clark Hall translation, pp. 95, 97).
    501 (II: 105). Far, far below ... the world is gnawed by nameless things. Even Sauron knows them not. They are older than he. - But Sauron is a Maia: nothing should exist in Middle-earth that is older than he. The phrase is probably rhetorical.


    Todd Jensen has suggested that in writing this passage Tolkien may have been influenced by 'the horrible creatures gnawing away at the roots of Yggdrasil', the World Tree in Norse mythology, 'especially the dragon Nidhog, and his terrible brood' ('Nameless Things', Beyond Bree, August 1988, p. 8).
    502 (II: 105). the Endless Stair - A stairway leading from the lowest delving of the Dwarves, in Moria, to the summit of Celebdil (Zirak-zigil)' (Index).
    502 (II: 105): 'It was made, and it had not been destroyed'
    502 (II: 105). Durin's Tower - A tower on the summit of Zirak-zigil
    (Celebdil)' (Index).
    502 (II: 105-6): 'There upon Celebdil was a lonely window
    502 (II: 105). Thunder they heard, and lightning, they said, smote upon
    Celebdil, and leaped back broken into tongues of fire-----A great smoke
    rose about us, vapour and steam. Ice fell like rain. I threw down my enemy, and he fell from the high place and broke the mountain-side -
    Compare the battle of Zeus and Typhoeus in Hesiod's Theogony:
    Zeus raised up his strength
    Seizing his arms, lightning, the blazing holt,
    And thunder, leaped down from Olympus, struck,
    And burned the dreadful monster's ghastly heads.
    He lashed him with a whip and mastered him,
    And threw him down, all maimed, and great earth groaned.
    A flame leaped from the lightning-blasted lord,
    When he was struck, on the jagged mountainside.
    Great earth was widely scorched by the awful blast. . . .
    [Dorothea Wender translation (1973), 11. 54-62]
    502 (II: 106): 'Naked I was sent back
    502 (II: 106). Naked I was sent back - for a brief time, until my task is done. - On 4 November 1954 Tolkien wrote in a draft letter to Robert Murray:
    I think the way in which Gandalf's return is presented is a defect, and one other critic, as much under the spell as yourself, curiously used the same expression 'cheating'. That is partly due to the ever-present compulsions of narrative technique. He must return at that point, and such explanations of his survival as are explicitly set out must be given there - but the narrative is urgent, and must not be held up for elaborate discussions involving the whole 'mythological' setting.. ..
    Gandalf really 'died', and was changed: for that seems to me the only real cheating, to represent anything that can be called 'death' as making


    no difference. 'I am G[andalf] the White, who has returned from death'.... I might say much more, but... it would not, I fear, get rid of the fact that the return of G. is as presented in this book a 'defect', and one I was aware of, and probably did not work hard enough to mend. But G. is not, of course, a human being (Man or Hobbit). There are naturally no precise modern terms to say what he was. I w[oul]d venture to say that he was an incarnate 'angel' - strictly an dyyeAoc;: that is, with the other Istari, wizards, 'those who know', an emissary from the Lords of the West, sent to Middle-earth as the great crisis of Sauron loomed on the horizon. By 'incarnate' I mean they were embodied in physical bodies capable of pain, and weariness, and of afflicting the spirit with physical fear, and of being 'killed', though supported by the angelic spirit they might endure long, and only show slowly the wearing of care and labour.
    [They were given this form] ... to limit and hinder their exhibition of 'power' on the physical plane, and so that they should do what they were primarily sent for: train, advise, instruct, arouse the hearts and minds of those threatened by Sauron to a resistance with their own strengths; and not just to do the job for them. They thus appeared as 'old' sage figures. But ... all the 'angelic' powers concerned with this world were capable of many degrees of error... . The 'wizards' were not exempt, indeed being incarnate were more likely to stray, or err. Gandalf alone fully passes the tests, on a moral plane anyway (he makes mistakes of judgement). For in his condition it was for him a sacrifice to perish on the Bridge in defence of his companions, less perhaps than for a mortal Man or Hobbit, since he had a far greater inner power than they; but also, more, since it was a humbling and abnegation of himself in conformity to 'the Rules': for all he could know at that moment he was the only person who could direct the resistance to Sauron successfully, and all his mission was vain. He was handing over to the Authority that ordained the Rules, and giving up personal hope of success.
    That I should say is what the Authority wished, as a set-off to Saruman. The 'wizards', as such, had failed; or if you like: the crisis had become too grave and needed an enhancement of power. So Gandalf sacrificed himself, was accepted, and enhanced, and returned.... Of course he remained similar in personality and idiosyncrasy, but both his wisdom and power are much greater. When he speaks he commands attention; the old Gandalf could not have dealt so with Theoden, nor with Saruman. He is still under the obligation of concealing his power and of teaching rather than forcing or dominating wills, but where the physical powers of the Enemy are too great for the good will of the opposers to be effective he can act in emergency as an 'angel'.... He seldom does so, operating rather through others, but in one or two cases in the War [of the Ring] ... he does reveal a sudden power: he

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 4n-5i-
    506 (II: no): They rode on
    506 (II: 110). They rode on - According to Scheme, Gandalf and company set out for Edoras at about 3.00 p.m. on 1 March 1419. 'They ride for 12 hours, rest four and at sunrise next day see the King's Hall (Mar. 2)'.
    506 (II: 110): Hours passed and still they rode
    506 (II: 110). The waxing moon sank into the cloudy West - The moon is one night past its first quarter, and will be full on 7/8 March. Tolkien correctly indicates the moon setting some hours before dawn.
    506 (II: 110): 'Look!' he cried
    506 (II: 110). mountains of the South ... the stream that issued from the dale - The mountains of the South are the White Mountains. The stream is the Snowbourn.
    506-7 (II: 110-11): Legolas gazed ahead
    507 (II: 111). The light of it shines far over the land. - Tom Shippey in The Road to Middle-earth (2nd edn., p. 112) points out that this sentence is a translation of Beowulf, 1. 311: lixte se leoma ofer landa fela.
    507 (II: 111): 'Look!' said Gandalf
    507 (II: 111). Evermind they are called, simbelmyne in this land of Men, for they blossom in all the seasons of the year - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that Evermind is a 'flower-name, translation of Rohan simbelmyne. The element -mind has the sense "memory". The name thus resembles "forget-me-not", but a quite different kind of flower is intended: an imag­ined variety of anemone, growing in turf like Anemone Pulsatilla, the pasque-flower, but smaller and white like the wood anemone.'
    The Rohan name simbelmyne is derived from Old English simbei 'continual, perpetual, ever, always' + myne 'mind'. In Of Tuor and Hu Coming to Gondor, written c. 1951-2, on his way through the ravine leading to Gondolin 'Tuor saw beside the way a sward of grass, where like stars bloomed the white flowers uilos, the Evermind that knows nc season and withers not' (Unfinished Tales, p. 48). Christopher Tolkien comments:


    These were the flowers that bloomed abundantly on the burial mounds of the Kings of Rohan below Edoras, and which Gandalf named in the language of Rohan (as translated into Old English) simbelmyne.... The Elvish name uilos is only given in this passage, but the word is found also in Amon Uilos, as the Quenya name Oiolosse ('Ever-snow-white', the Mountain of Manwe) was rendered into Sindarin. In 'Cirion and Eorl' the flower is given another Elvish name, alfirin [growing on ElendiPs tomb, and described as white]. [ Unfinished Tales, p. 55, n. 27]
    The name alfirin is also given to a different, yellow flower in Legolas's song, on which see note for p. 875.
    507 (II: 111): 'Seven mounds upon the left
    507 (II: 111). Seven mounds upon the left, and nine upon the right - The
    burial mounds of the Kings of Rohan from the establishment of the realm in Third Age 2510. The division marks a break in the line of descent: the ninth king having left no surviving son, he was succeeded by his sister's son. Burial mounds have a long history (see note for p. 114), and in later times those of a dynasty might be placed close together. Hilda Roderick Ellis comments in The Road to Hel: A Study of the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature (1943) that 'perhaps the most impressive graves found are those of Vendel in Sweden, where a line of chiefs has been buried, for the most part in their ships, in a series of graves which seem to date in unbroken succession from the sixth century to the tenth' (p. 10). Other such groups include the Anglo-Saxon burial mounds at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk and royal graves at Uppsala in Sweden. Tolkien's description of seven mounds upon the left, and nine upon the right recalls a plate in William Stukeley's Stonehenge: A Temple Restor'd to the British Druids (1740), which shows a view of barrows in a line at right angles to the Avenue at Stonehenge, with inscriptions 'The 7 Kings Barrows' and 'The 6 Old Kings Barrows' (p. 52, tab. XXVII).
    508 (II: 112): 'That, I guess
    508 (II: 112). the language of the Rohirrim - Tolkien notes in Appendix F that he made the language of the Rohirrim 'to resemble ancient [Old] English'; but 'this linguistic procedure does not imply that the Rohirrim closely resembled the ancient English otherwise, in culture or art, in weapons or modes of warfare, except in a general way due to their circum­stances: a simpler and more primitive people living in contact with a higher and more venerable culture, and occupying lands that had once been part of its domain' (p. 1136, III: 414).
    Tom Shippey, however, argues that 'with one admitted exception, the Riders of Rohan resemble the Anglo-Saxons down to minute details' {The Road to Middle-earth, 2nd edn., p. 106). The 'obvious difference', he says, 'is horses'.


    The Rohirrim called themselves the Eotheod (Old English eoh — 'horse' + peod = 'people'); this translates into the Common Speech as 'the Riders'.... The Rohirrim are nothing if not cavalry. By contrast the Anglo-Saxons' reluctance to have anything militarily to do with horses is notorious.... How then can Anglo-Saxons and Rohirrim ever, cul­turally, be equated? A part of the answer is that the Rohirrim are not to be equated with the Anglo-Saxons of history, but with those of poetry, or legend, [p. 112]
    508 (II: 112): 'It runs thus in the Common Speech
    508 (II: 112). It runs thus in the Common Speech... - A recording by Tolkien from these words (slightly reordered) to the end of the following poem is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    508 (II: 112). Where now the horse and the rider?... - Christopher Tolkien points out that this is 'an echo of the Old English poem known as The Wanderer, line 92: Hwcer cwom mearg? Hwcer cwom mago?' (The Treason oflsengard, p. 449, n. 8). It follows an old convention, ubi sunt? in which the poet comments on the passing of time. The Wanderer-ipoet asks: 'Where has the horse gone? Where the young warrior? Where is the giver of treasure? What has become of the seats for the feasts? Where are the joys of the hall? . .. How has that time gone, vanished beneath night's cover, just as if it had never been!' (E. Talbot Donaldson translation, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, rev. edn. (1968), vol. 1, p. 92).
    508 (II: 112). hauberk - Armour, originally for the neck and shoulders, later a long coat of mail.
    508 (II: 112). Felarof - 'Very valiant, very strong' (Old English fela 'much, very' + rof'valiant, stout, strong').
    508 (II: 112): There sat many men
    508 (II: 112). 'Stay, strangers here unknown!' they cried in the tongue of the Riddermark, demanding the names and errand of the strangers. -
    In an early draft the challenge was actually written in Old English and in full (see The Treason oflsengard, p. 442-3, translated by Christopher Tolkien on p. 449, n. 5): 'Stay, strangers unknown! Who are ye, friends or foes, that have come thus strangely clad riding to the gates of this town? None may enter in, neither beggarman nor warrior, if we know not his name. Now ye comers from afar, declare to us in haste: what are ye called? What is your errand to Theoden our lord?' Christopher Tolkien points out that here and in the following speech of the guards 'the passage in Beowulf (lines 237-57) in which Beowulf and his companions are accosted by the watchman on the coast of Denmark is very distinctly echoed'. The relevant passages are:
    'What kind of armed men are ye, clad in coats of mail, who have thus come and brought a towering ship over the water-ways, hither over the


    seas? For a long time I have been acting as coast-guard.... Never have I seen a mightier noble upon earth, a warrior in armour, than is one of you. ...
    'Now, I must know your origin, ere you go further, as faithless spies, on Danish ground. Now, ye strangers from afar, ye sea-traversers ... it is best to tell me quickly the cause of your coming.' [Clark Hall translation, pp. 31-2]
    On the wider subject of Beowulf and Rohan, see Clive Tolley, 'And the Word Was Made Flesh', Mallorn 32 (September 1995).
    508-9 (II: 112-13): 'It is the will of Theoden King
    508 (II: 113). Mundburg - 'Guardian-fortress, name in Rohan of Minas Tirith' (1966 Index).
    508 (II: 113). Who are you that come heedless over the plain, thus strangely clad, riding horses like to our own horses? Long have we kept guard here, and we have watched you from afar. Never have we seen other riders so strange, nor any horse more proud - A continuation of the echo of Beowulf.
    509 (II: 113): A troubled look
    509 (II: 113). Wormtongue - A '"modernized" form of the nickname of Grima, the evil counsellor of Rohan = Rohan [Old English] wyrm-tunge "snake-tongue"' {Nomenclature). Tolkien was undoubtedly familiar with the Icelandic tale of Gunnlaug the Worm-tongue, translated by William Morris and Eirikr Magnusson (published 1869), but there the name Worm­tongue was given to a poet because of his sharp wit.
    509-10 (II: 114): The dark gates were swung open
    509 (II: 114). they seemed more than mortal men - In the original draft of this chapter these words were followed by a description of the exterior of the hall: 'Before Theoden's hall there was a portico, with pillars made of mighty trees hewn in the upland forests and carved with interlacing figures gilded and painted. The doors also were of wood, carven in the likeness of many beasts and birds with jewelled eyes and golden claws.' Christopher Tolkien comments in The Treason oflsengard that 'it is curious that in the "fair copy" manuscript, and thence in the final text, there is no description at all of the exterior of the house, and I think that it may have got lost in the complexities of redrafting and reordering of the material' (pp. 443-4). But in discussions of emendations to make to the edition of 2004 Christopher Tolkien felt that it was only his guess that the passage was lost rather than deliberately omitted, and although a good guess it is a guess nonetheless. The text therefore was left as it was.
    Most of the Anglo-Saxon decorative carving that survives is in stone, not wood, but several examples of carved wooden doorways and doors


    from eleventh- to thirteenth-century stave churches can be seen in Norway, especially in the University Museum of National Antiquities in Oslo. Both Anglo-Saxon and Viking examples use interlacing figures in various styles, and may well have been painted when new.
    510 (II: 114): 'I am the Doorward of Theoden'
    510 (II: 114). Hama - From Old English ham 'home, house, dwelling', an appropriate name for the King's doorward.
    510 (II: 114). I must bid you lay aside your weapons - The same request was made by the coast-guard to Beowulf and his men. Beowulf did not object, but left two or three men to guard the weapons while he was in the hall.
    511 (II: 115): 'Truly,' said Aragorn
    511 (II: 115). woodman's cot - A cot in this sense is a small, humble house or cottage. Here Aragorn is admitting the right of even the poorest to be master of his own dwelling, however humble, according to the proverb An Englishman's house is his castle.
    511 (II: 115): 'Come, come!'
    511 (II: 115). goodman Hama - Goodman is an archaic term of address denoting respect.
    511 (II: 115): Slowly Aragorn unbuckled his belt
    511 (II: 115). Telchar first wrought it in the deeps of time. - Telchar was the most renowned of the Dwarf-smiths of Nogrod in the First Age.
    511 (II: 116): 'The staff in the hand of a wizard
    511 (II: 116). The staff in the hand of a wizard may be more than a prop
    for age___Yet in doubt a man of worth will trust his own wisdom. I
    believe you are friends and folk worthy of honour, who have no evil purpose. - Hama is right to suspect Gandalf's staff, but he also correctly judges the purposes of the strangers. Hama's words echo those of the coast-guard to Beowulf: 'The bold shield-warrior, who judges well, must know the difference between these two - words and deeds. I understand that this is a company friendly to the lord of the Scyldings' (Clark Hall translation, p. 34).
    511-12 (II: 116): The guards now lifted the heavy bars
    512 (II: 116). louver in the roof - The Oxford English Dictionary gives two possible interpretations: 'A domed turret-like erection on the roof of a hall ... in a medieval building with lateral openings for the passage of smoke or the admission of light', or 'a hole in the roof for the passage of smoke'.

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    Chapter 7 HELM'S DEEP
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 8-24.
    526 (II: 131): The host rode on
    526 (II: 131). the fords of the Isen - 'Fords from and to an eyot in Isen over which the road from Edoras to Isengard passed' {Index). The Sindarin name of the Fords is said in Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan to be Athrad Angren; in The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor it is given in the plural, Ethraid Engrin.
    526 (II: 131): Night closed about them
    526 (II: 131). They had ridden for some five hours - It is now about 7.00 p.m. According to Scheme the host camped after riding 50 miles, which is indeed less than half of the some 120 miles ('forty leagues and more') between Edoras and the fords of the Isen.
    526 (II: 131). bivouac - An open encampment, without tents.
    526 (II: 131). At dawn the horns sounded - It is 3 March 1419.
    526 (II: 131): There were no clouds
    526 (II: 131). another darkness ... a shadow crept down slowly from the Wizard's Vale - Scheme notes: 'Gandalf sees shadow of Huorns over Nan Gurunir [earlier form of Curunir]'.
    527 (II: 132): As the second day of their riding
    527 (II: 132). Thrihyrne - A mountain with three peaks, a northward arm of the White Mts. at the head of the glen of Helm's Deep' (Index). The name derives from Old English pri 'three' + hyrne 'horn, corner, angle' (pri-hyrne 'three-cornered, triangular').
    527 (II: 132): He came, a weary man
    527 (II: 132). We were overmastered. The shield-wall was broken. -
    Overmastered 'mastered completely, conquered'.
    In notes to his edition of The Battle of Maldon (1937) E.V. Gordon describes the shield-wall as a battle tactic characteristic of Anglo-Saxon armies, who fought on foot rather than on horseback. It 'was a defensive formation made by ranks of men placed closely one behind another and holding their shields side by side and overlapping so as to present a continuous wall. The front rank of men held their shields before their breasts and the ranks behind held theirs over their heads to protect both


    those in front and themselves. This formation was probably from common Germanic tradition ...' (p. 50). The Rohirrim may be unlike the Anglo-Saxons in that they are primarily cavalry, but they also fight on foot and use Anglo-Saxon tactics.
    A more detailed account of the events referred to by the 'weary man' is given in The Battles of the Fords of Isen (Unfinished Tales, pp. 360-4). After the death of Theodred, Erkenbrand occupied himself with the gathering of men in the Westfold, towards the preparation of Helm's Deep against attack. He gave command in the field to Grimbold, who thought that the Fords should be manned: for if Saruman learned that all of the opposing forces were on the east bank, he might send another army down the west bank, cross the Fords, and attack the Rohirrim from the rear. But Elfhelm, who had independent command of the Muster of Edoras, felt that Saruman would send his army down the east side of the river Isen, a slower approach but one which avoided forcing the passage of the Fords, and therefore advised that the Fords be abandoned and men placed on the east side of the river to hold up the enemy's advance.
    A compromise was struck: Grimbold's foot-soldiers manned the western end of the Fords, while he and the rest of his men and cavalry remained on the east bank; and Elfhelm withdrew his Riders to a position where he wished the main defence to stand. Grimbold's forces at the Fords were attacked first during the day on 2 March, and by sunset were forced to withdraw to the east bank. But Saruman's forces, whose departure from Isengard Merry describes to Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli in Book III, Chapter 9, marched south on both sides of the Isen. Around midnight those on the west side swept over the Fords. Grimbold formed a great shield-wall, which held for a while. No help came from Elfhelm, who had been attacked by Saruman's army on the east and forced to retreat. Grimbold then realized that 'though his men might fight on till all were slain, and would if he ordered it, such valour would not help Erkenbrand: any man that could break out and escape southwards would be more useful, though he might seem inglorious' (p. 362). He therefore arranged a successful diversion, and 'so it was that the greater part of Grimbold's men survived' (p. 363), though they were scattered.
    527 (II: 132). Erkenbrand of Westfold - The name Erkenbrand may be derived from Old English eorcan 'precious' (as also in eorcan-stan 'precious stone', thus the Arkenstone in The Hobbit) + Old English brand 'fire-brand, torch' or, metaphorically, 'sword'. In developing The Lord of the Rings Tolkien briefly considered Erkenbrand, rather than Aragorn, as a name for Trotter.
    Westfold is 'the slopes and fields between Thrihyrne and Edoras' {Index); see also note for p. 803.
    527 (II: 132). Helm's Deep - Deep in this sense means 'cavity': 'a deep gorge in the White Mountains' (Index). It was named after the ninth King


    of the Mark, Helm Hammerhand, who took refuge there in Third Age 2758—9 when Rohan was invaded by the Dunlendings.
    Among his working drawings for The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien made a sketch-plan of Helm's Deep and an illustration, Helm's Deep & the Hornburg (Artist and Illustrator, figs. 160-1).
    527 (II: 132): Theoden had sat silent
    527 (II: 132). Ceorl - The Old English word for a freeman of the lowest class, countryman, husbandman. The Oxford English Dictionary comments on ceorl: 'In the Old English constitution: A man simply without rank; a member of the third or lowest rank of freemen'; and that after the Norman Conquest the word came to mean 'a tenant in pure villeinage; a serf, a bondsman. (The position to which most of the O.E. ceorlas were reduced.)'
    528 (II: 133): 'Ride, Theoden!'
    528 (II: 133). Helm's Gate - 'The entrance to Helm's Deep guarded by the Hornburg' {Index).
    528 (II: 133): He spoke a word to Shadowfax
    528 (II: 133). Even as they looked he was gone - According to Scheme: 'At sunset Gandalf leaves host and rides on Shadowfax to Isengard. Arrives at nightfall. Stays only 20 minutes to speak to Treebeard & then rides to help of Erkenbrand.' According to The Battles of the Fords oflsen:
    [Gandalf] received news of the disaster [the defeat of the Riders at the Fords] only in the late afternoon of March the 3rd. The King was then at a point not far east of the junction of the Road with the branch going to the Hornburg. From there it was about ninety miles in a direct line to Isengard; and Gandalf must have ridden there with the greatest speed that Shadowfax could command. He reached Isengard in the early darkness, and left again in no more than twenty minutes. [Unfinished Tales, pp. 363-4]
    Both the original general map of Middle-earth and the revised map of 1980 agree with a distance of about ninety miles from near the Deeping-coomb to Isengard. But in Book III, Chapter 8, Gandalf says that from a point near the mouth of the Deeping-coomb to Isengard is about 'fifteen leagues [forty-five miles]' as the crow flies to Isengard, 'five [fifteen miles] from the mouth of Deeping-coomb to the Fords; and ten more [thirty miles] from there to the gates of Isengard' (p. 548, II: 154). These shorter distances appear not only in the published text, but also in calculations made by Tolkien while writing the narrative (with little or no variation). See also note for p. 548.

    HELM'S DEEP 415
    528 (II: 133): The host turned away
    528 (II: 133). on the far side of the Westfold Vale, a great bay in the mountains, lay a green coomb - In editions prior to 2004 this passage read: 'on the far side of the Westfold Vale, lay a green coomb, a great bay in the mountains'. The current, correct reading is clear in the manuscript of this chapter, but somehow became partly inverted in typescript. See The War of the Ring, p. 12.
    528-9 (II: 133-4): At Helm's Gate
    528 (II: 133). the Hornburg - 'A fortress on a rocky eminence at the mouth of Helm's Deep' (Index). Hornburg, and Hornrock, 'are so called because of Helm's great horn, supposed still at times to be heard blowing' (Nomen­clature).
    528 (II: 134). culvert - An underground channel for carrying water.
    528 (II: 134). Deeping-stream - 'Stream flowing out of Helm's Deep & over into the Westfold' (Index). As first published, the name was spelt 'Deeping Stream'; it was emended in the fifth printing (1977) of the Unwin Books three-volume paperback edition. In Nomenclature (under Deeping-coomb) Tolkien notes that 'Deeping is not a verbal ending, but one indicat­ing relationship', thus Deeping-stream is the stream associated with the Deep.
    529 (II: 134). gore - In this context, a triangular piece of land.
    529 (II: 134). Helm's Dike - 'An earth wall defending the upland before Helm's Deep' (Index).
    529 (II: 134). Deeping-coomb - 'The coomb or deep valley belonging to the Deep (Helm's Deep) to which it led up' (Nomenclature). As first pub­lished, the name was spelt 'Deeping Coomb'; it was emended in the fifth printing (1977) of the Unwin Books three-volume paperback edition, in accordance with the reference in Nomenclature.
    529-30 (II: 135): Aragorn and Legolas went now
    529 (II: 135). van - A shortened form of vanguard, the foremost unit of an advancing military force.
    530 (II: 135): The rumour of war
    530 (II: 135). rumour - In this sense, clamour, noise.
    530 (II: 135): 'They bring fire'
    530 (II: 135). rick, cot, and tree - A rick is 'a stack of hay, corn, peas, etc.: especially one regularly built and thatched' (OED). Saruman's army is setting fire to haystacks, cottages, trees - anything that will burn.

    530 (II: 135): 'We need not fly
    530 (II: 135). rampart - 'A mound of earth raised for the defence of a place .. . wide enough on the top for the passage of troops' (OED).
    530-1 (II: 136): 'Maybe, we have a thousand
    530 (II: 136). Gamling - In Nomenclature Tolkien notes that Gamling 'the Old', is
    a name of one of the Rohirrim ... like one or two other names in Rohan, as Shadowfax, Wormtongue, etc., it has been slightly anglicized and modernized. It should be Gameling (with short a). It would be one of the words and names that hobbits recognized as similar to their own, since it is an English (= Common Speech) name, probably the origin of the sur­name Gamlen, Gam(b)lin, etc. Cf. The Tale ofGamelin, a medieval poem from which ultimately was derived part of Shakespeare's As You Like It. (It is derived from the stem gamal- 'old', the normal word in Scandinavian languages, but only found in Old English in verse-language and in Old High German only as an element in personal names.)
    531 (II: 136): Quickly Eomer set his men
    531 (II: 136). Deeping Wall - 'The wall closing entrance to Helm's Deep' {Index).
    531 (II: 136-7): The Deeping Wall stood twenty feet high
    531 (II: 136). parapet - A low wall to shelter troops.
    531 (II: 137): Gimli stood leaning against the breastwork
    531 (II: 137). breastwork - Usually a temporary low wall erected for defence; in this context, the 'parapet over which only a tall man could look' as described in the preceding paragraph, a defensive wall on top of the Deeping Wall. Gimli, well short of a tall man, is leaning against the parapet, Legolas is sitting on top of it.
    532 (II: 137-8): It was now past midnight
    532 (II: 137). It was now past midnight - It is 4 March 1419.
    532 (II: 138). sable - The heraldic term for 'black'.
    533 (II: 138): Brazen trumpets sounded
    533 (II: 138). brazen-Brass.
    533 (II: 138). blazoned - Painted in a heraldic manner.
    533 (II: 139): Running like fire
    533 (II: 139). postern-door - In fortifications, a door usually in the angle or the flank, used for small sorties.

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    Chapter 8

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 25-46.
    543 (II: 148): 'That may be
    543 (II: 148). and the stout legs of the Westfold-men marching through the night - In The Battles of the Fords of Isen, after recording Gandalf's brief visit to Isengard on 3 March, it is said that
    both on the outward journey, when his direct route would take him close to the Fords, and on his return south to find Erkenbrand, he [Gandalf ] must have met Grimbold and Elfhelm. They were convinced that he was acting for the King, not only by his appearance on Shadow-fax, but also by his knowledge of the name of the errand-rider, Ceorl, and the message that he brought; and they took as orders the advice that he gave. Grimbold's men he sent southward to join Erkenbrand.. .. [Unfinished Tales, p. 364]
    544 (II: 149): 'Then if not yours

    544 (II: 149). sage - In this sense, a wise man.
    544-5 (II: 149-50): The King then chose men
    544 (II: 150). There the Lord of the Mark would hold an assembly of all that could bear arms, on the third day after the full moon. - In editions prior to 2005 the assembly was on the second day after the full moon. This error, and two others concerning the assembly or muster in relation to the securely established dates of the full moon on the night of 7/8 March and the muster on 10 March, were overlooked as the story developed and the chronology of events shifted. See also notes for pp. 778 and 792, and discussion by Christopher Tolkien in The War of the Ring, pp. 321-2.
    545 (II: 150): In the midst of the field
    545 (II: 150). East Dales - The Eastfold; see note for p. 803.
    545 (II: 150). But the men of Dunland were set apart in a mound below the Dike. - This sentence was not present in editions prior to 2004. In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien notes that in the fair copy of the present chapter
    in the account of the burials after the battle of the Hornburg, there were not only the two mounds raised over the fallen Riders: following the words 'and those of the Westfold upon the other' . .. there stands

    in the manuscript 'But the men of Dunland were set apart in a mound below the Dike' (a statement that goes back through the first complete manuscript to the original draft of the passage . .. ). This sentence was inadvertently omitted in the following typescript (not made by my father), and the error was never observed, [p. 40]
    546 (II: 151): The sun was already drawing near
    546 (II: 151). The sun was already drawing near the hills ... when at last Theoden and Gandalf and their companions rode down from the Dike.
    - According to Scheme, they set out at 3.30 p.m.
    547 (II: 152): 'And I would give gold
    547 (II: 152). And I would give gold to be excused ... and double to be let out, if I strayed in! - Some readers have found Legolas's statement puzzling, since in The Hobbit, Chapter 8, the king of the Elves of Mirkwood, and presumably his son Legolas, lived in a 'great cave, from which countless smaller ones opened out on every side, [and which] wound far under­ground and had many passages and wide halls'. Moreover, 'it was lighter and more wholesome than any goblin-dwelling, and neither so deep nor so dangerous'. It is also said, however, that 'the subjects of the king mostly lived and hunted in the open woods, and had houses or huts on the ground and in the branches... . The king's cave was his palace, and the strong place of his treasure, and the fortress of his people against their enemies.'
    547 (II: 152): 'You have not seen
    547 (II: 152). where your King dwells under the hills in Mirkwood, and Dwarves helped in their making long ago - This seems to be the only mention that Dwarves helped to make the Elven-king's halls; but in 'The Silmarillion' it is told how dwarves of the First Age helped to build the two great underground strongholds of the Elves: Menegroth for Thingol, and Nargothrond for Finrod.
    547 (II: 152). hovels - Squalid or poorly constructed dwellings.
    547 (II: 152). immeasurable halls, filled with an everlasting music of water that tinkles into pools - On 4 February 1971 Tolkien wrote to P. Rorke, S.J., that Gimli's description of the Caverns of Helm's Deep 'was based on the caves in Cheddar Gorge and was written just after I had revisited these in 1940 but was still coloured by my memory of them much earlier before they became so commercialized. I had been there during my honeymoon nearly thirty years before' (Letters, p. 407). The Cheddar Caves, in the Cheddar Gorge in Somerset, are famous for their beauty, with groups of fantastic stalactites and stalagmites, and other limestone formations, reflected in pools.

    547-8 (II: 152-3): 'And, Legolas, when the torches
    547 (II: 153). saffron - Orange-yellow, the colour of the spice saffron. 548 (II: 154): 'About fifteen leagues
    548 (II: 154). About fifteen leagues, as the crows of Saruman make it... five from the mouth of the Deeping-coomb to the Fords; and ten more from there to the gates of Isengard. - Some early drafts and working papers for The Lord of the Rings indicate a shorter journey to Isengard, but later texts, time-schemes, and calculations by Tolkien of journeys and distances give (with little or no variation) the distances in the published text. These agree with the 40 leagues or more (over 120 miles) from Edoras to the Fords of Isen, given at the beginning of Book III, Chapter 7, and with details of Theoden's ride: he and those with him were 50 miles from Edoras when they halted on 2 March, and on the following day they were close to the Deeping-coomb (15 miles from the Fords) as the sun began to set, having presumably covered at least another 55 miles. The distance from Edoras to the Fords on both the original general map of Middle-earth and the revised map of 1980 seems to be about 120 miles. On both maps, however, the distance from the mouth of the Deeping-coomb to the Fords is much more than 15 miles, and the distance from the Fords to Isengard is little more than that from the mouth of the Deeping-coomb to the Fords. In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien comments that the working map on which he based his 1943 map (the basis in turn for the 1954 map) 'is here very difficult to interpret and I have probably not placed Helm's Deep at precisely the point my father intended' (p. 78, n. 2).
    548 (II: 154): 'I do not know myself
    548 (II: 154). the Glittering Caves of Aglarond - Glittering Caves is a 'translation' of Aglarond. In the manuscript of Nomenclature Tolkien notes 'aglar "brilliance" + rond "vault, high roofed cavern"'.
    549 (II: 154): Even as he spoke
    549 (II: 154). their legs in their long paces beat quicker than the heron's wings - See note for p. 470.
    550 (II: 155): Yet also I should be sad
    550 (II: 155). For however the fortune of war shall go, may it not so end that much that was fair and wonderful shall pass for ever out of Middle-earth? - Theoden foresees truly. Tom Shippey comments:
    The whole history of Middle-earth seems to show that good is attained only at vast expense while evil recuperates almost at will... . And even if [the crisis at the end of the Third Age] is surmounted, it is made extremely clear that this success too will conform to the general pattern of 'fruitlessness' - or maybe one should say that its fruit will be bitter.


    Destruction of the Ring, says Galadriel, will mean that her ring and Gandalf's and Elrond's will also lose their power, so that Lothlorien 'fades' and the elves 'dwindle'. Along with them will go the ents and the dwarves, indeed the whole imagined world of Middle-earth, to be replaced by modernity and the domination of men; all the characters and their story, one might say, will shrink to poetic 'rigmaroles' and misunderstood snatches in plays and ballads. Beauty especially will be a casualty. [The Road to Middle-earth, 2nd edn., pp. 139-40]
    550 (II: 157): 'With the help of Shadowfax
    550 (II: 157). Some men I sent with Grimbold of Westfold to join Erken-brand. Some I set to make this burial. They have now followed your marshal, Elfhelm. I sent him with many Riders to Edoras. - As first published this passage read: 'Some of them I sent to join Erkenbrand; some I set to this labour that you see, and they by now have gone back to Edoras. Many others also I sent thither before to guard your house.' It was revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition.
    553 (II: 158): At dawn they made ready
    553 (II: 158). At dawn - It is 5 March 1419. According to The Tale of Years they reach Isengard at noon.
    555 (II: 160-1): A strong place and wonderful
    555 (II: 161). suffered no rival - Suffered in this sense means 'tolerated'.
    556 (II: 162): 'Welcome, my lords
    556 (II: 162). Saradoc - Saradoc as the name of Merry's father in draft replaced Caradoc, a Welsh name in accordance with Tolkien's decision that Buckland names should have a vaguely 'Celtic' style. Caradoc of Llancarfan wrote a life of St. Gildas, the first known text (c. 1130) to associate King Arthur with Glastonbury, and another Caradoc is the hero of the Livre de Caradoc, part of the First Continuation of Chretien de Troyes' Perceval (c. 1200).
    556 (II: 162). Paladin - The name of Pippin's father accords with Tolkien's decision to give names of Frankish or Gothic origin to some members of older families. Paladin is a term used to describe 'any of the twelve peers of Charlemagne's court', and by extension 'a knight renowned for heroism and chivalry' (Concise OED).
    557 (II: 162): 'And what about
    557 (II: 162). you woolly-footed and wool-pated - Woolly-footed is obvi­ously descriptive of Hobbits' hairy feet; wool-pated accurately describes Merry and Pippin's pates 'heads', particularly after ent-draughts have curled their hair in Book III, Chapter 4, but it is also a synonym for


    dull-witted, hence a friendly insult. Compare Butterbur's 'Nob, you woolly-pated ninny' in Book VI, Chapter 7 (p. 990, III: 269).
    557 (II: 162). Hammer and tongs - An appropriate exclamation for a Dwarf, whose people are renowned for working in metal, but the phrase exists also in English as an adverb meaning 'enthusiastically'.
    557 (II: 163): The Riders laughed
    557 (II: 163). Holbytlan - Here Tolkien originally wrote holbylta(n), then changed it to holbytlan. In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien com­ments that 'Holbytla "Hole-builder" has the consonants It (Holbylta] reversed, as in the closely related Old English botl, bodl beside bold "build­ing"' (p. 44, n. 29). In the 1966 Index Holbytlan is explained as the Rohar word for 'hole-dwellers'. See also note for p. 1.
    „ ,TT A V I™,, . . .
    558 (II: 163): That is not surprismg
    558 (II: 163). It was Tobold Hornblower of Longbottom in the South-farthing - In the draft of this chapter Merry continued this history witr much detail concerning pipe-weed and smoking, but the passage waf removed to the Preface; see notes for pp. 8-9.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 47-60.
    560 (II: 165). [chapter title] - Flotsam and jetsam now means 'odds and ends' or 'useless or discarded items', but properly 'wreckage and othei goods found in the sea'. Flotsam denotes floating wreckage, and jetsam discarded goods washed ashore.
    561 (II: 166): 'And you need not turn up your nose
    561 (II: 166). broil - Cook food by placing it on a fire or grill. 561 (II: 166): The three were soon busy
    561 (II: 166). unabashed - Without embarrassment.
    563 (II: 168): 'The fifth of March
    563 (II: 168). I reckon that three very horrible days followed - Merry and Pippin were captured at about noon on 26 February, and escaped just before dawn on 29 February.
    564 (II: 169): 'Nothing else'
    564 (II: 169). One who cannot cast away a treasure at need is in fetters.
    - A truism, but particularly pertinent in Tolkien's created world where again and again those who place too great value on their treasures end up losing them. The saying is also related to the idea of 'having one's hands tied', being unable to act freely.
    564 (II: 169): 'All this about the Ores
    564 (II: 169). Grishnakh evidently sent some message across the River after the quarrel - See note for p. 451.
    564 (II: 169). Saruman ... is in a cleft stick of his own cutting - He is
    in a situation of his own making, in which any action he takes will have adverse consequences.
    564 (II: 169): 'Five nights ago'
    564 (II: 169). Five nights ago - This is 5 March 1419. Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli saw Saruman on the evening of 30 February.


    564-5 (II: 169-70): 'Let me see'
    564 (II: 169-70). The next morning we went to Entmoot.... It lasted all that day and the next... then late in the afternoon in the third day
    - In October 1944 Tolkien solved a chronological problem in The Lord of the Rings by extending Entmoot by one day, but did not immediately notice all of the alterations made necessary as a consequence. It was only in the galley proofs that he added 'and the next' here; but for most of the first edition the text continued to read 'in the afternoon in the second day' (italics ours). Finally a reader wrote to Allen & Unwin to point out the discrepancy, and on 30 September 1955 Tolkien wrote to Philip Unwin:
    I am afraid your correspondent is correct, and this detail somehow escaped when I completely overhauled the chronology. On p. 170 line 3 read third for second. The correct chronology is given in Appendix B, Vol. Ill, p. 373. The technical reason is that originally the Entmoot broke up (or was said to break up) on the second day; but that was found not to fit events elsewhere. An extra day was inserted on page 88 of Vol. II, and 'second' was overlooked: I think because of the feeling that Entmoot had only lasted 2 full days. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins]
    The text was corrected at this point to 'third' in the fourth printing (1956), but apparently the type suffered damage and was replaced for the fifth printing (1957), but with the earlier reading 'second'. The correction was made again in the second edition (1965).
    565 (II: 170): 'There is a great power in them
    565 (II: 170). They still have voices, and can speak with the Ents - that is why they are called Huorns - The first element of Huorn could be derived from the base KHUG- 'bark, bay', which appears to be supported by unpublished etymological notes by Tolkien. The second element is unquestionably Sindarin orn 'tree'.
    566 (II: 171): 'Then all at once
    566 (II: 171). battalions - Used here probably in its more general sense 'large bodies of soldiers'.
    566 (II: 171): T thought of him too'
    566 (II: 171). It seems plain now that the Southerner was a spy of Saruman's; but whether he was working with the Black Riders, or for Saruman alone - See note for p. 155.
    567 (II: 172): 'They pushed, pulled, tore
    567 (II: 172). he has not much grit - Here grit is a colloquial word for 'courage, spirit, resolve'.


    569-70 (II: 175): 'We were just wondering
    570 (II: 175). It was already dark - As first published these words read: 'It was getting dark'. They were revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition.
    /xx X Crx,,
    570 (II: 175): There was no need
    570 (II: 175). 'Gandalf!' I said at last - Although the reader has known for several chapters of Gandalf's return, Pippin still believed that he had died in Moria.
    570 (II: 175). tom-fool - 'A foolish or stupid person; one who behaves foolishly. (More emphatic than fool)' (OED).
    570 (II: 175): 'Treebeard heard his voice
    570 (II: 175). Gandalf obviously expected to find Treebeard here; and Treebeard might almost have been loitering about near the gates on purpose - In a note to The Battles of the Fords oflsen it is said that 'Gandalf must already have made contact with Treebeard, and knew that the patience of the Ents was at an end; and he had already read the meaning of Legolas' words [pp. 526-7, II: 132]: Isengard was veiled in an impenetrable shadow, the Ents had already surrounded it' (Unfinished Tales, p. 366, n. 16).
    570 (II: 175). I remembered a queer look he gave us at the time. I can only suppose that he had seen Gandalf or had some news of him - In
    Book III, Chapter 4, when Merry and Pippin tell Treebeard of Gandalf's fall in Moria, he says: '"Hoo, come now! ... Hoom, hm, ah well." He paused, looking long at the hobbits. "Hoom, ah, well I do not know what to say. Come now!" (p. 466, II: 69). In Book III, Chapter 5 Gandalf knows that Merry and Pippin are with Treebeard.
    570 (II: 175): Hoom! Gandalf!"
    570 (II: 175). stock and stone - Here stock means 'the trunk or woody stem of a living tree'. Compare Treebeard's 'by stock or by stone' in Book VI, Chapter 6. Tom Shippey discusses the significance of this phrase to The Lord of the Rings in The Road to Middle-earth, Chapter 6.
    570 (II: 176): '"Wherever I have been
    570 (II: 176). I must ride fast - See note for p. 528.
    /TT o \ c«x.. r j
    574 (II: 180): We want man-food
    574 (II: 180). man-food for twenty-five - Actually there were twenty-six: Gandalf, Aragorn, Legolas, Gimli, Theoden, Eomer, and twenty men of Theoden's household, as described in Book III, Chapter 8. In a letter


    to Amon Hen 123 (September 1993) Denis Collins suggests that the ents miscounted because 'Legolas and Gimli were riding on the same horse and in the distance would have looked like a single rider' (p. 14).

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 61-7. 576-7 (II: 181-2): 'And how will you learn that
    576 (II: 181-2). Saruman could look like me in your eyes, if it suited his purpose with you. - Another expression of Saruman as 'dwimmer-crafty', a master of illusion.
    577 (II: 182): 'The last is most likely
    577 (II: 182). Beware of his voice! - In June 1958 Tolkien wrote to Forrest J. Ackerman that 'Saruman's voice was not hypnotic but persuasive. Those who listened to him were not in danger of falling into a trance, but of agreeing with his arguments, while fully awake. It was always open to one to reject, by free will and reason, both his voice while speaking and its after-impressions. Saruman corrupted the reasoning powers' {Letters, pp. 276-7).
    577 (II: 182): On the eastern side
    577 (II: 182). embrasures - Openings or recesses around the windows, forming enlargements of the area from inside.
    578 (II: 183): The window closed
    578 (II: 183). gainsaid - Contradicted, denied.
    579 (II: 184): It was Gimli the dwarf
    579 (II: 184). The words of this wizard stand on their heads - That is, his words say the opposite of what he really means.
    579 (II: 184): 'Peace!' said Saruman 579 (II: 184). suave - Charming, confident, agreeable. 579 (II: 184). embroiled - Involved deeply.
    579-80 (II: 185): 'Lord, hear me!'
    579 (II: 186). an old liar with honey on his forked tongue - He is speaking sweetly, but lying. Compare Gandalf's words concerning Wormtongue, note for p. 514.
    580 (II: 186). forsooth - In truth, truly.
    580 (II: 186). Remember Theodred at the Fords, and the grave of Hama in Helms's Deep! - As first published this sentence read only: 'Remember


    the grave of Hama in Helm's Deep!' It was revised in the second edition (1965), but with 'Ford' instead of'Fords' (corrected in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition).
    580 (II: 185-6): 'We will have peace'
    580 (II: 185). gibbet - 'Originally synonymous with gallows, but in later use signifying an upright post with projecting arm from which the bodies of criminals were hung in chains or irons after execution' (OED).
    580 (II: 186). I do not need to lick your fingers - An adaptation of the saying to lick someone's boots, to be abjectly servile.
    581 (II: 186): 'Gibbets and crows!'
    581 (II: 186). dotard - A senile old man.
    581 (II: 186). brigands - A brigand is a bandit, one who lives by pillage and robbery.
    581-2 (II: 187): So great was the power
    582 (II: 187). elusive discourse - That is, a discussion difficult for the listener to follow.
    582 (II: 187): 'Saruman, Saruman!'
    582 (II: 187). the king's jester and earned your bread, and your stripes
    - Gandalf is suggesting that Saruman is fit to be only a jester or fool at the king's court, where he would be given food (bread), but also be whipped (received a stripe 'stroke from a whip') when he offended.
    583 (II: 188): 'Reasons for leaving
    583 (II: 188). the Key of Orthanc - According to a note to The Battles of the Fords of Isen the 'keys' of Orthanc had been entrusted to Saruman, when he took up residence there, by the then Steward of Gondor; see
    Unfinished Tales, p. 373.
    583 (II: 188). your staff- See note for p. 279.
    583 (II: 188): Saruman's face grew livid
    583 (II: 188). the rods of the Five Wizards - Presumably the staffs of the five Istari. Saruman is implying that Gandalf wishes to have sole power among the Wizards.
    583 (II: 188). and have purchased yourself a pair of boots many sizes larger than those you now wear - Saruman is accusing Gandalf of 'being too big for his boots', unduly self-confident, conceited.

    583 (II: 188). rag-tag - Disreputable people, riffraff, rabble.


    583 (II: 188-9): 'I did not give you leave to go'
    583 (II: 188). gnaw the ends of your old plots - As a dog might gnaw a bone with no meat on it.
    583-4 (II: 189): He raised his hand
    584 (II: 189). The stair cracked and splintered in glittering sparks - The
    Ents, in contrast, had been able to make only a few scorings and flake-like splinters in the tough fabric of Orthanc.
    584 (II: 189): 'Here, my lad, I'll take that!
    584 (II: 189). It is not a thing, I guess, that Saruman would have chosen to cast away. - The words 'I guess' were added in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition, the first of several emendations dealing with the palantir and what Gandalf knew about it. Writings by Tolkien on the history and use of the palantiri, produced while working on these revisions, are published as The Palantiri in Unfinished Tales.
    584-5 (II: 190): 'Not likely"
    585 (II: 190). riding the storm - A metaphorical use of a nautical term, denoting a ship which endures a storm, does not drag its anchor, and sustains no great damage.
    585 (II: 190): 'I? Nothing!'
    585 (II: 190). Strange are the turns of fortune! Often does hatred hurt itself! - The saying is similar in thought to the proverb Curses, like chickens come home to roost, a form of which appears in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.
    585 (II: 190). I guess that, even if we had entered in, we could have found few treasures in Orthanc more precious - In the text as first published Gandalf said 'I fancy that', not 'I guess that'. The phrase was revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition.
    On 7 June 1955 Tolkien wrote to W.H. Auden: 'I knew nothing of the Palantiri, though the moment the Orthanc-stone was cast from the window, I recognized it, and knew the meaning of the "rhyme of lore" that had been running in my mind: seven stars and seven stones and one white tree. These rhymes and names will crop up; but they do not always explain themselves' (Letters, p. 217).
    586 (II: 192): 'No,' said Gandalf
    586 (II: 192). weave again such webs as he can - Gandalf uses almost the same words to describe Saruman as Wormtongue used of Galadriel. Imagery of webs, weaving, and spiders are commonly used in an negative sense in The Lord of the Rings.
    In a draft article written after interviewing Tolkien, Charlotte and Denis Plimmer reported him as saying that when C.S. Lewis said to him 'You


    can do better than that. Better, Tolkien, please!' he would try to do so. 'I'd sit down and write the section over and over. That happened with the scene I think is the best in the book, the confrontation between Gandalf and his rival wizard, Saruman, in the ravaged city of Isengard.' Having received a copy of the Plimmers' draft, Tolkien wrote to them on 8 February 1967:
    I do not think the Saruman passage 'the best in the book'. It is much better than the first draft, that is all. I mentioned the passage because it is in fact one of the very few places where in the event I found L[ewis]'s detailed criticisms useful and just. I cut out some passages of light-hearted hobbit conversation which he found tiresome, thinking that if he did most other readers (if any) would feel the same. I do not think the event has proved him right. To tell the truth he never really liked hobbits very much, least of all Merry and Pippin. But a great number of readers do, and would like more than they have got. [Letters, P- 37
    In fact no 'passages of light-hearted hobbit conversation' appear to have been discarded from the present chapter as published (see The War of the Ring, Part I, Chapter 5); but the previous chapter, 'Flotsam and Jetsam', in which Tolkien did delete some 'hobbit' material, as originally conceived continued into 'The Voice of Saruman'.

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    Chapter n
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 68-81.
    588 (II: 193): 'So you heard that?'
    588 (II: 193). Be thankful no longer words were aimed at you. He had his eyes on you. - As first published this passage read: 'Be thankful that no longer words were aimed at you. He had never met a hobbit before and did not know what kind of thing to say to you. But he had his eyes on you.' In the Ballantine Books edition (1965) the publisher failed to omit the second sentence as instructed (it was a shadow of an earlier idea, untrue according to the completed story), but correctly altered the third. The full revision was made in the Allen & Unwin second edition (1966).
    589 (II: 194): 'Yes, we have won
    589 (II: 194). There was some link between Isengard and Mordor, which I have not yet fathomed. - One of Tolkien's aims in the Palantiri writings associated with the second edition was to explain why the White Council, Gandalf in particular, had not given much thought to the danger the seeing-stones presented. Tolkien explains that when Minas Ithil was taken by the Ringwraiths in Third Age 2002, it was not known in Gondor whether the Ithil-stone had been destroyed or had fallen into Sauron's hands. For fear of the latter, the last kings of Gondor and the Stewards did not dare to use the other two palantiri of Gondor; and among their people the stones were generally forgotten or remembered only in legends or rhymes of lore that few understood.
    It is evident that at the time of the War of the Ring the Council had not long become aware of the doubt concerning the fate of the Ithil-stone, and failed (understandably ... under the weight of their cares) to appreciate its significance, to consider what might be the result if Sauron became possessed of one of the Stones, and anyone else should then make use of another. It needed the demonstration on Dol Baran of the effects of the Orthanc-stone on Peregrin to reveal suddenly that the link' between Isengard and Barad-dur (seen to exist after it was discovered that forces of Isengard had been joined with others directed by Sauron in the attack on the Fellowship at Parth Galen) was in fact the Orthanc-stone - and one other palantir. [ Unfinished Tales, P- 405]


    589 (II: 194): The road passed slowly
    589 (II: 194). the moon, now waxing round - This is the night of 5/ 6 March; the moon will be full on the night of 7/8 March.
    589 (II: 194-5): At last they halted
    589 (II: 194). Dol Baran - In his unfinished index Tolkien defines Dol Baran as 'a hill at the S[outhern] end of the Misty Mountains'. He seems to have hesitated over the etymology of the name: he first wrote, but deleted, 'brown head'. Another, mostly illegible sentence which has been struck through seems to be concerned with the etymology of Dol, which is given in a separate entry as 'head, hill' with Dol Baran among the citations. Another entry for baran 'gold brown' continues: ''not ?sense Dol Baran see Paran'; and the entry for the latter has 'Paran smooth, shaven (often applied to hills ?without trees) cf. Dol Baran.
    589 (II: 195). bracken, among which the tight-curled fronds - Strictly, bracken is 'a tall fern with coarse lobed fronds (Pteridium aquilinum)' (Concise OED), but in the North of Britain, and more generally speaking, the word is applied to any large fern.
    A frond is a leaf-like organ formed by the union of stem and foliage.
    589 (II: 195). two hours or so before the middle of the night - The
    company left Isengard about sunset and stopped at about 10.00 p.m. Calculations of distances in Marquette MSS 4/2/19 indicate that Dol Baran was sixteen miles from the gates of Isengard.
    591 (II: 196): 'Well, what else could I say?'
    591 (II: 196). wheedling - Using flattering words persuasively.

    591 (II: 196-7): At last he could stand it no longer
    591 (II: 197). hummock - A protuberance of earth or rock above the level ground; here used figuratively.
    592 (II: 197): Quickly now he drew off the cloth
    592 (II: 197). a smooth globe of crystal, now dark and dead - In The
    Palantiri it is said that the palantiri were 'perfect spheres, appearing when at rest to be made of solid glass or crystal deep black in hue' (Unfinished Tales, p. 409).
    592 (II: 197): Pippin sat with his knees drawn up
    592 (III: 197). Pippin sat with his knees drawn up and the ball between them. - In Tolkien's late account of the palantiri it is said (among much else on their nature and operation) that the Stones had permanent poles, so that a user who wished to look to the west, for instance, would place himself on the east side of the Stone; but the minor palantiri, including that of Orthanc,


    also had a fixed orientation, so that a face set to one direction would look only in that direction. 'So it was "by chance" as Men call it (as Gandalf would have said) that Peregrin, fumbling with the Stone, must have set it on the ground more or less "upright", and sitting westward of it have had the fixed east-looking face in the proper position' (Unfinished Tales, p. 410).
    592 (II: 197-8): 'So this is the thief
    592 (II: 198). haggard - With the appearance of exhaustion, worry.
    594 (II: 199): He lifted Pippin gently
    594 (II: 199). an itch in your palms - A phrase used figuratively of 'an uneasy or restless desire or hankering after something' (OED).
    594-5 (II: 200): 'Never yet. Do not then stumble
    594-5 (II: 200). But my [Gandalf's] mind was bent on Saruman, and I did not at once guess the nature of the Stone. Then I was weary, and as I lay pondering it, sleep overcame me. Now I know! - As first published this passage read: 'But my mind was bent on Saruman, and I did not guess the nature of the stone until it was too late. Only now have I become sure of it.' It was revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition. Tolkien wrote in a check copy of The Two Towers: 'This alteration goes together with the insertion of guess on p. II139, [i.e. 190], the recasting of II. 203, and amendment of III. 132. The changes are made necessary by a more careful consideration of the palantiri, and of the inconsistencies of Gandalf's references to them (which some readers have queried)' (courtesy of Christopher Tolkien).
    Christopher Tolkien notes and cites 'a curious series of shifts in the precise wording of Gandalf's remarks about his failure to understand immediately the nature of the ball thrown down from Orthanc' in the various texts preceding that published in 1954.
    There is, to be sure, among all these formulations no great difference in the actual meaning, but it was evidently a detail that concerned my father: just how much did Gandalf surmise about the palantir before Pippin's experience brought certainty, and how soon?
    An element of ambiguity does in fact remain in LR. Already in the first manuscript of 'The Voice of Saruman' Gandalf said: 'I fancy that, if we could have come in, we should have found few treasures in Orthanc more precious than the thing which the fool Wormtongue tossed down to us!' The nature of Wormtongue's missile cannot have been fully apparent to my father himself at that stage: it was in that manuscript, only a few lines above, that he changed, as he wrote, the initial story of the globe's having smashed into fragments on the rock.... But even when he had fully established the nature of the palantir he retained those words of Gandalf... at the moment when it

    burst upon the story - although, as Gandalf said at Dol Baran, 'I did not at once guess the nature of the Stone'. But then why was he so emphatic, as he stood beneath the tower, that 'we could have found few treasures in Orthanc more precious' - even before Wormtongue's shriek gave reinforcement to his opinion? Perhaps we should suppose simply that this much at least was immediately clear to him, that a great ball of dark crystal in Orthanc was most unlikely to have been nothing but an elegant adornment of Saruman's study. [The War of the Ring, p. 75]
    595 (II: 200): 'Strange powers have our enemies
    595 (II: 200). oft evil will shall evil mar - A saying similar to Often does hatred hurt itself. Gandalf immediately comments on the proof of the saying, and notes that Pippin's action has saved him from the mistake of probing the Stone.
    595 (II: 201): At that moment a shadow fell
    595 (II: 201). vast winged shape ... went north - According to Scheme, 'Nazgul passes over on way to Isengard about 11 p.m.' and 'reached Orthanc and then returned to Barad-dur'.
    595 (II: 201). The stars fainted - Here fainted is used in the sense 'to lose colour or brightness; to fade, die away' (OED).
    595 (II: 201): 'Nazgul!' he cried
    595 (II: 201). Wait not for the dawn! Let not the swift wait for the slow! Ride! - While writing Book V, Chapter 3 ('The Muster of Rohan') Tolkien noted: 'Gandalf must tell the king as he rides off that he will order the muster at Dunharrow and speed it up'. Christopher Tolkien comments that this 'can only refer to his [Gandalf] leaving Dol Baran on Shadowfax after the Nazgul passed over; but no such change was in fact introduced in that place' {The War of the Ring, p. 320, n. 1). Instead, in the published Lord of the Rings, as Theoden arrives at Dunharrow he still expects the Riders to assemble at Edoras on the day he appointed; he finds most of them assembled at Dunharrow instead, and is told that when Gandalf arrived at Edoras he brought word from Theoden to hasten the gathering, and that when a Nazgul passed over Edoras he further advised that the muster take place at Dunharrow. Thus Gandalf took it upon himself to hasten the gathering of the Rohirrim, as he hastened the relief of Helm's Deep by Erkenbrand.
    596 (II: 201): Over the plains Shadowfax was flying
    596 (II: 201). Less than an hour had passed, and they had reached the Fords of Isen - A distance of fourteen miles (Marquette MSS 4/2/19). According to Marquette MSS 4/2/17, Gandalf and Pippin left Dol Baran at 11.30 p.m. It is now past midnight on 6 March 1419.


    597 (II: 202): Pippin was silent again for a while
    597 (II: 202). Tall ships and tall kings - In the Akallabeth, the tale of the downfall of Numenor published in The Silmarillion, it is said that when, at the instigation of Sauron, Ar-Pharazon, the King of Numenor, sailed with a great fleet to conquer Valinor, Elendil prepared ships and
    the Faithful put aboard their wives and their children, and their heir­looms, and great store of goods. Many things there were of beauty and power, such as the Numenoreans had contrived in the days of their wisdom, vessels and jewels, and scrolls of lore written in scarlet and black. And Seven Stones they had, the gift of the Eldar; but in the ship of Isildur was guarded the young tree, the scion of Nimlofh the Fair, [p. 270 J
    When Numenor foundered and sank into the abyss, Elendil's ships were blown east to Middle-earth. 'Nine ships there were: four for Elendil, and for Isildur three, and for Anarion two; and they fled before the black gale.... And the deeps rose .. . and waves like unto mountains ... after many days cast them upon the shores of Middle-earth' (p. 280). According to the 1966 Index the seven stars that were part of the emblem of Elendil and his house 'originally represented the single stars on the banners of each of seven ships (of 9) that bore a palantir'.
    597 (II: 203): 'The name meant
    597 (II: 203). that which looks far away - Tolkien glosses Quenya palantir in The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle as palan- ' "afar," more accurately "abroad, far and wide"' and 'the stem TIR "to look at (towards), watch, watch over'" (pp. 64-5).
    According to Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age, the palantiri
    had the virtue that those who looked in therein might perceive in them things far off, whether in place or in time. For the most part they revealed only things near to another kindred Stone, for the Stones each called to each; but those who possessed great strength of will and of mind might learn to direct their gaze whither they would....
    These stones were gifts of the Eldar to Amandil father of Elendil, for the comfort of the Faithful of Numenor in their dark days, when the Elves might come no longer to that land under the shadow of Sauron. [The Silmarillion, p. 292]
    597 (II: 203): 'No,' said Gandalf.
    597 (II: 203). The Noldor made them. Feanor himself, maybe - Gandalf's speculation that the palantiri were made by Feanor seems to be confirmed in The Silmarillion, where it is said that Feanor made crystals 'wherein things far away could be seen small but clear, as with the eyes of the eagles

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 85-103.
    603 (II: 209): It was the third evening
    603 (II: 209). It was the third evening since they had fled from the Company - Frodo and Sam fled from Parth Galen around noon on 26 February; it is now 28 February. Scheme has the following entries:
    February 26: F[rodo] & S[am] first night in Emyn Muil. Gollum picks up trail of Frodo and Sam in Emyn Muil and dogs them.
    February 27: 2nd day and night wandering in Emyn Muil, along SE. [south-east] edge. They become aware of Gollum.
    February 28: 3rd day. Here Tale picks them up again. They spend cold night under shelter of a rock.
    603 (II: 209): 'What a fix!'
    603 (II: 209). where we can't get nohow - Nohow 'by no means'. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that 'in uneducated speech [nohow is] frequently used with another negative' (i.e. can't).
    604 (II: 210): 'I wonder,' said Frodo
    604 (II: 210). All my choices have proved ill. - Compare Aragorn's com­plaints in Book III, Chapter 1 ('all that I do goes amiss', p. 413, II: 15) and Chapter 2 ('Since we passed through the Argonath my choices have gone amiss', p. 426, II: 28). But as with Aragorn, Frodo's choices eventually will prove to have been good.
    604 (II: 210). the hard of Battle Plain - The hard ground of Dagorlad
    (see note for p. 243).
    ,TT , <„., w
    604 (II: 210): Did you see them again
    604 (II: 210). early morning - It is 29 February 1419.
    604 (II: 210): Nor me, said Sam.
    604 (II: 210). did give me a turn - Gave him a sudden fright.
    605 (II: 211): 'So do I,' said Frodo
    605 (II: 211). the dead flats - The Dead Marshes. Flat in this sense mean; 'a tract of low-lying swamp'.


    607 (II: 213): The hurrying darkness
    607 (II: 213). high shrill shriek - The sound of a Ringwraith in flight Tom Shippey suggests that it 'was coming back from a fruitless wait foi Grishnakh the ore, dead and burnt that same day, with the smoke from his burning "seen by many watchful eyes"' (The Road to Middle-earth, 2nd edn., p. 146).
    608 (II: 214): 'Rope!' cried Sam
    608 (II: 214). numbskulls! You're nowt but a ninnyhammer - A numbskull is 'a dull-witted or stupid person' {OED).
    Nowt is a Northern English dialect word, 'nothing, nought'. Ninnyhammer means 'simpleton'.
    609 (II: 215): Thunder growled and rumbled
    609 (II: 215). spate - A sudden flood. 609 (II: 215): Sam paid it out slowly
    609 (II: 215). paid it out slowly, measuring it with his arms ... ells - To
    pay out in this sense is 'to let out or slacken a rope'; here Sam measures the rope in lengths against his arm. In the draft 'Frodo wound it [?round his] elbows' {The War of the Ring, p. 89).
    The ell is an old measure of length based on the length of the arm or forearm. It varies in different countries: the English ell was 45 inches. In The War of the Ring Christopher Tolkien notes that the hobbits' rope was originally 80 hobbit-ells, with a note in the margin '2 feet > 2Y2 feet'; but eventually Tolkien abandoned the 'hobbit-elT and used the English ell. 'This was the measure in [The Two Towers], where the cliff was about 18 fathoms [108 feet], and the rope about 30 ells \\iilh feet]; taking these figures as exact, there would be 4J/i feet of rope to spare ("there was still a good bight in Frodo's hands, when Sam came to the bottom")' (p. 99, n. 11).
    609 (II: 215-16): With that he stood up
    609 (II: 216). Thence it turned, smiting the Vale of Anduin with hail and lightning, and casting its shadow upon Minas Tirith with threat of war. Then, lowering in the mountains, and gathering its great spires, it rolled on slowly over Gondor and the skirts of Rohan, until far away the Riders on the plain saw its black towers moving behind the sun, as they rode into the West. - When this chapter was first written Frodo saw the storm towards evening on 1 February, and the Battle of Helm's Deep took place on the night of 1/2 February. Tolkien wrote in a contemporary time-scheme: 'Night Feb. 1-2 Frodo and Sam meet Gollum. (Storm that reached Helm's Deep about midnight on Feb. 1-2 passed over Emyn Muil earlier in the night.)' The storm thus served as a link between the stories


    of Frodo and Sam east of Anduin and of the rest of the Company to the west, whom it reaches in Book III, Chapter 7. Later changes and adjust­ments to the chronology, however, meant that Frodo witnessed the storm on 29 February and the Battle of Helm's Deep took place on the night of 3/4 March. Christopher Tolkien notes that his father altered the description of the storm only after the chapter was in proof, 'giving the great storm a more widely curving path, and suggesting, perhaps, a reinforcement of its power and magnitude as it passed slowly over Ered Nimrais' (The War of the Ring, see pp. 100-3).
    610 (II: 216): It did not, however, turn out
    610 (II: 216). bight - A loop of rope.
    610-11 (II: 217): But Sam did not answer
    610-11 (II: 217). Noodles! - In this context noodle has the obscure meaning 'simpleton'. Compare note for p. 608.
    611 (II: 217): Sam did not laugh
    611 (II: 217). my grand-dad, and my uncle Andy ... had a rope-walk over by Tighfield - Sam's grandfather was Hobson Gamgee, known as 'Roper Gamgee'.
    A rope-walk is a 'technical name for a rope-maker's yard' {Nomencla­ture). Tighfield is a village in the Westfarthing. Tolkien writes in Nomencla­ture that the name
    is intended to contain an old word for 'rope' (surviving in some of the senses of modern English tie [noun] in which the spelling is assimilated to that of the related verb tie). It was the site of a 'rope-walk' or rope-maker's yard....
    A 'rope-walk' (known in English since the seventeenth century) is so-called because the ropes were stretched out in long lines over trestles at intervals....
    There is, however, another place-name element (peculiar to English) that has the same forms as the 'rope' word, though it is probably not related: in modern place-names tigh, teigh, tye, tey. This meant 'an enclosed piece of land'. It does not occur as the first element in a compound.
    611 (II: 217). as fast a hitch - A hitch is a knot by which a rope is secured (or made fast) to some object.
    611 (II: 218): 'Yes,' said Frodo
    611 (II: 218). he won't be full for some days ... half a moon - This is the night of 29/30 February. The moon will reach its first quarter early on 30 February, and will be full on the night of 7/8 March.


    612 (II: 219): Sam looked and breathed in
    612 (II: 219). snakes and adders - There is a popular board game called 'Snakes and Ladders', from which derives a figurative use of the phrase to mean 'a series of unpredictable successes and set-backs' (OED).
    613 (II: 219): Down the face of the precipice
    613 (II: 219). a small black shape was moving with its thin limbs splayed out. Maybe its soft clinging hands and toes were finding crevices and holds ... but it looked as if it was just creeping down on sticky pads, like some large prowling thing of insect-kind.... Now and again it lifted its head slowly, turning it right back on its long skinny neck, and the hobbits caught a glimpse of two small pale gleaming lights, its eyes that blinked at the moon and then were quickly lidded again. - As he climbs down the cliff face Gollum comes fully into view for the first time in The Lord of the Rings. All that have been seen previously, in Book II, Chapter 9, are 'pale lamplike eyes', 'a dark shape', 'a long whitish hand' (pp. 383-4, II: 400), and 'paddle-feet, like a swan's almost, only they seemed bigger' (p. 382, II: 399). In the first edition of The Hobbit (1937), Chapter 5, Gollum is said to be 'as dark as darkness, except for two big round pale eyes [added in the edition 0/1966: in his thin face]'; he paddles his boat 'with large feet dangling over the side', which are also described as 'webby'; he looks 'out of his pale lamp-like eyes for blind fish', which he grabs 'with his long fingers'; and it emerges that he has six teeth and is not naked ('he thought of all the things he kept in his own pockets').
    In The Lord of the Rings, when Gollum pauses during his descent of the cliff in Book IV, Chapter 1, 'his large head on its scrawny neck was lolling from side to side' (p. 614, II: 220); and during the struggle that follows he is said to have 'long legs and arms', 'thin lank hair', and a 'long neck' (p. 614, II: 220-1). Later his sharp yellow teeth and colourless lips are noted, and he is described as 'a tiny figure sprawling on the ground: there perhaps lay the famished skeleton of some child of Men, its ragged garment still clinging to it, its long arms and legs almost bone-white and bone-thin: no flesh worth a peck' (Book IV, Chapter 3, p. 644, II: 253). In Book IV, Chapter 6 his figure is also 'froglike' (p. 685, II: 294), and he is said to have 'bulging eyes' with 'heavy pale lids' and 'sparse locks ... hanging like rank weed over his bony brows' (p. 688, II: 297; p. 689, II: 298). A clear indication of his size is given in Book IV, Chapter 9: 'now he was face to face with a furious enemy [Sam], little less than his own size' (p. 726, II: 336).
    The first translation of The Hobbit, into Swedish in 1947, included an illustration of Gollum as a gigantic dark triangular shape with huge eyes and barely distinguishable hands, towering over Bilbo. Tolkien commented in a letter to 'Rosemary' on 18 January 1948 that the Swedish edition had 'some dreadful pictures which make Gollum look simply huge. But he was not much bigger than Bilbo, only thin and very wiry, and he had of course

    large flabby-sticky hands and feet' (reproduced in Mallorn 36 (November 1998), p. 34). Even translations of The Hobbit which appeared after the publication of The Lord of the Rings, when Gollum was more fully described, often depicted him as much larger than Bilbo, or with monster­like features. In the illustrations to the Japanese translations of The Hobbit (1965) and The Lord of the Rings (1972) Gollum is more or less the right size but, presumably picking up references to his froglike figure and move­ments, he is rendered like a frog rather than of Hobbit-kind. Tolkien was not happy with such illustrations, and wrote to Joy Hill at Allen & Unwin on 11 October 1963 that if a prospective illustrator of The Hobbit intended to include an illustration of Gollum 'it should be noted that Gfollum] is not a monster, but a slimy little creature not larger than Bilbo' (Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins).
    In a late unpublished manuscript Tolkien commented that
    Gollum was according to Gandalf one of a riverside hobbit people -and therefore in origin a member of a small variety of the human race, although he had become deformed during his long inhabiting of the dark lake. [He had long hands and his feet] are described as webby [in The Hobbit], like a swan's [in The Lord of the Rings], but had prehensile toes. But he was very thin - in The L.R. emaciated ... he had for his size a large head and a long thin neck, very large eyes (protuberant), and thin lank hair.... He is often said to be dark or black. At his first mention [in The Hobbit] he was 'dark as darkness': that of course means no more than that he could not be seen with ordinary eyes in the black cavern - except for his own large luminous eyes; similarly 'the dark shape' at night [The Lord of the Rings, Book II, Chapter 9]. But that does not apply to the 'black (crawling) shape' [in Book IV, Chapter 1], where he was in moonlight.
    Gollum was never naked. He had a pocket in which he kept the Ring.... His skin was white, no doubt with a pallor increased by dwelling long in the dark, and later by hunger. He remained a human being, not an animal or a mere bogey, even if deformed in mind and body: an object of disgust, but also of pity - to the deep-sighted, such as Frodo had become. There is no need to wonder how he came by clothes or replaced them: any consideration of the tale will show that he had plenty of opportunities by theft, or charity (as of the Wood-elves), throughout his life. [Tolkien Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford]
    613 (II: 220): 'Ach, sss! Cautious, my precious!
    613 (II: 220). We musstn't rissk our neck, musst we, precious? - In this paragraph Gollum clearly uses 'precious' to address himself, and therefore the word is in lower case. See note for p. 11.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 104-20. 620 (II: 227): Gollum cast up and down
    620 (II: 227). cast - Searched.
    m . TT . , j.
    620 (II: 227): He led the way
    620-1 (II: 227-8). [Gollum] chuckled to himself... - A recording by Tolkien from these words to the end of Gollum's second poem ('so juicy-sweet!') is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    620-1 (II: 227-8): 'Ha! ha! What does we wish?'
    620-1 (II: 227-8). He guessed it long ago, Baggins guessed it. - Gollum is referring to one of the riddles he set Bilbo in Chapter 5 of The Hobbit. His second verse here is an extension of it. The first three lines are the same in both works, but the fourth and final line of the riddle in The Hobbit reads: 'All in mail never clinking'. In The Annotated Hobbit Douglas A. Anderson notes a slight analogue to the riddle (and so to this verse) 'in the Old Norse Saga of King Heidrek the Wise, in a contest of wisdom between King Heidrek and Gestumblindi, who is the Norse god Odin in disguise' (2nd edn., pp. 125-6). One of the questions asked is: 'What lives without breath?' to which Heidrek correctly answers: 'the fish' (The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise (i960), ed. by Christopher Tolkien, p. 80).
    621 (II: 228): They stumbled along
    621 (II: 228). with the first grey of morning - It is 30 February 1419.
    624 (II: 231): 'About the food'
    624 (II: 231). it doesn't satisfy the innards proper - Innards is a colloquial­ism for 'internal organs'. Sam means that lembas nourishes but does not satisfy the appetite.
    624 (II: 232): 'Worms or beetles
    624 (II: 232). Worms or beetles or something slimy out of holes -
    Marjorie Burns comments in Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in Tolkien's Middle-earth that Gollum's 'inability to tolerate Elven food, his disgust for cooked rabbit and herbs, and his preference instead for things raw, for cold fish, worms, or "something slimy out of holes" ... accentuate his regression, his devolution back to a primordial world of "black mud", wetness, and a "chewing and slavering" state' (p. 164).


    624-5 (II: 232): The next stage of their journey 625 (II: 232). the coming of day - It is 1 March 1419.
    625 (II: 232): On either side and in front
    625 (II: 232). noisome - Having an extremely unpleasant smell.
    626 (II: 233-4): As the day wore on
    626 (II: 234). seed-plumes - Plume in this context is the appendage by which a seed is carried from a plant by the wind.
    626-7 (II: 234): So passed the third day
    626 (II: 234). the third day of their journey with Gollum - They had begun to travel with Gollum during the night of 29/30 February; it is now 1 March. This would amount to three days only if Tolkien considered that their first journey began before midnight on 29 February and counted that as a 'day'. Christopher Tolkien notes, however, that his father numbered the journeys made in one of his time-schemes, 'and it may well be that "3" against [this journey through the marshes] explains [the third day of their journey] for it was the third journey, but not the third day' {The War of the Ring, p. 119).
    626 (II: 234). Before the shadows of evening were long - They continue on through the night of 1/2 March. According to Scheme: 'March 1: Reach end of Gully at daybreak. At once begin passage of Dead Marshes by day (misty). Continue the march on through the night. Episode of the Corpse-candles occurs about 8 p.m. A Nazgul passes over them at midnight.'
    627 (II: 234): Presently it grew altogether dark
    627 (II: 234). the air itself seemed black and heavy to breathe. When lights appeared Sam rubbed his eyes.... He first saw ... a wisp of pale sheen ... some like misty flames - In H. Rider Haggard's She the protagonists also pass through unpleasant marshes:
    Never did I see a more dreary and depressing scene. Miles on miles of quagmire, varied only by bright green strips of comparatively solid ground, and by deep sullen pools fringed with tall rushes. . .. Undoubtedly, however, the worst feature of the swamp was the awful smell of rotting vegetation that hung about it, which at times was positively overpowering, and the malarious exhalations that accom­panied it, which we were of course obliged to breathe.
    This marsh is by no means dead: it contains many birds and reptiles, including poisonous snakes, and clouds of mosquitoes. At night one of the heroes sees 'impish marsh-born balls of fire, rolled this way and that' (Chapter 10; compare will-o'-the wisp, note for p. 314).


    627 (II: 234): Gollum looked up
    627 (II: 234). Candles of corpses - The Oxford English Dictionary defines corpse-candle as 'a lambent flame seen in a churchyard or over a grave, and superstitiously believed to appear as an omen of death, or to indicate the route of a coming funeral'.
    627 (II: 235): Hurrying forward again
    627 (II: 235). There are dead things, dead faces in the water - Tolkien wrote to Professor L.W. Forster on 31 December i960 that 'the Dead Marshes and the approaches to the Morannon owe something to Northern France after the Battle of the Somme [in the First World War]' (Letters, p. 303). Compare, for instance, the comment from the Somme by Captain Alfred Bundy in his diary for 19 October 1916: 'I have never seen such desolation. Mud thin, deep and black, shell holes full of water, corpses all around in every stage of decomposition, some partially devoid of flesh, some swollen and black' (quoted in Malcolm Brown, The Imperial War Museum Book of the Somme (2002), p. 223); and that by Siegfried Sassoon in his Memoirs of an Infantry Officer: 'Floating on the surface of the flooded trench was the mask of a human face which had detached itself from the skull.' Another inspiration for the Dead Marshes may have been the account in De Origine Actibusque Getarum (The Origin and Deeds of the Goths) by the sixth-century writer Jordanes, of how a bridge collapsed while an army was crossing, in an area 'surrounded by quaking bogs' and where 'even today one may hear in that neighborhood the lowing of cattle and may find traces of men' (trans, by Charles C. Mierow (1908), p. 8).
    628 (II: 235): 'Yes, yes,' said Gollum
    628 (II: 235). a great battle long ago, yes, so they told him when Smeagol
    was young___Tall Men ... and terrible Elves - The great Battle of
    Dagorlad in 3434 at the end of the Second Age. It was nearly 2,500 years later that Gollum heard stories about the battle.
    628 (II: 236): At last they came to the end
    628 (II: 236). cesspool - 'A well sunk to receive the soil [sewage] from a water-closet, kitchen sink, etc.; properly one which retains the solid matter and allows liquid to escape' (OED).
    628 (II: 236): It was late in the night
    628-9 (II: 236). It was late in the night - But apparently not yet midnight, as Scheme places the passing over of the Nazgul at that time.
    629 (II: 237): For a moment the sight
    628 (II: 237). scudded - To scud is to 'move fast in a straight line because or as if driven by the wind' (Concise OED).


    629-30 (II: 237): They fell forward
    630 (II: 237). the shadow of horror wheeled and returned, passing lower now, right above them.... And then it was gone, flying back to Mordor
    - As first conceived, this Nazgul was to be on his way to Isengard, thus the mention in the previous paragraph of his speeding westward; but shifts in the chronology of The Lord of the Rings made this impossible, and Tolkien emended the text so that the Ringwraith swept back over the marshes and returned to Mordor. His notes indicate that it would take about six or seven hours for a Nazgul to fly from Barad-dtir to Isengard, 600 miles or more. In The War of the Ring, pp. 119-20, Christopher Tolkien discusses his father's various attempts to provide links between Book IV, Chapter 2 and Book III, Chapter 11: he concludes that
    according to the final chronology neither of the unseen Nazgul that passed over high up at the end of the chapter "The Passage of the Marshes" (at dusk on March 4, and again an hour after midnight) can have been the one that wheeled over Dol Baran on the night of March 5, nor the one that passed over Edoras on the morning of March 6. A rigorous chronology led to this disappointing conclusion. [The War of the Ring, p. 120]
    631 (II: 238): When day came at last
    631 (II: 238). When day came at last - It is 2 March 1419.
    631 (II: 328). walls of Mordor - As Frodo and Sam approach from the North they will be looking towards the Morannon at the north-west corner of Mordor between the Ephel Diiath, marking the western border of Mordor, and the Ered Lithui in the north.
    631 (II: 238). peats - Peat is 'vegetable matter decomposed by water and partially carbonized by chemical change, often forming bogs or 'mosses' of large extent' (OED).
    631 (II: 238-9): While the grey light lasted
    631 (II: 238-9). For two more nights - The nights of 2/3 and 3/4 March.
    631 (II: 239): At last, on the fifth morning
    631 (II: 239). on the fifth morning since they took the road with Gollum
    - Their first morning with Gollum was 30 February. It is now the morning of 4 March.
    631 (II: 239). buttresses - In this sense a buttress is a projecting part of a hill or mountain.
    631 (II: 239). arid - Dry, parched.

    631 (II: 239). Noman-lands - In the first edition this was spelt Nomen's


    Land. It was changed in the second edition (1965) to agree with the spelling used in Book II, Chapter 8. According to Scheme:
    March 2: At dawn F[rodo] S[am] and Gollum reach end of Marshes and hide under a stone. At night begin journey in moors of Nomen's Land.
    March 3: Journey in Nomen's Land continues.
    March 4: Reach Slagmounds and edge of Desolation of Morannon. Stay in a hole all day.
    631 (II: 239). more loathsome far was the country that the crawling day now slowly unveiled - Tolkien said in an interview with Keith Brace that from his time at the front in First World War France ЈI remember miles and miles of seething tortured earth, perhaps best described in the chapter about the approaches to Mordor. It was a searing experience' ('In the Footsteps of the Hobbits', Birmingham Post, 25 May 1968).
    631 (II: 239). leprous - A figurative allusion to the disease leprosy which eats away at the human body.
    632 (II: 239): For a while they stood there
    632 (II: 239). flags of smoke - Long trailing plumes.
    632 (II: 239-40): Too weary to go further
    632 (II: 239). sump - A depression or pit in which water or other fluids collect.
    632 (II: 240): Suddenly Sam woke up
    632 (II: 240). A pale light and a green light - From this point, a green light in Gollum's eyes is a sign that his evil side is dominant. Compare The Hobbit, Chapter 5: 'As suspicion grew in Gollum's mind, the light of his eyes burned with a pale flame.'
    632-3 (II: 240): 'Yes, yes, my precious
    632-3 (II: 240). to save our Precious - Gollum's use of our shows that he still considers the Ring to belong to him.
    633 (II: 241): 'No, sweet one. See, my precious
    633 (II: 241). Eat fish... fresh from the sea - It seems unlikely that Gollum has ever eaten fish fresh from the sea, but has evidently heard about them.
    634-5 (II: 242): In the falling dusk
    635 (II: 242). the menace passed high overhead, going maybe on some swift errand from Barad-dur - At one stage in the writing of this chapter this Nazgul was on its way to Isengard and would pass over Dol Baran en route; see note for p. 630.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 121-30.
    636 (II: 244): Before the next day dawned 636 (II: 244). Before the next day dawned - It is 5 March 1419.
    636 (II: 244): Upon the west of Mordor
    636 (II: 244). Ephel Duath, the Mountains of Shadow - 'Fence of shadow' (Index), from Sindarin ephel 'encircling ring or fence' + duath 'dark shadow'.
    636 (II: 244). Ered Lifhui, grey as ash - Ered Lithui 'ashen mountains' is derived from Sindarin orod (plural ered) 'mountain' + lith 'ash' + adjectival suffix mh In Nomenclature (entry for Ashen Mountains) Tolkien writes that these are 'mountains of ash-grey hue'.
    636 (II: 244). the mournful plains of Lithlad and of Gorgoroth - Lithlad is Sindarin for 'plain of ashes' (Index), at the feet of the Ered Lithui, from lith 'ash' + lad 'plain'. Both Lithlad and the barren plateau of Gorgoroth are mournful in the sense 'sad, dismal'.
    636 (II: 244). the bitter inland sea of Nurnen - Nurnen is the water (Sindarin nen) of the region Nurn (as named on the maps of Middle-earth). In his unfinished index Tolkien glosses the name 'sad-water', and in Book VI, Chapter 2 refers to 'the dark sad waters of Lake Nurnen' (p. 923, III: 201). An old definition of sad is 'dark-coloured', in particular referring to an unpleasant colour; but by the waters of Nurnen were the great fields of Mordor worked by slaves, and in that context may be recalled the plight of the Hebrew slaves expressed in Psalm 137: 'By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion.' Nurnen is bitter perhaps by analogy with sad, or in the sense 'unpalatable': into it drain the poisonous waters of Mordor.
    636 (II: 244). a deep defile - A gorge.
    636 (II: 244). the Teeth of Mordor - The Towers of the Teeth, named in Book VI, Chapter 1 Narchost on the west and Carchost on the east; see note for p. 900.
    636 (II: 244): Across the mouth of the pass
    636 (II: 244). Morannon, the black gate - The main northern entrance to Mordor. Its name combines Sindarin mor- 'dark, black' + annon 'great door or gate'.


    637 (II: 245-6): 'No, no, master!'
    637 (II: 245). He'll eat us all, if He gets it, eat all the world. - In
    Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in Tolkien's Middle-earth Marjorie Burns comments: 'That the sins of this now mostly disembodied but still formid­able being can be reduced [in this statement by Gollum] to a display of excessive appetite, to something rather like greed at table, places Sauron, for a moment, in the same category as any mortal who contrives to gain more than his or her fair share' (pp. 163-4). Gollum's plea is a very vivid picture, however, perhaps more so than Faramir's description of Sauron as 'a destroyer who would devour all' (Book IV, Chapter 5, p. 672, II: 280).
    639 (II: 247): Frodo did not answer Gollum
    639 (II: 247). The hollow in which they had taken refuge was delved in the side of a low hill, at some little height above a long trenchlike valley that lay between it and the outer buttresses of the mountain-wall. In the midst of the valley stood the black foundations of the western watch-tower. By morning-light the roads that converged upon the Gate of Mordor could now be clearly seen, pale and dusty; one winding back northwards; another dwindling eastwards into the mists that clung about the feet of Ered Lithui; and a third that ran towards him. As it bent sharply round the tower, it entered a narrow defile and passed not far below the hollow where he stood. Westward, to his right, it turned - As first published this passage read:
    The hollow in which they had taken refuge was delved in the side of a low hill and lay at some little height above the level of the plain. A long trench-like valley ran between it and the outer buttresses of the mountain-wall. In the morning-light the roads that converged upon the Gate of Mordor could now be clearly seen, pale and dusty; one winding back northwards; another dwindling eastwards into the mists that clung about the feet of Ered Lithui; and another that, bending sharply, ran close under the western watch-tower, and then passed along the valley at the foot of the hillside where the hobbits lay and not many feet below them. Soon it turned .. .
    It was revised in the second edition (1965). Tolkien submitted the altered text to Houghton Mifflin on 31 July 1965, explaining that it 'attempts to make my vision of the scene clearer: if I did not (as I do) retain a clear picture of what I was trying to describe, I should not get one from the previous text' (Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins). The Ballantine Books edition introduced (among other faults of text) an error, 'mountains' for 'mountain-wall', which persisted for many years.
    639 (II: 247). deep shadows that mantled all the western sides - The
    shadows mantled the sides of the mountains as if covering them with a mantle or cloak.


    640 (II: 248): 'Smeagol,' he said
    640 (II: 248). May the third time prove the best! - The notion underlying this saying dates to medieval times. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, 1. 1680, is the phrase 'prid tyme prowe best', which Tolkien and E.V. Gordon gloss in their edition of the poem 'third time, turn out best', noting that it is 'a proverbial expression ... the modern equivalent [of which] is "third time pays for all"' (p. 109). Similar words are also said later in The Lord of the Rings: 'the third turn may turn the best'; 'third time pays for all'; 'thrice shall pay for all'. In a letter to Jared Lobdell, 31 July 1964, Tolkien commented on the proverb as one 'used when a third try is needed to rectify two poor efforts, or when a third occurrence may surpass the others'; see Lobdell, 'A Medieval Proverb in The Lord of the Rings', American Notes and Queries Supplement 1 (1978).
    641 (II: 249): 'On, on, on'

    641 (II: 249). the Great Water that is never still - The sea.
    641 (II: 249): 'Tales out of the South'
    641 (II: 249). tall Men with the shining eyes - Numenorean exiles.
    642 (II: 250): 'Not nice hobbit, not sensible'
    642 (II: 250). That is the only way big armies can come. - But the Black Gate is not the only way: in Book IV, Chapter 8 a great army comes out of the gate at Minas Morgul.
    643 (II: 251): Frodo felt a strange certainty
    643 (II: 251). The 'escape' may have been allowed or arranged, and well known in the Dark Tower. - Frodo's judgement is correct; see note for p. 255.
    644 (II: 252): Its name was Cirith Ungol
    644 (II: 252). Cirith Ungol - Sindarin 'cleft of the spider', from cirith 'cleft', 'a narrow passage cut through earth or rock (like a railway cutting)' {Nomenclature, entry for The Cleft) + ungol 'spider'.
    644-5 (H: 253): Frodo's head was bowed
    645 (II: 253). vast stretch of pinion - Wide wings, as seen in flight. Compare the description of the Nazgul's mount in Book V, Chapter 6: 'it was a winged creature: if bird, then greater than all other birds, and it was naked, and neither quill nor feather did it bear, and its vast pinions were as webs of hide between horned fingers' (p. 840, III: 115).


    646 (II: 254): 'Were there any oliphaunts?'
    646 (II: 254-5). Were there any oliphaunts? ... - A recording by Tolkien from this sentence to the end of the following poem is included on Disc 2 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection. Oliphaunt is an
    archaic form of elephant used as a 'rusticism', on the supposition that rumour of the Southern beast would have reached the Shire long ago in the form of legend.... Oliphant in English is derived from Old French olifant, but the 0 is probably derived from old forms of English or German: Old English olfend, Old High German olbenta 'camel'. The names of foreign animals, seldom or never seen, are often misapplied in the borrowing language. Old English olfend, etc. are probably ultimately related to the classical elephant (Latin from Greek). [Nomenclature]
    646 (II: 254-5): Grey as a mouse
    646 (II: 254-5). Grey as a mouse... - Sam's poem is a reduction of a much longer work by Tolkien, Iumbo, or ye Kinde of ye Oliphaunt, written probably in the 1920s and published as one of the Adventures in Unnatural History and Medieval Metres, Being the Freaks of Fisiologus in the Exeter College, Oxford Stapeldon Magazine for June 1927. It was inspired by the medieval bestiary, derived especially from earlier verses by Physiologus ('Naturalist'), which describes the characteristics of animals and draws from them Christian morals. In Iumbo Tolkien followed the bestiary model but added elements of contemporary culture:
    The Indie oliphaunt s a burly lump,
    A moving mountain, a majestical mammal
    (But those that fancy that he wears a hump
    Confuse him incorrectly with the camel).
    His pendulous ears they flap about like flannel;
    He trails a supple elongated nose
    That twixt his tusks of pearly-white enamel
    Performs the functions of a rubber hose
    Or vacuum cleaner as his needs impose.... [p. 125]
    646 (II: 254). Never lie on the ground, /Not even to die. - According to the medieval bestiary 'the Elephant's nature is that if he tumbles down he cannot get up again. Hence it comes that he leans against a tree when he wants to go to sleep, for he has no joints in his knees' (The Bestiary: A Book of Beasts, trans, by T.H. White (i960), p. 26). In truth, the elephant does lie down from time to time, as for sleep.


    647 (II: 255): 'That,' said Sam
    647 (II: 255). big folk down away in the Sunlands. Swertings - Sunlands is a Shire name for Harad. 'It is evidently meant as a popular name, in Common Speech or other languages, current in Gondor and the N.W. [North-west of Middle-earth] for the little known countries of the far South' {Nomenclature).
    The Swertings are the Haradrim, 'said by Sam to be the name in the Shire for the legendary (to hobbits) dark-skinned people of the "Sunlands" (far South). It... is evidently a derivative of swart, which is still in use (= swarthy)' {Nomenclature).
    647 (II: 255). They put houses and towers on the oliphauntses backs and
    all - The 'house' or 'tower' was historically sometimes used as a platform for archers, etc.; compare the 'war-tower' seen by Sam (in ruins) on a mumak in Book IV, Chapter 4.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The War of the Ring, pp. 131-43. 648 (II: 256): The dusk was deep
    648 (II: 256). The dusk was deep when at length they set out - It is the
    evening of 5 March 1419.
    648 (II: 256): With hearts strangely lightened
    648 (II: 256). until the dawn began to spread - It is now 6 March.
    649 (II: 256-7): The growing light revealed
    649 (II: 257). ling and broom and cornel - Ling is a common heather (see note for p. 209).
    Broom is a shrub typically with yellow flowers, thin green stems, and small or few leaves.
    Cornel is a variety of dogwood, a shrub with dark red branches and greenish-white flowers.
    649 (II: 257). uplands - An area of high or hilly land.
    649 (II: 257): The day passed uneasily
    649 (II: 257). whiffling - Making a light whistling sound.
    649-50 (II: 257-8): The road had been made
    649-50 (II: 257-8). The handiwork of Men of old could still be seen in its straight sure flight and level course: now and again it cut its way through hillside slopes, or leaped over a stream upon a wide shapely arch ... but it did not wind: it held on its own sure course - The 'Men of old' were the Numenorean settlers in Gondor. The description of the road recalls those built by the Romans, the straight courses of which are mirrored in the lines of many roads in England today.
    650 (II: 258): So they passed into the northern marches
    650 (II: 258). At the first signs of day - It is 7 March.
    650 (II: 258). a long cutting, deep and sheer-sided in the middle - The
    site of Faramir's ambush of the Southrons in the present chapter, and of an attempted ambush of the army of the West in Book V, Chapter 10.


    650 (II: 258): Day was opening in the sky
    650 (II: 258). resinous trees - Trees such as fir and pine, which exude sticky resin.
    650 (II: 258). cedar and cypress - Coniferous trees which grow more commonly in a Mediterranean climate. The cedar is tall with typically fragrant wood, the cypress an evergreen with small, dark foliage.
    J.A. Schulp in 'The Flora of Middle-earth', Inklings-Jahrbuch fur Litera-tur und Asthetik 3 (1985), notes that according to the general map of Middle-earth 'North Ithilien is 600 miles South of the Shire. The Shire being comparable in climate and vegetation with Middle or South England, Tolkien is justified in confronting the readers with an all-Mediterranean vegetation ... the country west of Dagorlad suddenly changes into a Mediterranean aspect' (p. 131). Schulp suggests that since (at this time) Tolkien had not travelled further south in Europe than Switzerland, he must have 'derived his description of the vegetation from classical authors or other literary sources, not from his own experience. It must be admitted that all the trees and herbs summed up by Tolkien make up the essence of Mediterranean vegetation to us Northerners' (p. 132).
    650 (II: 258). everywhere there was a wealth of sweet-smelling herbs and shrubs - Tolkien added this account of the flora of Ithilien, including many culinary herbs, after he wrote in the following pages of Sam cooking rabbits.
    650 (II: 258). larches - The larch is a coniferous tree with bunches of bright green needles.
    650 (II: 258). Ithilien, the garden of Gondor now desolate kept still a dishevelled dryad loveliness - In Greek and Latin mythology a dryad is a nymph who inhabits a tree. The meaning here is apparently that though no longer tended {dishevelled 'untidy, disordered'), Ithilien is still a land in which nature seems especially alive.
    On 30 April 1944, after writing the present chapter, Tolkien wrote to his son Christopher that Ithilien was 'proving a lovely land' {Letters, p. 76). It surely seems so to most readers, and comes as a relief to them as well as to Frodo and Sam after the desolation of the Dead Marshes and the landscape before the Morannon.
    650 (II: 258): South and west it looked
    650 (II: 258). of tamarisk and pungent terebinth, of olive and of bay -
    The tamarisk is an evergreen shrub or small tree, with feathery branches and small leaves.
    The terebinth is a tree from which turpentine is made.
    The olive is an evergreen with narrow leaves and white flowers.


    The bay, or bay-laurel, is a tree with deep-green leaves and dark purple berries.
    650 (II: 258). junipers and myrtles; and thymes - Juniper is an evergreen shrub or tree, sometimes with berry-like cones.
    Myrtle also is an evergreen shrub, with glossy foliage and white flowers.
    Thyme is a familiar low-growing, aromatic herb.
    650 (II: 258). sages of many kinds ... blue flowers, or red, or pale green; and marjorams and new sprouting parsleys - Sage, marjoram, and parsley, like bay and thyme, are aromatic herbs often used in cooking.
    650 (II: 258). The grots and rocky walls were already starred with saxifrages and stonecrops. - Grot is a poetic word for grotto, here probably meaning natural stony recesses.
    Saxifrage is a low-growing plant with small white, yellow, or red flowers, which often roots in clefts of rock.
    Stonecrop is a small fleshy-leaved plant typically with star-shaped yellow or white flowers, often found among rocks or on walls.
    650 (II: 258). Primeroles and anemones ... in the filbert-brakes - The
    name primerole is given to early spring flowers, such as the cowslip and the field daisy. In 1975 Christopher Tolkien replied to a suggestion that primeroles here should be primroses: 'Primerole is not the same word as primrose, but is based on Latin primula. It was long current and was e.g. used by Chaucer in the Miller's Tale [in the Canterbury Tales]' (courtesy of Christopher Tolkien).
    The anemone (Greek 'windflower') is known for its flowers in bright colours, including scarlet, pink, shades of blue and purple, and yellow, as well as white.
    Filbert-brakes are clumps of hazel trees.
    650 (II: 258). asphodel and many lily flowers - Asphodel is itself a plant of the lily family, with long slender leaves and flowers, mostly white or pink, on a spike.
    650-1 (II: 259): The travellers turned their backs
    651 (II: 259). iris-swords - The leaves of the iris are shaped like swords. An old name for the iris was gladden (see note for p. 52), probably derived from Latin gladius 'sword'.
    651 (II: 259). in-falling freshet - Presumably the stream as it falls into the
    651 (II: 259): Sam scrambling below the outfall
    651 (II: 259). with briar and eglantine and trailing clematis - Briar denotes a prickly shrub, such as the wild rose Rosa rubiginosa and eglantine (sweet-briar, Rosa eglanteria).

    Clematis is typically a climbing plant with white, pink, or purple flowers. 651-2 (II: 260): Sam had been giving earnest thought
    652 (II: 260). Six days or more had passed since he reckoned that they had only a bare supply for three weeks. - That had been on 30 February, the day that Sam and Frodo had slept in the gully. It is now 7 March.
    653 (II: 261): While Gollum was away
    653 (II: 261). coneys - Rabbits. Cony or coney was formerly the proper name for this animal, while rabbit referred only to its young. The Oxford English Dictionary comments that rabbits are not mentioned in England before the Norman period, and there is no word for them in Celtic or Teutonic.
    654 (II: 262): 'I don't think so'
    654 (II: 262). make a smother - Create dense smoke.
    654 (II: 262): Gollum withdrew grumbling
    654 (II: 262). taters - A dialectal corruption of potatoes; see note for p. 22. 654-5 (II: 263): lPo - ta - toes'
    655 (II: 263). fish and chips - A favourite meal in Britain, deep-fried fish with chips, long pieces of deep-fried potato, usually larger than American French fries.
    655 (II: 263): 'A present from SmeagoP
    655 (II: 263). brace - In this sense, a pair of animals killed in hunting.
    656 (II: 264): The two hobbits trussed
    656 (II: 264). trussed - Fastened, secured.
    656 (II: 265): 'Nay! Not Elves'
    656 (II: 265). wondrous - Poetic 'wonderfully'.
    657 (II: 265): The tall green man laughed
    657 (II: 265). I am Faramir, Captain of Gondor - On 6 May 1944 Tolkien wrote to his son Christopher: 'A new character has come on the scene (I am sure I did not invent him, I did not even want him, though I like him, but there he came walking into the woods of Ithilien): Faramir, the brother of Boromir' (Letters, p. 79). The character in fact entered the story in draft as 'Falborn, son of Anborn', and only later received his final name and significance. The second element of Faramir is probably the same as that in Boromir, Quenya mire 'jewel'.


    657-8 (II: 266): 'I do not know where he is'
    657 (II: 266). gangrel - Vagabond, vagrant.
    658 (II: 266): 'Boromir son of the Lord Denethor?'
    658 (II: 266). Captain-General - Commander-in-chief.
    658 (II: 266-7): 'We must learn more of this'
    658 (II: 266). hard handstrokes - Hand-to-hand fighting. 658-9 (II: 267): The hobbits sat down again
    659 (II: 267). pale-skinned, dark of hair, with grey eyes ... Dunedain of the South - Many of the Men who went to Numenor at the beginning of the Second Age were of the House of Beor, described in The Silmarillion as having 'dark or brown hair' and 'grey eyes' (p. 148).
    659 (II: 267): After a while he spoke to them
    659 (II: 267). Mablung and Damrod - In The Silmarillion Mablung is the name of an 'Elf of Doriath, chief captain of Thingol, friend of Turin; called "of the Heavy Hand"' (which is the meaning of the name Mablung); slain in Menegroth by the Dwarves' (p. 339).
    Damrod was for a while the name of one of the sons of Feanor; it means 'hammerer of copper [later metal]'.
    659 (II: 267). forayers - Raiders; men who make a sudden attack or incursion into enemy territory.
    659 (II: 267-8): 'Aye, curse the Southrons!'
    659 (II: 267). Umbar - 'A natural haven on [the] coast south of Gondor, now occupied by hostile people (whose lords were orig[inally] rebel Numenoreans), and now are pirates' {Index).
    659 (II: 267-8). they were ever ready to His will - as have so many also in the East - The brief history of Gondor told in Appendix A shows that it was constantly under attack from the East. There it is also said that Umbar
    had been Niimenorean land since days of old; but it was a stronghold of the King's Men, who were afterwards called the Black Numenoreans, corrupted by Sauron, and who hated above all the followers of Elendil. After the fall of Sauron [at the end of the Second Age] their race swiftly dwindled or became merged with the Men of Middle-earth, but they inherited without lessening their hatred of Gondor. [pp. 1044-5, III: 325]
    659-60 (II: 268): 'But still we will not sit idle
    659 (II: 268). the cloven way - The long cutting described earlier in the chapter: 'deep, and sheer-sided in the middle, by which the road clove its way through a stony ridge' (p. 650, II: 258).

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