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    Форум » Дж.Р.Р. Толкин » Произведения Толкина » The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:46 | Сообщение # 16
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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, chiefly pp. 125-31, 329; The Treason oflsengard, p. 37.
    135 (1:146): That night they heard no noises
    135 (I: 146). Frodo heard a sweet singing running in his mind: a song that seemed to come like a pale light behind a grey rain-curtain, and growing stronger to turn the veil all to glass and silver, until at last it was rolled back, and a far green country opened before him under a swift sunrise. - Frodo's dream foreshadows what he hears and sees as he nears the Undying Lands at the end of The Lord of the Rings, in Book VI, Chapter 9.
    135 (1:146): The vision melted into waking
    135 (I: 146). The vision melted into waking - It is the morning of 28 September 1418.
    138 (1:149): Soon they were leading their ponies
    138 (1:149). When they reached the bottom it was so chill - This was the reading in the first printing of the first edition (1954). In the unauthorized resetting of The Fellowship of the Ring for its second printing (1954) the final word was mistakenly altered to 'cold'. The error was corrected in the edition of 2004.
    141 (1:152): Cold be hand and heart and bone
    141 (I: 152). Cold be hand and heart and bone... - The wight's incanta­tion, looking to the triumph of the 'dark lord', recalls the oath of the Ores of Morgoth in The Lay of Leithian (written in the mid-i920s to 1931, published in The Lays of Beleriand, p. 230):
    Death to light, to law, to love! Cursed he moon and stars above! May darkness everlasting old that waits outside in surges cold drown Manwe, Varda, and the sun! May all in hatred be begun, and all in evil ended be, in the moaning of the endless Sea!
    141 (1:152). till the Sun fails and the Moon is dead ... till the dark lord lifts his hand over dead sea and withered land. - The song seems to


    envisage some sort of resurrection when the world is cold, dead, and lightless, over which the Dark Lord will preside. This vision of utter desolation contrasts with suggestions in 'The Silmarillion' that one day the Marring of Arda (i.e. the evils inflicted on the Earth by Morgoth) will be healed, and with Galadriel's words to Treebeard that they may meet again when 'the lands that lie under the wave are lifted up again. Then in the willow-meads of Tasarinan we may meet in the Spring' (Book VI, Chapter 6, p. 981,1: 259).
    141 (I: 152): He heard behind his head
    141 (I: 152). a long arm was groping, walking on its fingers - Sinister hands and arms appear in Tolkien's art, in this regard most particularly in the picture Maddo, 'a gloved hand without an arm that opened curtains a crack after dark and crawled down the curtain' (quoted in Artist and Illustrator, p. 83, for fig. 78).
    141 (1:152). they were in a kind of passage which behind them turned a corner. - Many of the Neolithic barrows in England contain chambers opening off a central passage. The best known is probably the West Kennet barrow near Avebury, which was used as a communal grave, possibly for a thousand years, the last burial being c. 2200 BC. Communal burial was replaced during the Bronze Age by individual burials, presumably of persons of significance, and the tombs and mounds over them became smaller.
    141 (1:152-3): But the courage that had been awakened
    141 (I: 152). But the courage that had been awakened in him was now too strong - In Book I, Chapter 3 Frodo was tempted to put on the Ring to escape from the Black Rider, but was saved when the Rider suddenly rode off. Here he is also tempted to use the Ring, and thinks of himself free but alive, though his friends were dead. Courage, however, and friendship, overcome temptation: his first triumph over the Ring, an indication of his strength of character. In Book II, Chapter 1 Gandalf says to Frodo: 'You have some strength in you, my dear hobbit! As you showed in the Barrow. That was touch and go: perhaps the most dangerous moment of all' (p. 219, I: 231).
    142 (1:153): Old Tom Bombadil is a merry fellow
    142 (I: 153). His songs are stronger songs - Stronger, that is, than the wight's incantation. The power of Tom's music strongly begs comparison with that of the wizard Vainamoinen in the Finnish Kalevala, a significant influence on Tolkien's writings. David Elton Gay, in 'J.R.R. Tolkien and the Kalevala: Some Thoughts on the Finnish Origins of Tom Bombadil and Treebeard', Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader (2002), com­ments that


    for both Vainamoinen and Tom Bombadil power comes from their command of song and lore rather than from ownership and domi­nation. Vainamoinen spends his time in endless singing, not singing songs of power, however, but rather songs of knowledge. Indeed, it would appear that he, like Tom Bombadil, sings for the simple pleasure of singing.... As Tom's conversations with the Hobbits make apparent, his mastery of his land, like Vainamoinen's, is through knowledge and experience rather than ownership.
    ... To have power over something in the mythology of the Kalevala one must know its origins and be able to sing the appropriate songs and incantations concerning these origins. Great power in the world of the Kalevala requires great age and great knowledge, and Vainamoinen has both. A large part of his power comes from the fact that as the oldest of all living things he saw the creation of things, heard their names, and knows the songs of their origins, and it was his works which helped give shape to the land. The same is clearly true of Tom Bombadil. [pp. 298-9]
    142 (1:153): There was a loud rumbling
    142 (I: 153). the sun rising - It is the morning of 29 September.
    142 (1:153-4): Get out, you old Wight!
    142 (I: 154). darker than the darkness, I Where gates stand forever shut, till the world is mended. - Perhaps an allusion to the state of affairs at the end of the Quenta Silmarillion:
    But Morgoth himself the Valar thrust through the Door of Night beyond the Walls of the World, into the Timeless Void; and a guard is set for ever on those walls, and Earendil keeps watch upon the ramparts of the sky. Yet the lies that Melkor, the mighty and accursed, Morgoth Bauglir, the Power of Terror and of Hate, sowed in the hearts of Elves and Men are a seed that does not die and cannot be destroyed; and ever and anon it sprouts anew, and will bear dark fruit even unto the latest days. [The Silmarillion, pp. 254-5]
    143 (I: 154): 'What in the name of wonder?'
    143 (I: 154). The men of Cam Dum came on us at night and we were worsted. Ah! the spear in my heart! - Cam Dum was the chief fortress of Angmar, the realm of the Witch-king, the leader of the Ringwraiths, in Third Age c. 1300-1973. In Appendix A it is said that, according to some, 'the mound in which the Ring-bearer was imprisoned had been the grave of the last prince of Cardolan, who fell in the war of 1409', and at about the time of the Great Plague of 1636 'an end came of the Dunedain of Cardolan, and evil spirits out of Angmar and Rhudaur entered into the deserted mounds and dwelt there' (p. 1041, III: 321). The Tale of Years indicates for Third Age 1409: 'The Witch-king of Angmar invades Arnor .. . Fornost and Tyrn Gorthad


    [the Barrow-downs] are defended'. Merry's remarks indicate that in his dreams or trance he has been experiencing the last hours of the prince of Cardolan. But the barrow-wight is not the ghost of this prince, but one of the evil spirits who came to the mounds some two hundred years after the prince's death, as an agent of the Witch-king of Angmar.
    In Marquette MSS 4/2/36 {The Hunt for the Ring) it is said that after the Black Riders had overcome the Rangers guarding Sarn Ford, four of the Riders
    pursue Rangers along Greenway, and having slain them or driven them off Eastwards, make a camp at Andrath (where the road passes between the Barrowdowns and the South Downs) [cf. note for p. 177]. [The Witch-king] now visits the Barrowdowns and stops there some days (probably until late on 27). This proves a main error, though in fact it was nearly successful, since the Barrowwights are roused, and all things of evil spirit hostile to Elves and Men are on the watch with malice in the Old Forest and on the Barrowdowns. [The other three Black Riders] are left to guard the eastern borders, to watch the Greenway, and guard against Elves or Dunedain coming from eastwards.
    Another text concerning The Hunt for the Ring, Marquette MSS 4/2/33, notes that 'the Witch-King ... had known something of the country long ago, in his wars with the Dunedain, and especially of the Tyrn Gorthad of Cardolan, now the Barrow-downs, whose evil wights had been sent there by himself (see also Unfinished Tales, p. 348).
    To be worsted is to be defeated, overcome.
    144 (1:155): Hey! now! Come hoy now!
    144 (1:155). Sharp-ears, Wise-nose, Swish-tail and Bumpkin, I White-socks ... and old Fatty Lumpkin! - Four of the names that Tom gives the ponies were clearly chosen to suit their physical features or special abilities. In Nomenclature Tolkien states that the -kin of Fatty Lumpkin 'is of course a diminutive suffix'. When Fatty Lumpkin appears he is described as 'large, stronger, fatter (and older) than their own ponies'. The most common definition oflump is 'a compact mass of no definite shape', but colloquially or in dialect is used to describe a big, fat, or stupid person or animal. The Concise Oxford English Dictionary notes that bumpkin possibly derives from Middle Dutch bommekijn 'little barrel', 'denoting a dumpy person'.
    145 (I: 156): The hobbits were delighted
    145 (I: 156). my making - Making is an archaic word for the composition of poetry.
    145 (1:156-7): It was still fairly early by the sun
    145 (1:156). that glistered and sparkled - This was the reading in the first printing of the first edition (1954). In the unauthorized resetting of The


    Fellowship of the Ring for its second printing (1954), 'glistered1 was mistakenly altered to 'glistened'. The error was corrected in the edition of 2004.
    145 (1:156). for so the spell of the mound should be broken and scattered
    - A recurring theme in Tolkien's works is that of avarice, and of the evils that may come of it. In The Hobbit Smaug's hoard brings out feelings of greed in the dwarves, the Elves, and the Lakemen, but not Bilbo, who gives away the Arkenstone in an attempt to defuse hostilities; and in the poem Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden (and its revision The Hoard) a treasure passes from Elves, to Dwarves, to a dragon, to a young warrior, all of whom come to a violent end. Tom Shippey in The Road to Middle-earth, PP- 79-80 (2nd edn.), discusses the origin of the poem, based on a line in Beowulf {'the gold of ancient men, wound round with magic') which refers to the curse of avarice on another dragon's hoard. In The Lord of the Rings Tom Bombadil negates any such spell on the wight's treasures by giving them away.
    145 (I: 156-7). with blue stones, many-shaded like flax-flowers - There are several wild species of flax in addition to Linum usitatissimum which is cultivated to produce linseed and fibre. The blueness of the flower varies.
    145-6 (1:157): For each of the hobbits
    145 (I: 157). a dagger, long, leaf-shaped, and keen, ... damasked with serpent-forms in red and gold - The acquiring of daggers 'long enough as swords' by the hobbits echoes Bilbo acquiring the elven-blade 'Sting' from the trolls' hoard in The Hobbit, Chapter 2.
    In regard to damasked, the usual word when applied to metal is dam­ascened 'ornamented with designs incised in the surface and inlaid with gold or silver'. The word is derived from the name of Damascus, a city famous for such work.
    146 (I: 157): 'Old knives are long enough
    146 (I: 157). these blades were forged many long years ago by Men of Westernesse: they were foes of the Dark Lord, but they were overcome by the evil king of Cam Dum in the Land of Angmar - Though the Men of Westernesse who made these blades were defeated long before by the Witch-king of Angmar (see note for p. 5), yet one of these knives will be used to bring about his final destruction: Merry's blade, which in the battle of the Pelennor Fields in Book V, Chapter 6 pierces the Witch-king's sinew behind his knee. The blade having withered away, Tolkien writes:
    So passed the sword of the Barrow-downs, work of Westernesse. But glad would he have been to know its fate who wrought it slowly long ago in the North-kingdom when the Diinedain were young, and chief among their foes was the dread realm of Angmar and its sorcerer king.

    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:46 | Сообщение # 17
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    Chapter 9

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 132-47,172, 331-6, 349-50; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 40-2, 62, 73-6.
    149 (1:161): Bree was the chief village
    149 (1:161). Bree - A sketch-plan of the village is reproduced in The Return of the Shadow, p. 335.
    149 (I: 161). Staddle - In Nomenclature Tolkien notes that the name of this village derives from staddle which 'is now dialectal, but occurs in place-names = "foundation", of buildings, sheds, ricks, etc.: from Old English stadoF. Compare Staddlethorpe in Yorkshire.
    149 (1:161). Combe in a deep valley - In Nomenclature Tolkien comments that a coomb is 'a deep (but usually not very large) valley. [The word is] very frequent as an element in place-names spelt -comb, -cumb, -combe, etc' The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that the similarity of Old English cumb 'vessel, cup' to British cumbo- (Modern Welsh cwm) 'valley' assisted the survival of the element in many place names and the adoption of cumb as an Old English word meaning 'a deep hollow or valley'. Combe or Coomb survives as a place name on its own (there is a Combe in Oxfordshire) or as one element of a place-name, e.g. Compton, Ilfracombe, Winchcombe.
    149 (1:161). Archet - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that Archet is 'actually an English place-name of Celtic origin. Used in the nomenclature of Bree to represent a stratum of names older than those in Common Speech or the Hobbit language.' The manuscript of Nomenclature notes that Archet descended 'from British *ar(e)cait- > Old English ar-caet (Welsh argoed [obsolete 'trees, edge of forest'])'.
    149 (I: 161): The Men of Bree were brown-haired
    149 (1:161). the original inhabitants - See first note for p. 130.
    149 (1:161). when the Kings returned again over the Great Sea ... when the memory of the old Kings had faded into the grass - They were there when the Numenoreans returned to Middle-earth and established the kingdom of Arnor; and they were still there when the rulers of Arnor and its later sub-divisions (Arthedain, Rhudaur, and Cardolan) had been forgotten.


    150 (I: 162): Down on the Road
    150 (I: 162). Strange as news from Bree was still a saying in the Eastfar-thing ... when news from North, South, and East could be heard in
    the inn - That is, as opposed to news from the West, i.e. from the Shire itself, which was not 'strange'.
    150 (1:162). the Northern Lands - Arnor, the North Kingdom, the northern realm established by the Numenoreans, with its later centre at Fornost 01 Norbury some hundred miles north of Bree. The area had become depopu­lated and desolate as a result of the attacks of the Witch-king of Angmar.
    152 (1:164): The man stared after the hobbits
    152 (I: 164). a dark figure climbed quickly in over the gate - When reading The Lord of the Rings for the first time, this seems a sinister figure; in fact it is Aragorn. Tolkien does not explain why Aragorn chose to entei Bree in this fashion.
    152: (I: 164): The hobbits rode on
    152 (I: 164). he was finding his first sight of Men and their tall houses quite enough - It is said in the Prologue that when Hobbits did build houses, they were 'usually long, low, and comfortable' (p. 7, I: 16).
    152 (1:164): Even from the outside
    152 (1:164). second-floor windows - In Britain (and in English (or British) English) the floor at street (or front door) level is the ground floor, and floors are numbered from the next floor up. The second floor is thus two floors above ground level, in the United States called the third floor.
    153 (1:165): 'Hi! Nob!' he shouted
    153 (I: 165). Nob - Nob was perhaps chosen to rhyme with Bob. It does not seem to be a recognized diminutive or nickname.
    153 (I: 165): 'There now!' said Mr. Butterbur
    153 (I: 165). I'm run off my feet - That is, 'to be very busy; to be kepi constantly on the move'. It will be noted that Butterbur likes to use commonplace sayings.
    153 (I: 165). It never rains but it pours, we say in Bree. - And elsewhere, a common proverb meaning: 'One occurrence is frequently the harbingei of many more; strokes of good or ill fortune are often accompanied by additional benefits or misfortunes'.
    153 (I: 165): 'Well now
    153 (1:165). One thing drives out another, so to speak - Another platitude from Mr Butterbur, similar to the proverb One nail drives out another, i.e.


    'unable to keep two thoughts in his head at once'. Katharyn W. Crabbe comments in J.R.R. Tolkien:
    Barliman's string of platitudes ... is perfect as a representation of the conversation of a man who is too busy to concentrate on what is before him. This sort of nearly meaningless utterance is only probable in a kind of semiconscious conversation that prepares us for a shock of recognition instead of a simple shock when Barliman reveals that he has forgotten to send Gandalf's warning letter to Frodo. [rev. and expanded edn. (1988), p. 100]
    153 (1:166): He led them a short way
    153 (I: 166). parlour - Parlour is the usual word for a private room at an inn for conversation and dining, but not for sleeping.
    154 (1:166): The landlord hovered round for a little
    154 (I: 166). and then prepared to leave them - As first published this passage read 'proposed to leave them' (italics ours), an error which arose in typescript. It was emended in the edition of 1994.
    154 (I: 166). We don't get Outsiders - travellers from the Shire - The
    Bree-folk use the same term to describe the Shire Hobbits as the Shire Hobbits use for Breelanders. See notes for pp. 22 and 992.
    154 (I: 166): So refreshed and encouraged
    154 (I: 166). Mind your Ps and Qs - To be careful in one's words and behaviour.
    154-5 (I: 167): The company was in the big common-room
    154 (I: 167). the big common-room of the inn - 'A room common to all; especially the public room at an inn' (OED). The Oxford English Dictionary prefers two words for this usage, restricting the hyphened form for a common-room in a school or college.
    155 (I: 167): As soon as the Shire-hobbits entered
    155 (I: 167). Rushlight, Goatleaf, Heathertoes, Appledore, Thistlewool and Ferny.... The Mugworts ... Banks, Brockhouse, Longholes, Sandheaver and Tunnelly - A rushlight is 'a candle made by dipping the pith of a rush in tallow' (Concise OED).
    Goatleaf, Tolkien explains in Nomenclature, is a 'Bree-name of botanical type, an old name of honeysuckle/woodbine. Cf. French chevrefeuille (medieval Latin caprifolium, probably from the vernaculars).'
    Heathertoes has 'no parallel in English, though Heather- appears in some surnames.... (Presumably a joke of the Big Folk, meaning that the Little Folk, wandering unshod, collected heather, twigs, and leaves between their toes)' (Nomenclature).


    Appledore, Tolkien says in Nomenclature, is an 'old word for "apple-tree" (survives in English place-names)', from Old English apuldor.
    In Nomenclature Tolkien instructs that Thistlewool should be translated by sense. It is presumably another word for thistle-down 'the light fluffy down of thistle seeds, enabling them to be blown about by the wind' {Concise OED). Although the Oxford English Dictionary has no entry for thistlewool it notes as a second sense for wool 'a downy substance or fibre found on certain trees or plants'.
    'Fern and Ferny, Fernie are English surnames, but whatever their origin the name is here used to fit the predominantly botanical names current in Bree' (Nomenclature).
    Mugwort is the name of a plant, '(Artemisia, French armoise, akin to Wormwood, French armoise amere). .. . There is no special reason for the choice of Mugwort, except its hobbit-like sound' (Nomenclature).
    Tolkien comments in Nomenclature that Banks is 'clearly a topographical name containing hank in the sense "steep slope or hill-side"'.
    For Brockhouse, see note for p. 28.
    The names Longholes, Sandheaver, and Tunnelly continue the Hobbit tendency towards surnames related to digging.
    155 (I: 168): The Men and Dwarves
    155 (I: 168). There was trouble away in the South, and it seemed that the Men who had come up the Greenway were on the move looking for lands where they could find some peace - They were surely fleeing from the threat of war, rather than from war itself. At this point in the story the only overt action has been Sauron's attack on Osgiliath in June, and his forces (other than the Ringwraiths) have not yet crossed the Anduin.
    155 (1:168). a squint-eyed ill-favoured fellow - In American usage squint means 'to narrow, slit one's eyes'. Though squint can have this meaning in England, generally in English English it denotes a disorder of the eye. In response to an enquiry from Nancy Martsch, who knew only the American usage and wondered if by describing the Southerner as 'squint-eyed' Tol­kien meant that he had narrow eyes, like an ore, or that he held his eyes half-closed, Christopher Tolkien replied:
    Just as you had never heard until recently of the use of the word squint to mean anything but 'to narrow the eyes', so I had never until your letter heard of that meaning. I believe that squint in 'English English' always carries the idea of obliqueness: a squint is a strabismus (muscular disorder that causes the eye to look obliquely) and to squint means to suffer from that condition - but also more generally, to look obliquely, 'to look out of the corner of the eye': it can thus very readily come to connote character, and naturally leads to the meaning very fully developed in French, where a main meaning of louche ('squinting') is 'ambiguous, dubious, suspicious, shady, fishy'.


    Just what my father meant to convey by the 'squint-eyed Southerner' at Bree I'm not sure. I don't think that he can possibly have meant that the man had 'slit-eyes' (goblin-like). He may have meant that he actually had a squint (optical disorder), but that seems unnecessarily particular. So the likeliest meaning, I think, is that the man didn't look straight, but obliquely, watchfully, sideways, suggesting craftiness and crookedness. [quoted in Nancy Martsch, 'The "Squint-eyed Southerner"', Beyond Bree, May 1990, p. 9]
    In Book I, Chapter 11 the Southerner is described as having 'slanting eyes' and looking 'more than half like a goblin', suggesting that Tolkien envisioned ores as having slanting eyes, but probably not slit-eyes (p. 180, I: 193). A great deal is revealed about the Southerner in The Hunt for the Ring:
    Some while ago one of Saruman's most trusted servants (yet a ruffianly fellow, an outlaw driven from Dunland, where many said that he had Ore-blood) had returned from the Shire, where he had been negotiating for the purchase of 'leaf and other supplies. ... This man was now on his way back to continue the business. ... He had orders also to get into the Shire if possible and learn if there had been any departures of persons well-known recently. He was well-supplied with maps, lists of names, and notes concerning the Shire.
    This Dunlending was overtaken by several of the Black Riders as they approached the Tharbad crossing. In an extremity of terror he was haled to the Witch-king and questioned. He saved his life by betraying Saruman.... The Witch-king ... obtained much information, includ­ing some about the only name that interested him: Baggins. It was for this reason that Hobbiton was singled out as one of the points for immediate visit and enquiry....
    Seeing that his Master suspected some move between the Shire and Rivendell, he also saw that Bree ... would be an important point, at least for information. He put therefore the Shadow of Fear on the Dunlending, and sent him on to Bree as an agent. [Unfinished Tales, pp. 347-8]
    155 (I: 168). If room isn't found ... They've a right to live - This seems more than an echo of the German claim to Lebensraum 'living space', one of the causes of the Second World War; it was a word Tolkien often would have heard used. In The Gathering Storm (1948) Winston Churchill summarized a discussion he had in 1937 with Herr von Ribbentrop, the German Ambassador to Britain:
    Germany would stand guard for the British Empire in all its greatness and extent. They might ask for the return of the German colonies, but this was evidently not cardinal. What was required was that Britain should give Germany a free hand in the East of Europe. She must

    deleted Дата: Понедельник, 18 Марта 2013, 13:47 | Сообщение # 18
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    Chapter 10 STRIDER
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 148-63,171-6, 336-54, 367-8; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 43-53, 62-4, 77-8.
    164 (1:175): Frodo, Pippin, and Sam
    164 (1:175). faggots - A faggot is a bundle of sticks or twigs used for fuel.
    163-4 (1:176-7): 'Too much; too many dark things'
    163 (I: 176). old Bombadil - The familiar reference suggests that Strider knows Tom Bombadil well.
    165 (I: 177): 'News of you, of course
    165 (I: 177). I know all the lands between the Shire and the Misty Mountains, for I have wandered over them for many years. I am older than I look. - In Appendix A it is said that in Third Age 2951 Aragorn took leave lovingly of Elrond ... and he went out into the wild. For nearly thirty years he laboured in the cause against Sauron; and he became a friend of Gandalf the Wise, from whom he gained much wisdom. With him he made many perilous journeys, but as the years wore on he went more often alone' (p. 1060, III: 340). He was born on 1 March 2931 (S.R. 1331), thus when he met the hobbits in Bree he was eighty-seven years old.
    165 (1:177). Do you wish them to find you? They are terrible! - We are
    not told how Strider knows about the Ringwraiths, or why, on this page, 'his face was drawn as if with pain, and his hands clenched the arms of his chair'. The passage in fact is a shadow of drafts of this chapter in which Strider was still the Hobbit 'Trotter', who 'had been captured and imprisoned by the Dark Lord' and had his feet hurt by torture.
    167 (1:179): 'Where was I?
    167 (I: 179). Three months back - On Mid-year's Day. It is now 29 September 1418.
    167 (1:179): 'It's addressed plain enough'
    167 (1:179). a lettered man - In this sense, one who can read.
    167 (I: 179): Poor Mr. Butterbur looked troubled
    167 (1:179). I'm mortal afraid - Mortal is used here in the colloquial sense 'extremely great'.


    167-8 (I: 180): 'These black men'
    168 (I: 180). It was on Monday - It is the evening of Thursday, 29 September. The Black Riders reached Bree on the day the hobbits were in the Old Forest, and would certainly have found them if they had been on the road.
    169 (1:181): 'I'll do that'
    169 (I: 181). his slow pate - Pate 'head', by extension the intellect. Nob's brain works slowly; he isn't 'quick on the uptake'.
    i69 (I: 182): THE PRANCING PONY
    169 (I: 182). Midyear's Day - In the Shire Calendar there are three days between June and July, the middle one of these is Midyear's Day (also spelt Mid-year's Day). See Appendix D.
    170 (1:182): PS. Do NOT use It again
    170 (I: 182). PS. - Latin post scriptum, from which English postscript, literally 'after written', something added at the end of a letter following the signature. For each additional note another P is added.
    170 (I: 182). Do not travel by night! - In Book I, Chapter 11 Aragorn remarks that 'our shapes cast shadows in their minds, which only the noon sun destroys; and in the dark they [the Black Riders] perceive many signs and forms that are hidden from us: then they are most to be feared' (p. 189, I: 202).
    170 (1:182): All that is gold does not glitter
    170 (I: 182). All that is gold does not glitter - Compare the traditional saying all that glitters is not gold (in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, 'All that glisters is not gold'). In his 'Canon's Yeoman's Tale' in the Canterbury Tales Chaucer says: 'But al thyng which that shyneth as the gold / Nis nat gold, as that I have heard told.'
    170 (I: 182). From the ashes afire shall be woken - For this Tom Shippey has suggested an inspiration by Spenser's Faerie Queene: 'There shall a sparke of fire, which hath long-while / Bene in his ashes raked up and hid / Be freshly kindled...' (quoted in The Road to Middle-earth, 2nd edn., p. 317, n. 9).
    170 (I: 182): PPPS. I hope Butterbur
    170 (I: 182). lumber-room - A room for the storage of unused or useless household articles.


    170 (1:183): 'Would it? Would any of you
    170 (I: 182). The Enemy has set traps for me before now. - The Enemy (the forces of Sauron or his allies) are evidently aware of Aragorn as a leader of their foes, but are ignorant of his lineage.
    171 (1:183): 'That you are a stout fellow'
    171 (I: 183). If I was after the Ring, I could have it - NOW! - Paul H.
    Kocher observes that 'like every other leader of the West' Aragorn is given 'one fateful chance' to yield to the temptation of the Ring. 'But he conquers it and is never bothered by it again.... And by his pledge of help he subordinates his own ambitions to their [the hobbits'] safety as bearers of the Ring' (Master of Middle-earth: The Fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien (1972), pp. 135-6).
    171 (I: 183): 'But I am the real Strider
    171 (I: 183). Arathorn - In his letter to Richard Jeffery, 17 December 1972, Tolkien wrote that Arathorn 'contains an abbreviated form ofporono (thorono) "eagle", seen in Thoron- dor, Thorongil: Q[uenya] porno I sornd (Letters, p. 427).
    171 (1:184): 'I did not know'
    171 (I: 184). He drew out his sword, and they saw that the blade was indeed broken a foot below the hilt. - What was Aragorn to do if he needed to defend himself? The broken sword is with him as an heirloom of his house (see Book II, Chapter 2); presumably he carried some more effective weapon, though none is mentioned. His situation recalls the most famous broken sword of legend, Gram in the Volsungasaga, which Tolkien mentions in On Fairy-Stories. Odin gave the sword to Sigmund, but years later shattered it with a blow from his spear and turned the tide of battle. Hjordis, Sigmund's widow, saved the shards and gave them to her son Sigurd when he grew up. The sword was reforged for him by Regin, and with it he slew the dragon Fafnir. Tolkien first read Sigurd's story while still a child, in Andrew Lang's retelling in The Red Fairy Book (1890).
    172 (1:184): 'Well,' said Strider
    172 (1:184). Strider shall be your guide. And now I think it is time you went to bed and took what rest you can. We shall have a rough road tomorrow. - In editions prior to 2004 this passage read only: 'Strider shall be your guide. We shall have a rough road tomorrow.' Christopher Tolkien notes in The Treason of Isengard, p. 78, that the intervening sentence was present in the complex and difficult draft manuscript of the chapter, and indeed the words 'We shall have a rough road tomorrow' clearly depend on And now I think ... what rest you can'. But 'And now I think ...' was omitted from a later typescript, and so from the published Lord of the


    Rings. In correspondence with the present authors Christopher commented that the words in question were omitted also from a fair copy manuscript preceding the typescript. There is no suggestion, he says, that his father was doubtful about the words in the original manuscript; their absence from the fair copy was probably a mere example of 'jumping', no more than the author inadvertently skipping over a sentence in the process of revising the 'chaotic' draft text, 'a mass of emendations, rejected pages, and inserted riders' (The Treason oflsengard, p. 78).
    172 (1:184): 'It is a hill, just to the north
    172 (I: 184). about half way from here to Rivendell - But it does not appear to be 'half way' on the general map. In Journeys of Frodo (1981) Barbara Strachey remarks on this as a discrepancy, and speculates that Tolkien meant that Weathertop was half way to the Last Bridge. The Hobbits and Aragorn took seven days to reach Weathertop from Bree, involving a detour to the North, and seven days from Weathertop to the Bridge (with Frodo in a wounded condition and unable to hurry), while there was a further seven days from the Bridge to Rivendell. Aragorn is well aware of the distance: he says on Weathertop that it would take them fourteen days to reach the Ford, though it normally took him, by himself, twelve. In The Return of the Shadow Christopher Tolkien points to one of the drafts of this chapter, where Weathertop is said to be 'a hill, just north of the Road, somewhere about halfway to Rivendell from here' (p. 353), and comments on Strachey's suggestion that
    it is now seen that Aragorn's words 'about halfway from here (Bree) to Rivendell' in [The Fellowship of the Ring] go back to Trotter's here; and at this stage the River Hoarwell and the Last Bridge on the East Road did not yet exist.... I think that Trotter (Aragorn) was merely giving Folco (Sam) a rough but sufficient idea of the distances before them. -The relative distances go back to the original version .. . : about 120 miles from Bree to Weathertop, close on 200 from Weathertop to the Ford. [p. 368, n. 2]
    See further, note for pp. 187-8.
    172 (1:184): Strider looked grave
    172 (I: 184). We last met on the first of May: at Sarn Ford down the Brandywine. - In Book I, Chapter 2, however, it is said that Gandalf arrived at Bag End after a long absence on an evening in early April; and 'two or three weeks' later, in Book I, Chapter 3, he advised Frodo that he ought to leave soon; and in the end 'stayed in the Shire for over two months' before leaving (pp. 65, 67, III: 74, 76), i.e. in June 1418 (S.R.). Christopher Tolkien comments in The Treason oflsengard that 'there is no reference to his [Gandalf] having left Hobbiton during this time' (p. 80,


    Tolkien writes in the manuscript of Nomenclature that Sam Ford
    is a half-translation (of Sarn-athrad 'stony-ford'), a process frequent in place-names. The [Sindarin] word sarn meant 'stony'; as a noun a 'stony place', an outcrop of rock in softer ground, or in a river-bed. The ancient ford over the Baranduin was so-called because, after passing through the flats of the Eastfarthing, it passed then over a wide area of shingles before turning south-west and falling swiftly down into lower lands on its way to the sea. (It was named by the Numenoreans after a ford in the River Gelion (in the lost land of Beleriand) famous in legend.)
    173 (I: 186): 'I found him, sir'
    173 (I: 186). South-gate - In his unfinished index Tolkien notes that the South-gate is the 'eastward gate of Bree (so-called because at that point the Road was running southwards)'.
    174 (1:186): 'No, I think not'
    174 (I: 186). their power is in terror - In June 1958 Tolkien wrote to Forrest J. Ackerman that the Black Riders' peril
    is almost entirely due to the unreasoning fear which they inspire (like ghosts). They have no great physical power against the fearless; but what they have, and the fear they inspire, is enormously increased by darkness. The Witch-king, their leader, is more powerful in all ways than the others; but [in the first part of the story] he must not yet be raised to the stature of Vol. III. There, put in command by Sauron, he is given an added demonic force. [Letters, p. 272]
    174 (1:186): Their bags and gear
    174 (I: 186). The Sickle - Glossed here as 'the Plough or Great Bear', i.e. Ursa Major, called in Britain the Plough or the Wain, and in America the

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    Chapter 11

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 162-71,174-89, 354-9, 368; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 53-8, 64-5.
    176 (I: 188): As they prepared for sleep
    176 (I: 178). a black shadow moved under the trees - It is the night of 29 September 1418. Merry had told Frodo on the evening of 25 September that the Black Riders could have reached Crickhollow that evening if they were not stopped at the North-gate. In Marquette MSS 4/2/36 (The Hunt for the Ring) Tolkien explains their delay as follows. Khamul, alarmed at the escape of the Ring over the river on the night of 25 September, sum­moned the other four Riders who had entered the Shire:
    (The Nazgul found one another easily, since they were quickly aware of a companion presence, and could hear the cries over great distances. They could see one another also from far away, even by day when to them a Nazgul was the one clearly visible thing in a mist.)
    As soon as he has assembled his force (in the early morning of 26th, probably) [Khamul] leaves one to lurk near the Bridge and watch it; he sends [two] along the East Road, with orders to report to [the Witch-king] the eastward movement of the Ring; he himself with [his com­panion] passes secretly into Buckland by the north gate of that land. But desiring to attract as little notice as possible he (mistakenly and against Sauron's orders) sacrifices speed to stealth.
    [The two sent east] pass along the East Road, and visit Bree and 'The Prancing Pony'. They then go in search of [the Witch-king] but cannot at once find him [until 27th September. He] is elated to learn that the Ring was really in the Shire, but is alarmed and angry at its escape; and also by the fact that the Bearer must now certainly know that he is being hunted. (If he is a person of power and knowledge he may find out indeed how to use it, and compel a Nazgul to leave him unmolested at the least. But [he is told that Khamul] has discovered that the Bearer is a v[ery] small spiritless creature with no pride or will power, and is filled with terror at the approach of a Ringwraith.)
    [The Witch-king] is uncertain what to do. The Bearer seems to be making eastwards, he is therefore surely bound for Rivendell (not the Havens). He would have naturally used the East Road; but will he do so, now that he knows he is pursued? Probably he will attempt to escape from the Shire at some unexpected point, through the Old Forest and the Downs, and there make cross-country to strike the Road beyond


    Weathertop, maybe. In that direction [he] now sends out [three Riders] separately, with orders to reassemble just east of Weathertop, and then return towards Bree along or near the Road. [He] himself, [with two other Riders] redoubles his vigilance on the east-borders along the Greenway ... his counsels disturbed by threat of attack. Some of the Dunedain have met Elvish messengers, and [he] is uneasily aware that many enemies are watching him and though none has yet come with power to challenge him.
    Meanwhile [Khamul and his companion] are searching Buckland, but can do little except at night; and they are at a loss, since the Buckland did not appear in Saruman's charts of the Shire at all. By good fortune they do not discover the Hay-gate or become aware that the Ring has departed. [In his unfinished index Tolkien says that Hay-gate is another name for the north gate. Perhaps here he is referring to the gate through the High Hay into the Old Forest.] On 28 September they find Crickhollow at night, but do not attack though [Khamul] is aware that the Ring has been, or is still, there. [Khamul] ?lurks near, and [his companion] is sent to bring [the rider left by the Bridge] and the horses. Road between Bridge and Bree is thus left unwatched. [Early on 29 September Khamul and the other two Riders] come back to Crickhollow and watch it as night passes.
    176 (I: 188): There was a faint stir
    176 (I: 188). a cock crowed far away. The cold hour before dawn was passing. - The cold hour before dawn is perhaps a reference to the proverb The darkest hour is just before dawn. This may be the reason that the Riders waited so long before attacking. Yet traditionally the cock crows to signal dawn (compare the end of Book V, Chapter 4), at which time ghosts and apparitions must vanish, e.g. the ghost of Hamlet's father in Hamlet, Act I, Scene 2. Here the cock anticipates the dawn, and though the Riders are no apparitions, an attack before cock crow would seem more appropriate.
    176 (1:188). In the dark without moon or stars - The young moon would have set well before midnight, but the absence of stars suggests that the night became overcast.
    177 (I: 189): The Brandybucks were blowing
    177 (I: 189). not since the white wolves came in the Fell Winter, when the Brandywine was frozen over - An event analogous to the freezing of the Rhine at the end of 406 AD which enabled the Vandals (with some Alans, Suevi, and Burgundians) to invade the Western Roman Empire.
    177 (1:189): Far away answering horns
    177 (1:189). Far away answering horns were heard. - Prior to the edition of 2004 'Far away' read 'Far-away'. In The Treason oflsengard Christopher


    Tolkien comments that 'in all the variant forms [drafts] of the "Crickhollow episode" the reading is "Far away" (adverbial). The reading of [The Fellow­ship of the Ring] (p. 189), "Far-away answering horns" (adjectival), which appears already in the first impression of the first edition, is I think an early error' (p. 64, n. 21).
    177 (1:189): Frodo soon went to sleep
    177 (I: 189). the noise of wind and galloping hoofs ... and far off he heard a horn blowing wildly - Frodo seems to be dreaming of events at Crickhollow.
    177 (1:189). He opened his eyes - It is now 30 September.
    177 (I: 189): As soon as Strider had roused them all
    177 (I: 189). the windows had been forced - In Marquette MSS 4/2/36 (The Hunt for the Ring) it is said that the three Black Riders who had been sent to Weathertop and told to ride back along the Road
    reached Bree at dusk [on 29 September], and soon learn from the Isengard spy of the events in the Inn, and guess the presence of the Ring. One is sent to the [Witch-king].... [He] is waylaid by Dunedain and driven away does not reach [the Witch-king] until the next day.. .. [The other two] foiled in their attempt to capture Merry make plans for attack on the Inn at night.. .. The Inn attacked by the two Riders in early hours before dawn. Crickhollow attacked at about the same time.... Both attacks fail. [The two Riders in Bree] go off in haste to find [the Witch-king] to report that Bearer has gone (without waiting for further news). [The three from Crickhollow] ride down the Buckland Gate and make also for Andrath [Sindarin 'long climb', the 'defile between the Barrow-downs and the South Downs through which the North-South Road (Greenway) passed', Unfinished Tales, p. 418]. The Nazgul are thus all assembled at Andrath. [The Witch-king] is exceedingly wroth, and feels certain that Bearer has gone east from Bree. He is not yet aware of the presence of Gandalf, and does not learn anything of Aragorn beyond the report of the spy that 'a Ranger was in the Inn on the night of September] 29'.
    [The Witch-king] now plans his pursuit. He sends four Riders across country from Andrath to Weathertop. He himself with the other four scour all round the borders from Sarn Ford to Bree at speed, but can find out nothing, or feel any trace of the Ring .. . [on 30 September] knowing now that Ring has escaped East [they] leave Greenway and take East Road; soon after midnight they ride through Bree like a storm, casting down the gates.


    178 (I: 190): 'I doubt it,' said the landlord
    178 (I: 190). horse or ponies for draught - Used for drawing a cart plough, etc.
    181 (1:193): 'Morning, Longshanks!'
    181 (I: 193). Longshanks - Shanks 'legs', thus Longshanks 'long-legs'. Ara-gorn, of Numenorean descent, is considerably taller than the Men of Bree; but Ferny means his greeting to be an insult. Longshanks was a nickname of Edward I, King of England (ruled 1272-1307).
    181 (1:193): 'Morning, my little friends!'
    181 (1:193). Stick-at-naught - Unscrupulous or ruthless, allowing nothing to hinder one in accomplishing one's desire.
    181-2 (I: 194): His plan, as far as they
    182 (I: 194). Midgewater Marshes - In his unfinished index Tolkien describes these as 'a fen between Chetwood and Weathertop'. In Nomencla­ture he says that 'the name was suggested by Myvatn in Iceland of the same meaning'. Midge is a colloquial name for any gnatlike insect.
    182 (I: 194): Whether because of Strider's skill 182 (1:194). The next day - It is 1 October 1418.
    182 (1:194). On the third day - On 2 October.
    183 (I: 195): The next day, the fourth
    183 (1:195). The next day - It is now 3 October.
    183 (I: 195). Neekerbreekers - In Nomenclature Tolkien describes Neeker-breekers as an 'invented insect-name', and states that their sound is 'sup­posed to be like that of a cricket'.
    183 (I: 195): As Frodo lay, tired
    183 (I: 195). there came a light in the eastern sky - This is the night oi 3/4 October 1418. In The Tale of Years it is said that on 30 September Gandalf reached Bree, that he left on 1 October, and that on 3 October he was attacked at night on Weathertop. According to another account, on 2 October the four Black Riders who were sent ahead
    assemble near Weathertop. [One] remains [while three] go on eastwards on or near Road. . . . Oct. 3: Gandalf reaches Weathertop but does not overtake [Witch-king and other four Riders]; for they become aware oi his approach as he overtakes them on Shadowfax, and withdraw into hiding beside the road. They close in behind. [The Witch-king] is both pleased and puzzled. For a while he had been in great fear, thinking that by some means Gandalf had got possession of the Ring and was


    now the Bearer; but as Gandalf passes he is aware that Gandalf has not got the Ring. What is he pursuing? He himself must be after the escaping Bearer; and it must therefore somehow have gone on far ahead. But Gandalf is a great power and enemy. He must be dealt with, and yet that needs great force.
    [The five] follow Gandalf hotly to Weathertop. Since Gandalf halts there, [the Witch-King] suspects that that is a trysting place.
    Gandalf is attacked by [the five plus the rider who had stayed near Weathertop] on Weathertop on night 3-4. Frodo and Aragorn see the light of the battle in the sky from their camp.
    Oct. 4: Gandalf repulses the Nazgul and escapes northwards at Sun­rise, and follows the Hoarwell up towards the mountains. [Four Riders] are sent in pursuit (mainly because [the Witch-king] thinks it possible he may know of the whereabouts or course of the Bearer). But [the Witch-king and Khamul] remain watching Weathertop. Thus they become aware of the approach of Frodo on Oct. 5. [The other three] return from East. [Marquette MSS 4/2/36, The Hunt for the Ring]
    183 (I: 195): They had not gone far
    183 (1:195). the fifth day - It is 4 October 1418.
    183 (I: 195): 'That is Weathertop'
    183 (1:195). The Old Road - In his unfinished index Tolkien says that this 'refers to the great East Road'.
    183 (1:195-6): 'Yes, but the hope is faint
    183 (1:196). Not all the birds are to be trusted - In The Hobbit the eagles and Roac the raven can converse with the dwarves and Bilbo, and are friendly and helpful. The thrush understands speech and informs Bard the Bowman of Smaug's weak spot. In The Lord of the Rings the eagles are again friendly, and it seems probable that the Elves use birds to carry messages (as Gildor sends news to Tom Bombadil, Aragorn, and Elrond). But later in The Lord of the Rings Aragorn and Gandalf will be (rightly) suspicious of the crows in Hollin.
    184 (1:196): At day's end they came
    184 (I: 196). That night they set a watch - By implication they had not done so before, though Aragorn seems to have stayed awake most of the night of 3/4 October.
    184 (I: 196). The moon was waxing - This is the night of 4/5 October. The moon reached its first quarter on 3 October.
    184 (I: 196): Next morning they set out
    184 (1:196). Next morning - It is 5 October.

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    Chapter 12

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 190-205, 359-62, 368; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 58-62, 65-6.
    198 (I: 210): Frodo dozed, though the pain
    198 (I: 210). Dawn was growing in the sky - It is the morning of 7 October 1418.
    198 (I: 210): 'Look!' he cried
    198 (I: 210). all blades perish that pierce that dreadful King - This anticipates the withering of Merry's blade after he stabbed the Witch-king in Book V, Chapter 6.
    198 (I: 210): 'And more deadly to Frodo
    198 (I: 210). the blade seemed to melt - On 18 April and 6 May 1963 Tolkien wrote to Anneke C. Kloos-Adriaansen and P. Kloos:
    The melting of the sword-blade has a dramatic quality, which is attrac­tive to a storyteller and makes it linger in the memory; but the dramatic effect is the only real connexion between the different uses of the motif.... I had read Beowulf before I wrote the Lord of the Rings, so there is probably an historical connexion between the melting of the Witchking's knife and the withering of Meriadoc's sword from the burial-mound [Book V, Chapter 6] . .. and the Anglo-Saxon poem. But that remains a fact of my personal biography (of which I was certainly not consciously aware when writing), and in no way enhances or explains the incidents in their places, [courtesy of Christopher Tolkien]
    In Beowulf the blade of the ancient sword with which he kills Grendel's mother and cuts off Grendel's head 'began to waste away in gory fragments like icicles, by reason of the foeman's blood .. . .the sword was already melted, the damasked blade burnt up, - so hot had been the blood, the fiend so poisonous, who had died in that place' (Beowulf and the Finnesburg Fragment, translated by John R. Clark Hall (1940), p. 101).
    198 (I: 210): He sat down on the ground
    198 (I: 210). he sang over it a slow song in a strange tongue-----From
    the pouch at his belt he drew out the long leaves of a plant. - The
    healing of Frodo by Aragorn with herb (athelas) and song recalls the healing of Beren by Luthien in The Lay of Leithian, a long poem in 'The Silmarillion':


    Then Huan came and bore a leaf, Of all the herbs of healing chief that evergreen in woodland glade there grew with broad and hoary blade.
    Therewith the smart he swift allayed, while Luthien murmuring in the shade the staunching song that Elvish wives long years had sung in those sad lives of war and weapons, wove o'er him. [The Lays ofBeleriand, p. 266]
    198 (I: 210-11): 'These leaves,' he said
    198 (I: 210). Athelas - A Sindarin word. Its second element is apparently las(s) leaf. The first element is problematic; according to Arden R. Smith, an unpublished etymology connects it with Quenya asea, as in asea aranion 'kingsfoiF (but if so, athelas = 'leaf-leaf'); see note for p. 864.
    200 (I: 212): Before the first day's march
    200 (I: 212). Four days passed - The period 7-10 October. 200 (I: 212): At the end of the fifth day
    200 (I: 212). At the end of the fifth day ... and on the sixth day - The
    period 11-12 October.
    200 (I: 212): 'I am afraid we must go back
    200 (I: 212). River Hoarwell, that the Elves call Mitheithel. It flows down out of the Ettenmoors, the troll-fells north of Rivendell, and joins the Loudwater away in the South. Some call it the Greyflood after that. -
    In Nomenclature Tolkien glosses Mitheithel as 'pale grey' + 'spring, source'.
    In the word Ettenmoors the element etten is derived from Old English eoten 'giant, troll', and moor is used here in the sense 'high barren land' -hence troll-fells, fells (i.e. hills or moorland) in which trolls lived.
    Greyflood is a 'translation' of Sindarin Gwathlo. Of this river Tolkien writes at great length in The Rivers and Beacon-hills ofGondor (this portion published chiefly in Unfinished Tales, pp. 261-3), e-g-
    The river Gwathlo is translated 'Greyflood'. But gwath is a Sindarin word for 'shadow', in the sense of dim light, owing to cloud or mist, or in deep valley. This does not seem to fit the geography. The wide lands divided by the Gwathlo into the regions called by the Numenoreans Minhiriath ('Between the Rivers', Baranduin and Gwathlo) and Ened-waith ('Middle-folk') were mainly plains, open and mountainless. At the point of the confluence of Glanduin and Mitheithel the land was


    almost flat, and the waters became sluggish and tended to spread into fenland. But some hundred miles below Tharbad the slope increased. The Gwathlo, however, never became swift, and ships of smaller draught could without difficulty sail or be rowed as far as Tharbad. [ Unfinished Tales, pp. 261-2]
    Tolkien decided that the river had received its name from Numenoreans who explored it in small boats soon after they first returned to Middle-earth in the Second Age. 'As soon as the seaward region of salt airs and great winds was passed the forest drew down to the river-banks, and wide though the waters were the huge trees cast great shadows on the river, under which the boats of the adventurers crept silently up into the unknown land. So the first name they gave to it was "River of Shadow", Gwath-hir, Gwathir' (Unfinished Tales, p. 263). But the Numenoreans denuded much of the area of trees, and by the Third Age the area was mainly grassland.
    200 (I: 212): 'What is that other river
    200 (I: 212). What is that other river we can see far away there? - In The
    Return of the Shadow Christopher Tolkien points out that Barbara Strachey, on her map of this region in Journeys of Frodo, brings the Loudwater further west
    because from the high ground above the Last Bridge the travellers could see not only the Hoarwell but also the Loudwater, whereas going by the published map [of 1954] the rivers 'would have been some 100 miles apart and the hill [on which they stood] would have had to have been a high mountain for it [the Loudwater] to have been visible.' By bringing this river so far to the west on her map the distance from the hill above the Last Bridge to the nearest point of the Loudwater is reduced to about 27 miles. On my father's [working] maps the shortest distance from the Last Bridge to the Loudwater varies between (approximately) 45 (on the earliest), 60, and 62 miles; on the published map it is about 75 miles. Thus the objection that the Loudwater was too far away to be seen is real; but it cannot be resolved in this way. [p. 202, note]
    200 (I: 212-13): 'That is Loudwater, the Bruinen of Rivendell
    200 (I: 212). The Road runs along the edge of the hills for many miles from the Bridge to the Ford of Bruinen. - As first published this passage read: 'The Road runs along it for many leagues to the Ford.' It was revised in the second edition (1965). In The Return of the Shadow Christopher Tolkien comments that this region appears on three of his father's sketch-maps, drawn during the writing of The Lord of the Rings: 'on two of these the Road is shown approaching the Loudwater at a fairly acute angle, but by no means running alongside it. On the third (the earliest) the Road runs close to the river for a long distance before the Ford; and this is less


    because the course of the Road is different than because on this map the river flows at first (after the Ford) in a more westerly direction towards the Hoarwell' (p. 202). The latter is also the case on the general map of Middle-earth Christopher drew for his father in 1943 (see 'The Maps of The Lord of the Rings', above); on the published (1954) map, however, the Road erroneously approaches the river at a wide angle. Christopher believes that the change described in the present annotation, 'with "runs along the edge of the hills" instead of "runs along it [the Loudwater]", was ... made to save the appearance of the map' (p. 202). See also notes for pp. 202, 208.
    200 (I: 213): Next day, early in the morning
    200 (I: 213). Next day, early in the morning - It is 13 October.
    201 (I: 213): They hurried along with all the speed
    201 (I: 213). they saw the Last Bridge ahead, at the bottom of a short steep slope - In The Lord of the Rings the East Road crosses the River Hoarwell by the Last Bridge.
    At this point in The Lord of the Rings there arises an inconsistency with The Hobbit. In the first and second editions of The Hobbit (1937,1951), in Chapter 2, the dwarves and Bilbo travel beside a river with willows on its bank, and decide to camp for the night. The narrator comments: T don't know what river it was: a rushing red one, swollen with the rains of the last few days, that came down from the hills and mountains in front of them.' They see a fire (the trolls' campfire) on a hill some way off but clearly not far, for they reach it that night; in doing so they do not cross a bridge. But in The Lord of the Rings the travellers come to the Road early on the seventh day out from Weathertop, go along it for a mile or two to the Last Bridge, cross the river (the Hoarwell), and after another mile turn into the hills. Then, after six days' travel, they discover the old trolls turned to stone. As Karen Wynn Fonstad puts it, in The Hobbit
    the Trolls' fire was so close to the river that it could be seen 'some way off,' and it probably took the Dwarves no more than an hour to reach; whereas Strider led the Hobbits north of the road [turning off a mile beyond the Bridge], where they lost their way and spent six days reach­ing the clearing where they found the Stone-trolls. Lost or not, it seems almost impossible that that the time-pressed Ranger would have spent six days reaching a point the Dwarves found in an hour. [The Atlas of Middle-earth, rev. edn., p. 97]
    In The Return of the Shadow Christopher Tolkien comments that his father 'was greatly concerned to harmonise Bilbo's journey [in The Hobbit] with the geography of The Lord of the Rings, especially in respect of the distance and time taken: in terms of The Lord of the Rings Gandalf, Bilbo, and the Dwarves took far too long, seeing that they were mounted' (p. 204). In i960 Tolkien rewrote Chapter 2 of The Hobbit, introducing the Last


    Bridge: in this Bilbo and company passed the river in the morning, and the camp from which the trolls' fire was seen was made at the end of the day, many miles further east. The revision was never finished, and was not used for the new (third) edition of 1966, but a small emendation was made nonetheless to Chapter 2: now the dwarves and Bilbo travel beside the same river with the willows when 'fortunately the road went over an ancient stone bridge, for the river swollen with the rains, came rushing down from the hills and mountains in the north'. After crossing over, they camp by the river, rescue a pony that has bolted into the water, and come upon the trolls that night.
    201 (I: 213): He held out his hand
    201 (I: 213). beryl, an elf-stone - A beryl is a transparent precious stone, pale green passing into light blue, yellow, and white.
    201 (I: 213): The nobbits were glad
    201 (1:213). Here and there upon heights and ridges they caught glimpses
    of ancient walls of stone, and the ruins of towers___Frodo ... recalled
    Bilbo's account of his journey and the threatening towers on the hills north of the Road - In Chapter 2 of The Hobbit, as Bilbo and his com­panions travel through deserted lands, 'not far ahead were dreary hills, rising higher and higher, dark with trees. On some of them were old castles with an evil look, as if they had been built by wicked people.'
    201 (I: 213). the Trolls' wood - Shown on the general map of Middle-earth as the 'Trollshaws' (see note in 'The Maps of The Lord of the Rings', above).
    201 (I: 214): 'No!' said Strider
    201 (I: 214). Men once dwelt here, ages ago; but none remain now. They became an evil people as legends tell, for they fell under the shadow of Angmar. But all were destroyed in the war that brought the North Kingdom to its end. - The travellers are now in Rhudaur; see note for p. 185.
    201-2 (I: 214): 'The heirs of Elendil
    201 (I: 214). heirs of Elendil do not forget ... and many more things than I can tell are remembered in Rivendell - Thus the reader learns, if he notices so casual a remark, that Aragorn is himself of the illustrious line of Elendil, a living descendant of figures of legend. Having been fostered in Rivendell, no doubt he heard many tales there of his ancestors before Elrond revealed his lineage to him when he reached the age of twenty.
    202 (I: 214): 'I have,' said Strider
    202 (I: 214). I dwelt there once, and still I return when I may. There my heart is, but it is not my fate to sit in peace - A hint, but no more, that

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    Книга 2.

    Chapter 1 MANY MEETINGS
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 206-19, 362-8; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 68-70, 81-109.
    219 (I: 231): Frodo woke and found himself lying in bed
    219 (I: 231). Frodo woke - It is the morning of 24 October 1418.
    219 (I: 231): 'In the house of Elrond
    219 (I: 231). the house of Elrond - In editions prior to 2004 these words read 'the House of Elrond', with 'House' capitalized. It, and six similai phrases, were emended to 'house' in 2004, following Tolkien's lead in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition, where he took care to distinguish house 'domicile' from House 'dynasty' (e.g. 'And here in the House of Elrond more shall be made clear to you' (1st edn., I: 259) > 'And here in the house of Elrond [= Rivendell] more shall be made clear to you') but overlooked a few instances.
    In two cases in the 2004 edition, however, both in Appendix F, the existing reading was left unchanged: 'Noblest of all was the Lady Galadriel of the royal house of Finarfin' (p. 1128, III: 406) and 'They were tall, fair of skin and grey-eyed, though their locks were dark, save in the golden house of Finarfin' (p. 1137, III: 416). Each of these logically should have 'House' rather than 'house', but in correspondence with us on this point, Christopher Tolkien observed that to his '"inner ear" the capital letter imparts a slight additional emphasis and higher pitch, which reduces the significance of "royal"'. It may be that in these constructions 'house' becomes attached to the preceding adjective rather than to 'of Finarfin'.
    220 (I: 232): 'I was delayed,' said Gandalf
    220 (I: 232). 'I was delayed,' said Gandalf, 'and that nearly proved our ruin. And yet I am not sure: it may have been better so.' - Because Gandalf was delayed, the hobbits set out later than planned and were menaced by Black Riders. But because of this, Frodo has endured trials which help him to grow in character and ultimately to undertake his journey to Mount Doom, while Merry has obtained the knife from the barrow with which he will help to defeat the Witch-king. Todd Jensen explores this point in 'Frodo's Delay', Beyond Bree, May 1991; in response to which David Cremona comments that
    it is part of the schema of The Lord of the Rings that what seems to be setbacks, blunders and delays, turn out to have been useful shortcuts;


    though I think Tolkien would have argued that, had they done other­wise, with a good intention, that too might have led to the quest's end, but by a different path. Iluvatar, as ever, does not compel or predestine, but his plans are far-seeing and the roads to his ends, many, [letter to Beyond Bree, June 1991, p. 10]
    220 (I: 232): 'Yes, I, Gandalf the Grey5
    220 (I: 232). Morgul-lord - The chief of the Ringwraiths. In Third Age 2000 the Ringwraiths issued from Mordor and laid siege to Minas Ithil, the city built by Isildur on a western shoulder of the Mountains of Shadow, the eastern border of Mordor. The city fell to them in 2002 and became a place of fear, renamed Minas Morgul 'tower of black sorcery'.
    220-1 (I: 232-3): 'I am glad,' said Frodo
    221 (I: 233). Bree-landers - When preparing the edition of 2004 we com­pared the variants Breeland/Bree-land and Breelanders/Bree-landers, and found that Tolkien had a clear preference for the hyphened forms. Here 'Breelanders' was emended to 'Bree-landers'. In Book VI, Chapter 8, one instance of 'Breeland' was emended to 'Bree-land'.
    221 (I: 233): 'You don't know much
    221 (I: 233). The race of the Kings from over the Sea is nearly at an end. - Aragorn is the last descendant of Kings of Numenor; but this also means, perhaps, that there are few Men of Numenorean blood left in Middle-earth.
    221 (I: 233): Only a Ranger!
    221 (I: 233). the last remnant in the North of the great people, the Men of the West - Tolkien wrote to Milton Waldman in ?late 1951: 'But in the north Arnor dwindles, is broken into petty kingdoms, and finally vanishes. The remnant of the Numenoreans becomes a hidden wandering Folk, and though their true line of Kings of Isildur's heirs never fails this is known only in the House of Elrond' {Letters, p. 157). See note for p. 5.
    221 (I: 233-4): Well, four nights and three days
    221 (I: 233). Elrond is a master of healing - Aragorn was able to ease Frodo's pain, and will achieve much more in the Houses of Healing after the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. But even there he will say: 'Would that Elrond were here, for he is the eldest of all our race, and has the greater power' (Book V, Chapter 8, p. 863, III: 139). See further, note for p. 871.
    222 (I: 234): Frodo shuddered
    222 (I: 234). which you bore for seventeen days - From the evening of 6 October to the evening of 23 October 1418.

    222 (I: 234): 'Because these horses are born
    222 (I: 234). chattels - Moveable possessions; in this sense, slaves.
    222 (I: 234). wargs - Wargs first appeared in Tolkien's writings in Chapter 6 of The Hobbit. Gandalf, Bilbo, and the dwarves, having escaped from goblins, are attacked at night by wolves, but temporarily escape by climbing into trees: for 'even the wild Wargs (for so the evil wolves over the Edge of the Wild were named) cannot climb trees'. On 7 November 1966 Tolkien wrote to Gene Wolfe that warg 'is an old word for wolf, which also had the sense of an outlaw or hunted criminal. This is its usual sense in surviving texts. I adopted the word, which had a good sound for the meaning, as a name for this particular brand of demonic wolf in the story' ('The Tolkien Toll-free Fifties Freeway to Mordor & Points beyond Hurray!' Vector, 67/68 (Spring 1974), p. 9). In his draft letter to 'Mr Rang', August 1967, he said that 'the word Warg ... is not supposed to be A-S [Anglo-Saxon] specifically, and is given primitive] Germanic form as representing the noun common to the Northmen of these creatures' {Letters, p. 381). Old Norse vargr means both 'wolf and outlaw'; the Old English noun wearg(-h) used of human beings means 'a criminal, an outcast', but of other creatures 'a monster, malignant being, evil spirit'; whence wearg as an adjective: 'evil, vile, malignant, accursed'. Jacob Grimm in Teutonic Mythology cites the Slavic name for the Devil, variations of vrag, also meaning 'malefactor', and comments that it 'is the same as Old High German warg (lupus). ... The Devil has monstrous jaws and throat in common with the wolf and hell' (translated by James Steven Stallybrass, 1883 (2004), vol. 3, p. 998).
    222 (I: 234). werewolves - A werewolf is a person who is transformed or is capable of transforming himself at times into a wolf.
    222-3 (I: 234-5): Yes, at present, until all else is conquered
    222 (I: 234-5). The Elves may fear the Dark Lord, and they may fly before him, but never again will they listen to him or serve him. - That is, they may flee Sauron by leaving Middle-earth and sailing to Valinor. Never again will they listen to him is probably a reference to the Elven-smiths of Eregion, who were ensnared by the knowledge that Sauron offered them; see note for p. 242. Tolkien does not tell of any instances of elves serving Sauron, or Morgoth, at least not by choice; in 'The Silmaril-lion' some elves are enslaved by Morgoth. But unexplained references like this in The Lord of the Rings suggest that the story rests upon a vast foundation of history.
    222-3 (I: 235)- the Elven-wise, lords of the Eldar from beyond the furthest seas - The Elven-wise are the Noldor who returned to Middle-earth from Aman in the West at the beginning of the First Age. The name Noldor 'meant "the Wise" (but wise in the sense of possessing knowledge,


    not in the sense of possessing sagacity, sound judgement)' (The Silmaril-lion, p. 344).
    'According to Elvish legend the name Eldar "People of the Stars" was given to all Elves by the Vala Orome' when he found them after they firsl awoke. 'It came, however, to be used to refer only to the Elves of the Three Kindreds (Vanyar, Noldor, and Teleri) who set out on the great westward march ... (whether or not they remained in Middle-earth)' {The Silmaril-lion, p. 326). See also note for p. 79.
    222-3 (I: 235). those who have dwelt in the Blessed Realm live at once in both worlds, and against both the Seen and the Unseen they have great power - In Nomenclature Tolkien defines Blessed Realm as the 'Common Speech name for the Far Western Land in which the Valai (guardian powers) and the High Elves dwelt, called in Quenya Amar ["blessed, free from evil"], the region where the Valar dwelt being Valimar Valinor; that of the Elves Eldamar. The Blessed Realm was at this time nc longer part of the physical world, and could not except in rare cases, be reached by mortals.'
    223 (I: 235): Yes, you saw him for a moment
    223 (I: 235). Firstborn - In Nomenclature Tolkien writes that the Elves are called the Firstborn because they 'appeared in the world before all othei "speaking peoples", not only Men, but also Dwarves, of independenl origin'.
    225 (I: 237): Frodo was now safe
    225 (I: 237). the Last Homely House east of the Sea. That house was. as Bilbo had long ago reported, 'a perfect house, whether you like food or sleep or story-telling or singing, or just sitting and thinking best, 01 a pleasant mixture of them all'. - The reference is to The Hobbit Chapter 3: 'His [Elrond's] house was perfect whether you liked food: or sleep, or work, or story-telling, or singing, or just sitting and thinking best, or a pleasant mixture of them all. Evil things did not come into thai valley' There the house is called 'the Last Homely House west of the Mountains'.
    225 (I: 237-8): I can take you to them
    225 (I: 237-8). It's a big house, this, and very peculiar, always a bit more to discover, and no knowing what you may find round a corner. - In
    Tolkien's illustration Rivendell published in The Hobbit (Artist and Illustra­tor, fig. 108, and in other depictions, figs. 104—7) Elrond's house seems very small compared to its description in The Lord of the Rings. Sam's remark recalls the Cottage of Lost Play in The Book of Lost Tales, which looks small from the outside but is spacious inside.


    226 (I: 238): Sam led him along
    226 (I: 238). a high garden above the steep bank of the river. He found his friends sitting in a porch on the side of the house looking east. Shadows had fallen in the valley below, but there was still light on the
    face of the mountains far above-----The sound of running and falling
    water was loud - In the painting of Rivendell for The Hobbit Elrond's house is shown in a deep valley, built on a high bank above a river with a waterfall, with mountains in the background. Four of the extant drawings of the house include a portico or colonnade.
    Marie Barnfield argues convincingly in 'The Roots of Rivendell', Pe Lyfe ant pe Auncestrye 3 (Spring 1996), that Tolkien's conception of the valley of Rivendell as depicted in his painting was inspired by his visit to Lauter-brunnen in Switzerland during a walking tour in 1911. Tolkien wrote to his son Michael in 1967/8 that he and his companions on the tour 'went on foot... practically all the way from Interlaken, mainly by mountain paths, to Lauterbrunnen and so to Mtirren and eventually to the head of the Lauterbrunnenthal in a wilderness of morains' (Letters, pp. 391-2). Barn-field notes that the Lauterbrunnen Valley is set, like Rivendell, in a deep ravine. She compares Tolkien's painting with a photograph of Lauter­brunnen taken by her husband in 1990:
    the structure of the cliffs forming the valley walls is identical.... The course of the river is the same in each; the bridge in each picture is similarly placed. . .. The two valleys have the self-same area of vegeta­tion, and both are backed by a range of snow-capped mountains. ... Almost more importantly, the site of Elrond's house is occupied ... by a collection of buildings of which one, with a roof similar to that of the tower of Elrond's house, rises, turret-style behind the rest. [p. 9]
    226 (I: 238). as if summer still lingered in Elrond's gardens - It is
    24 October, well into autumn, but as we learn near the end of the book, Elrond wears one of the Elven-rings, and seems to be able to control the extremes of climate. In Lothlorien, where Galadriel also wears a Ring, in winter 'no heart could mourn for summer or for spring' (Book II, Chapter 6, p. 350, I: 365).
    226 (I: 238): The hall of Elrond's house
    226 (I: 238). Elrond ... sat in a great chair at the end of the long table upon the dais - The arrangement of a table raised on a dais for those of higher rank goes back to medieval times, but survives in college halls in Oxford. A photograph of the Hall in Exeter College, Oxford, where Tolkien took meals while an undergraduate, is reproduced in The Tolkien Family Album by John and Priscilla Tolkien (1992), p. 35. Later, as a Fellow of Pembroke and then of Merton, Tolkien would have sat at the table on the dais when he dined in college.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, PP- 395-407, 409, 412-14; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 110-60.
    239 (I: 252): Next day Frodo woke early 239 (I: 252). Next day Frodo woke - It is the morning of 25 October 1418. 239 (I: 252). woven nets of gossamer - Cobwebs twinkling with dew.
    239 (I: 252): Suddenly as they were talking
    239 (I: 252). the Council of Elrond - In J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century Tom Shippey comments that the present chapter
    is a largely unappreciated tour de force, whose success may be gauged by the fact that few pause to recognize its complexity. It breaks, further­more, most of the rules which might be given to an apprentice writer. For one thing, though it is fifteen thousand words long, in it nothing happens: it consists entirely of people talking. For another, it has an unusual number of speakers present (twelve), the majority of them (seven) unknown to the reader and appearing for the first time. Just to make things more difficult, the longest speech, by Gandalf, which takes up half the total, contains direct quotation from seven more speakers, or writers, all of them apart from Butterbur and Gaffer Gamgee new to the story, and some of them (Saruman, Denethor) to be extremely important to it later on. Other speakers, like Gloin, give quotations from yet more speakers, Dain and Sauron's messenger. Like so many committee meetings, this chapter could very easily have disintegrated, lost its way, or simply become too boring to follow. The fact that it does not is brought about by two things, Tolkien's extremely firm grasp of the history ... of Middle-earth; and his unusual ability to suggest cultural variation by differences in mode of speech, [pp. 68-9; see also more generally, pp. 68-82]
    239 (I: 252): Gandalf led them to the porch
    239 (I: 252). the porch where Frodo had found his friends the evening before - As described in the previous chapter, this is in 'a high garden above the steep bank of the river ... on the side of the house looking east' (p. 226, I: 238). In draft the Council was held 'in a high glade among the trees on the valley-side far above the house' {The Return of the Shadow, p. 395), but Tol­kien decided that it should be instead 'behind closed doors'. Nonetheless, the porch of the final text is open to the air and the sounds of nature.


    240 (I: 253): He then pointed out and named
    240 (I: 253). Gimli - In his draft letter to Mr Rang, August 1967, Tolkien wrote that Old English 'will have nothing to say about Gimli. Actually the poetic word gim in archaic 0[ld] Nforse] verse is probably not related to gimm (an early loan < Latin gemma) "gem", though possibly it was later associated with it: its meaning seems to have been "fire"' {Letters, p. 382). Manfred Zimmermann, in 'Miscellaneous Remarks: On Gimli and on Rhythmic Prose', Mythlore 11, no. 3, whole no. 41 (Winter-Spring 1985), argues that Old Norse gim 'fire' would be the best source for Gimli, as a philological joke: 'Who was Gimli's father? Of course, Gloin of Thorin & Co., whose name might be translated as "the Glowing One" (Old Norse gloinn). Now if we treat Gimli as the diminutive form of gim "fire", we would get a highly appropriate name for the son of the "Glowing One": "Little Fire" or "Spark"' (p. 32).
    240 (I: 253). Erestor - In drafts of this chapter Erestor is called a 'Half-elf, a kinsman of Elrond, and briefly considered as one of the Company of the Ring.
    240 (1:253). Galdor, an Elf from the Grey Havens - In Tolkien's mythology the name Galdor was given earliest to the Lord of the People of the Tree, among the Elves of Gondolin; it is said in the name-list to The Fall of Gondolin (in The Book of Lost Tales) to be akin to the Gnomish word for 'tree'. In drafts of The Lord of the Rings the name was given first to the character later called Legolas (see below); and later in The Silmarillion to a Man of the First Age, the father of Hurin and Huor.
    240 (I: 253). Cirdan the Shipwright - A Telerin Elf, from that kindred known for their ships and seafaring, one of the great among the Eldar, keeper of the Grey Havens during the Second and Third Ages. Cirdan is Sindarin for 'shipwright', from cair 'ship' + -dan 'maker'. For many years only he knew that the Istari (Wizards) had come over the Sea out of the West, for he saw their landings on the shores of Middle-earth. See further, note for p. 1030.
    240 (I: 253). Legolas, a messenger from his father, Thranduil, King of the Elves of Northern Mirkwood - In his draft letter to Mr Rang, August 1967, Tolkien wrote that
    Legolas is translated Greenleaf... (II, 106, 154) a suitable name for a Woodland Elf, though one of royal and originally Sindarin line.... I think an investigator .. . might have perceived the relation of the element -las to lassi 'leaves' in Galadriel's lament [BookII, Chapter 8], lasse-lanta 'leaf-fall' = autumn ...; and Eryn Lasgalen [Appendix Bj.. .. 'Technically' Legolas is a compound (according to rules) of S[indarin] laeg 'viridis' fresh and green, and go-/ass 'collection of leaves, foliage'. [Letters, p. 382; see also p. 282]


    Just as the name Galdor first appeared in The Fall of Gondolin, so too did Legolas Greenleaf - as well as Glorfindel - but only the last of these was retained by the same character in both stories.
    Tolkien's regard for Legolas in The Lord of the Rings is reflected in a late comment, in response to a 'ladylike' illustration of the character: 'He was tall as a young tree, lithe, immensely strong, able swiftly to draw a great war-bow and shoot down a Nazgul, endowed with the tremendous vitality of Elvish bodies, so hard and resistant to hurt that he went only in light shoes over rock or through snow, the most tireless of all the Fellowship' (quoted in The Book of Lost Tales, Part Two, p. 327).
    Thranduil, the King of the Silvan Elves in the north of Mirkwood, already appeared in The Hobbit, named only the 'Elvenking'.
    240 (I: 253): He was cloaked and booted
    240 (I: 253). baldric - A belt for a sword or other piece of equipment, worn over the shoulder and reaching to the opposite hip.
    240 (I: 253). He gazed at Frodo and Bilbo with sudden wonder. - He has
    never seen a hobbit, but (as revealed later in the chapter) has heard a voice in a dream speak of 'the Halfling'.
    240 (I: 253): 'Here,' said Elrond
    240 (I: 253). Boromir ... arrived in the grey morning - Boromir of The Lord of the Rings shares a name with a Man of the First Age, the great-grandson of Beor the Old and grandfather of Barahir, the father of Beren, as told in The Silmarillion. In the Etymologies Tolkien states that 'Boromir is an old N[oldorin] name of ancient origin also borne by Gnomes: 0[ld] Nfoldorin] Boronmiro, Boromird {The Lost Road and Other Writings, p. 353). In Appendix F Boromir is said to be of 'mixed form' (p. 1128, III: 406, n.), that is, containing both Quenya and Sindarin elements (Sinda-rin boro(n) 'steadfast' + Quenya mire 'jewel').
    Here Boromir arrived in the grey morning, but according to The Tale 0) Years he reached Rivendell on 24 October, the night before the Council.
    240 (I: 253): 'It is now many years ago'
    240 (I: 253). Moria: the mighty works of our fathers that are called in our own tongue Khazad-dum - Moria, and the Mines of Moria, are mentioned several times in The Hobbit. In his draft letter to Mr Rang, August 1967, Tolkien says that Moria was there
    a casual 'echo' of Soria Moria Castle in one of the Scandinavian tales translated by Dasent [from the collection Norske Folke Eventyr by Peter Christen Asbj0rnsen and Jorgen Moe (1852)]. (The tale had no interest for me: I had already forgotten it and have never since looked at it. It was thus merely the source of the sound-sequence moria, which might have been found or composed elsewhere.) I liked the sound-sequence;


    it alliterated with 'mines', and it connected itself with the MOR element in my linguistic construction. [Letters, p. 384]
    The name Moria (stressed on the first syllable) is Sindarin, from mor-'dark, black (as in Mordor, Morgoth) + id 'void, abyss'.
    In Appendix F it is said of Moria that 'the Dwarves themselves, and this name at least was never kept secret, called it Khazad-dum, the Mansion of the Khazad; for such is their own name for their own race' (p. 1137, III: 415). According to the index in The Silmarillion, the element dum is probably a plural or collective, meaning 'excavations, halls, mansions' (P- 337)- In his unfinished index Tolkien glosses Khazad-dum as 'deeps of the Khuzd or Dwarves'. See further, note for p. 306.
    240-1 (I: 253-4): Gloin sighed
    240 (I: 253). too deep we delved there, and woke the nameless fear - In
    Appendix A it is said that in Moria
    the Dwarves delved deep ... seeking beneath Barazinbar [Caradhras] for mithril.... Thus they roused from sleep a thing of terror that, flying from Thangorodrim, had lain hidden at the foundations of the earth since the coming of the Host of the West [and the Great Battle at the end of the First Age in which Thangorodrim was destroyed]: a Balrog of Morgoth. Durin was slain by it, and the year after Nain I, his son; and then the glory of Moria passed, and its people were destroyed or fled far away. [pp. 1071-2, III: 353]
    See further, note for p. 330.
    240 (I: 253). the children of Durin - The descendants of the eldest of the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves. According to Appendix A, Durin
    slept alone, until in the deeps of time and the awakening of his people he came to Azanulbizar, and in the caves above Kheled-zaram in the east of the Misty Mountains he made his dwelling, where afterwards were the Mines of Moria renowned in song.
    There he lived so long that he was known far and wide as Durin the Deathless. Yet in the end he died before the Elder Days had passed and his tomb was in Khazad-dum; but his line never failed, and five times an heir was born in his House so like to his Forefather that he received the name Durin. [p. 1071, III: 352]
    240 (I: 254). no dwarf has dared to pass the doors of Khazad-dum for many lives of kings, save Thror only, and he perished - In Appendix A it is told how Thror, King under the Mountain at Erebor, with his family fled from the dragon Smaug 'into long and homeless wandering'. Years later, 'old, poor, and desperate', Thror went to Moria in search of gold. 'He was a little crazed perhaps with age and misfortune and long brooding on the splendour of Moria in his forefathers' days; or the Ring [one of the


    Seven Rings of the Dwarves, which Thror had long held until giving it to his son Thrain], it may be, was turning to evil now that its master [Sauron] was awake, driving him to folly and destruction' (p. 1073, III: 354). He entered Moria proudly, and was slain by Azog, a great Ore. In The Hobbit, Chapter 1, Gandalf says to Thorin (son of Thrain): 'Your grand­father Thror was killed, you remember, in the mines of Moria by Azog the Goblin.'
    241 (I: 254): 'At this we were greatly troubled
    241 (I: 254). an earnest - A token.
    241 (I: 254): At that his breath came like the hiss of snakes
    241 (I: 254). I must consider this message and what it means under its fair cloak. - In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey comments on the conversation between Dain and the messenger from Mordor as an example of various dialogues in The Lord of the Rings whose
    unifying feature is delight in the contrast between passionate interior and polite or rational expression: the weakness of the latter is an index of the strength of the former. Thus the messenger's 'things will not seem so well' works as violent threat; 'not too long' means 'extremely rapidly'. In reply Dain's 'fair cloak' implies 'foul body' and the obscure metaphor of spending the 'time of my thought' indicates refusal to negotiate under threat. Both participants seek to project a cool, ironic self-control. [2nd edn., p. 110]
    242 (I: 255): They all listened while Elrond
    242 (1:255). the Elven-smiths of Eregion and their friendship with Moria
    - In Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age it is said that 'Eregion was nigh to the great mansions of the Dwarves that were named Khazad-dum. . .. From Ost-in-Edhil, the city of the Elves, the highroad ran to the west gate of Khazad-dum, for a friendship arose between Dwarves and Elves, such as has never elsewhere been, to the enrichment of both those peoples' {The Silmarillion, p. 286). In his draft letter to Peter Hastings, September 1954, Tolkien wrote that
    the particular branch of the High-Elves concerned [in The Lord of the Rings], the Noldor or Loremasters, were always on the side of 'science and technology', as we should call it: they wanted to have the knowledge that Sauron genuinely had, and those of Eregion refused the warnings of Gilgalad and Elrond. The particular 'desire' of the Eregion Elves -an 'allegory' if you like of the love of machinery, and technical devices - is also symbolised by their special friendship with the Dwarves of Moria. [Letters, p. 190]
    See further, note for p. 303.
    1 r ~s S

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 406-9, 415-41; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 161-75.
    272-3 (I: 285-6): 'Yes,' said the wizard.
    272 (I: 286). You will probably make quite a long stay here. - Some readers have thought it a mistake that the Company did not leave Rivendell sooner, before winter weather made it difficult to cross the Misty Moun­tains. In the original draft of the chapter their departure was on 24 November. See further, note for p. 279.
    273 (I: 286): When winter first begins to bite
    273 (I: 286). When winter first begins to bite... - Bilbo's poem echoes one in Act V, Scene 2 of Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost, a set play for Tolkien's final examinations at Oxford in 1915:
    When icicles hang by the wall,
    And Dick the shepherd blows his nail,
    And Tom bears logs into the hall,

    And milk comes frozen home in pail,

    When blood is nipp'd, and ways be foul,
    then nightly sings the staring owl.. ..

    274 (I: 287): So the days slipped away

    274 (I: 287). The Hunter's Moon waxed round in the night sky.... But low in the south one star shone red. Every night as the Moon waned again, it shone brighter - The Oxford English Dictionary defines the Harvest Moon as 'the moon which is full within a fortnight of the autumnal equinox (22 or 23 Sept.) and which rises for several nights nearly at the same hour, at points successively further north on the eastern horizon', and the Hunter's Moon as the full moon following the Harvest Moon. But it is clear in The Lord of the Rings that the Hunter's Moon is still waxing after the Council of Elrond, which took place on 25 October. In Scheme Tolkien shows a new moon on 26 October, the day after the Council, and must have regarded the full moon of 11 November as the Hunter's Moon. In early drafts he specifically noted a moon in November as being the Hunter's Moon.
    Several readers have suggested that the one star that shone red is the planet Mars.


    274 (I: 287): The hobbits had been nearly two months
    274 (I: 287). sources of the Gladden River - In editions prior to 2004 'sources' was printed as 'source', singular, but the drafts and corrected typescript of this chapter have it in the plural.
    The Gladden River flows from the Misty Mountains to join the Anduin in the Gladden Fields. Its sources are roughly halfway between the High Pass and the Redhorn Gate near Moria. Christopher Tolkien states that this phrase 'was obviously based on the Map of Wilderland in The Hobbit, where the Gladden, there of course unnamed, rises in several streams falling from the Misty Mountains' (The Treason oflsengard, p. 172, n. 9).
    274 (I: 287). Radagast was not there; and they had returned over the high pass that was called the Redhorn Gate. - In editions prior to 2004 'Redhorn Gate' read 'Dimrill Stair'. In the process of writing this chapter Tolkien emended the name of the pass from 'Dimrill Stair' or 'Dimrill Pass' to 'Redhorn Gate', but overlooked this instance. In his unfinished index he glosses Redhorn Gate as the 'name of a pass under the sides of Redhorn [Caradhras] into Dimrill Dale'. In the Appendices it is called the Redhorn Pass. See further, The Treason oflsengard, p. 164.
    274 (I: 287). The sons of Elrond, Elladan and Elrohir ... had made a great journey, passing down the Silverlode into a strange country - In
    his unfinished index Tolkien notes that Silverlode is a 'translation' of Cel­ebrant (Sindarin 'silver course'), 'a river running from Mirrormere through Lorien to join Anduin at the end of the Naith'. See also note for p. 283. The strange country is obviously Lothlorien.
    274-5 (I: 287-8): In no region had the messengers
    275 (I: 288). Eight out of the Nine are accounted for at least - In this matter Marquette MSS 4/2/36 (The Hunt for the Ring) says:
    Only the bodies of 8 horses were discovered; but also the raiment of the Captain. It is probable that the Captain took the one horse that remained (he may have had strength to withdraw it from the flood) and unclad, naked, invisible, rode as swift as he could back to Mordor. At swiftest he could not accomplish that (for his horse at least would need some food and rest, though he needed none) ere November had passed. The wrath and fear of Sauron then may be guessed; yet if there was any in the world in whom he trusted it was the Lord of Angmar; and if his wrath were lessened by perceiving that his great servant had defeated by ill chance (and the craft of the Wise) rather than by faults of his own, his fear would be the more - seeing what power was yet in his Enemies, and how sharply fortune favoured them at each turn when all seemed lost. Help no doubt was sent out to the other Ringwraiths as they made their way back, and they were bidden to remain secret again. It was no doubt at the end of 1418 that Sauron (S. likely aided by


    Angmar) bethought him of the winged mounts; and yet withheld them, until things became almost desperate and he was forced to launch his war in haste.
    275 (I: 288): Elrond summoned the hobbits
    275 (I: 288). Elrond summoned the hobbits - It is 18 December 1418.
    276 (I: 289): 'Neither does Frodo'
    276 (I: 289). I think, Elrond, in this matter it would be well to trust rather to their friendship than to great wisdom. - Gandalf is wise to say so. After the Battle of the Pelennor Fields he will remark to Pippin that had Elrond not yielded to him 'neither of you would have set out; and then far more grievous would the evils of this day have been' (Book V, Chapter 8, p. 859, III: 135-6).
    276-7 (I: 290): The Sword of Elendil
    276-7 (I: 290). The Sword of Elendil was forged anew ... and on its blade was traced a device of seven stars set between the crescent moon and the rayed sun - The seven stars are the device of Elendil. According to a note in the 1966 Index entry for 'Stars', the seven stars 'originally represented the single stars on the banners of each of seven ships (of 9) that bore a palantir\ In his letter to Richard Jeffery of 17 December 1972 Tolkien wrote that the sword's original name, Narsil, 'symbolised the chief heavenly lights, as enemies of darkness' (Letters, p. 425).
    277 (I: 290). Andiiril, Flame of the West - In his letter to Richard Jeffrey, 17 December 1972, Tolkien wrote that Anduril 'meant Flame of the West (as a region) not of the Sunset' [Letters, p. 425). The name is derived from Quenya andune 'sunset, west' + ril 'glitter, brilliance'.
    277 (I: 290): Aragorn and Gandalf
    277 (I: 290). Aragorn and Gandalf... pondered the storied and figured maps and books of lore - Storied and figured, i.e. pictorial, like the maps Tolkien drew for The Hobbit.
    Later in this chapter Pippin says that he too looked at maps while at Rivendell, but does not remember them; while in Book III, Chapter 3 Merry is able to judge his location based on his own study of Elrond's maps, and in Book VI, Chapter 2 Frodo says that he was shown a map of Mordor as it was before Sauron returned.
    279 (I: 292): It was a cold grey day
    6 7 7
    279 (I: 292). It was a cold grey day near the end of December. - According to The Tale of Years, it is 25 December 1418. As this chapter was first written, the Company departed on 24 November, but Tolkien decided to move the event later in the year: 'Too much takes place in winter', he noted. 'They

    should remain longer at Rivendell. This would have additional advantage of allowing Elrond's scouts and messengers far longer time. He should discover Black Riders have gone back. Frodo should not start until say Dec. 24th.' Christopher Tolkien comments that 'it seems likely that 24 December was chosen as being "numerically" one month later than the existing date ... and it was changed to 25 December to make the new dates agree "numerically" with the existing time-structure (since November has 30 days but December 31) [before Tolkien introduced the concept of thirty-day months in the Shire Reckoning]' (The Treason of Isengard, pp. 422-3).
    Henry Resnik reported that during an interview with Tolkien in early March 1966 he had commented to Tolkien on the date of the departure from Rivendell, and on certain aspects of Frodo which seemed to parallel Jesus Christ. To the question 'How do you feel about the idea that people might identify Frodo with Christ?' Tolkien replied:
    Well, you know, thereVe been saviours before; it is a very common thing. There've been heroes and patriots who have given up for their countries. You don't have to be Christian to believe that somebody has to die to save something. As a matter of fact, December 25th occurred strictly by accident, and I left it in to show that this was not a Christian myth anyhow. It was a purely unimportant date, and I thought, Well there it is, just an accident. ['An Interview with Tolkien', Niekas 18 (Spring 1967), p. 43]
    In Nomenclature, however, Tolkien wrote that
    the midwinter festival was not an Elvish custom, and so would not have been celebrated at Rivendell. The Fellowship, however, left on Dec. 25, which [date] had then no significance, since the Yule, or its equivalent, was then the last day of the year and the first of the next year ['Yule' = the two Yule days between 30 December and 1 January in the Hobbit calendar, which were holidays and times of feasting]. Though Dec. 25 (setting out) and March 25 (accomplishment of quest) were intention­ally chosen by me.
    279 (I: 292): The Company took little gear
    279 (I: 292). his war horn - In the previous chapter this is described as 'a great horn tipped with silver' (p. 240,1: 253); in Book IV, Chapter 5 Faramir describes it as 'a great horn of the wild ox of the East, bound with silver, and written with many characters. That horn the eldest son of our house [the House of Stewards] has borne for many generations; and it is said that if it be blown at need anywhere within the bounds of Gondor, as the realm was of old, its voice will not pass unheeded' (p. 666, II: 276). In Book V, Chapter 1 Denethor says that the horn has been born by the eldest son of his house 'since Vorondil [d. Third Age 2029] ... hunted the wild


    kine of Araw in the far fields of Rhun'. In a manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, Tolkien identifies the Wild Kine from which the horn came as an aurochs, which the Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines as 'a large extinct wild ox that was the ancestor of domestic cattle'.
    279 (I: 292): 'Slow should you be
    279 (I: 292). until you stand once more on the borders of your land and dire need is on you - Elrond's advice foreshadows Boromir's dire need under Amon Hen in Book III, Chapter 1.
    279-80 (I: 293): Gimli the dwarf alone
    279 (I: 293). Gandalf bore his staff- The mention of Gandalf's staff here among swords, knife, bow, and axe suggests that it may be considered a weapon, but it is never used as such. Wizards or magicians traditionally have staffs which sometimes seem essential to the performing of magic (Prospero in Shakespeare's Tempest, for instance, breaks his staff when he renounces magic). Gandalf often uses his when performing a supernormal act, such as lighting fire on Caradhras or breaking the bridge in Moria. But Rony Rojkin in 'The Istari' (Beyond Bree, April 1999) asks:
    How much 'magic' is actually in the staff? We know that the Istari came from the West with the staff and that they always kept them close at hand. In Theoden's Hall the staff is considered as a weapon: 'The staff in the hand of a wizard may be more than a prop for age', says Hama. There are many examples of Gandalf using the staff, but there are times he does 'magic' without it (or at least it isn't mentioned).
    When Gandalf and Saruman faced each other [in Book III, Chapter 10] ... what makes the casting out of the Order official is the breaking of his [Saruman's] staff. Saruman's reaction may imply a physi­cal anguish, but the whole episode is very much like the breaking of the sword of an army officer.... So maybe the staff is also a symbol of status. ...
    Is the staff just a plain wood [object] the Istari use at their will, or is it a 'magical' item in its own right? If it is magical, is it in tune with the wizard, or could any man who would pick it up be able to use it? If the Istari do need the staff, does it have to be The Staff or perhaps they can use anything they happen to find? How exactly do they work magic? [p. 8]
    280 (I: 293). the elven-sword Glamdring, the mate of Orcist that now lay upon the breast of Thorin under the Lonely Mountain - Glamdring (Sindarin 'foe-hammer') and Orcrist (Sindarin 'goblin-cleaver') were found in the same trolls' hoard as Bilbo's sword Sting in The Hobbit, Chapter 2. They were taken by Gandalf and Thorin. Orcrist was buried with Thorin after his death in the Battle of Five Armies.

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    Chapter 4

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 428-30, 437, 442-67; The Treason of Isengard, pp. 176-89.
    295 (I: 308): It was evening
    295 (I: 308). It was evening - It is still 12 January 1419.
    296 (I: 309): 'It is a name of ill omen
    296 (I: 309). Or we might pass by and cross the Isen into Langstrand and Lebennin - The river Isen flows from the Misty Mountains through Isengard and across the Gap of Rohan.
    Langstrand is a 'translation' of Anfalas, coastland 'fief of Gondor, west of Belfalas. In the Common Speech it means 'long strand' (a strand is the margin of a body of water).
    In his unfinished index Tolkien notes that Lebennin means ' "five rivers", land between the White Mts. and Ethir Anduin, from Anorien to Belfalas: one of the "faithful fiefs". (The rivers that gave it its name were Erui, Sirith, Semi, Gilrain, Celos.)'
    296 (I: 309): 'As for the longer road
    296 (I: 309). As for the longer road.... We might spend a year in such a journey - Gandalf is exaggerating the distance: even if the Company were to travel west almost to the sea before turning south (to avoid Isengard), the journey would be at most three times the route Frodo took, reaching Orodruin by 25 March, including a month's stay in Lothlorien.
    296 (I: 309-10): 'You speak of what you do not know
    296 (I: 309). Barad-dur - Barad-dur is Sindarin for 'dark tower', derived from 'barad "tower" in the sense of a lofty fortress (as in the Tower of London) + dur "dark" (connoting dread and evil)' (manuscript of Nomenclature).
    297 (I: 310): 'Good, Gimli!'
    297 (I: 310). I sought there long for Thrain son of Thror after he was lost. - In Appendix A it is said that Thrain and his people, driven from Erebor by Smaug and kept from Moria by fear of Durin's Bane, settled east of the Ered Luin, and there prospered after a fashion by working iron. But the lust for gold was ever in Thrain's mind, and at last he and a few others attempted to return to Erebor and the treasure they had abandoned to the dragon. Now, 'as soon as he was abroad with few companions'


    Thrain 'was hunted by the emissaries of Sauron. Wolves pursued him, Ores waylaid him, evil birds shadowed his path, and the more he strove to go north the more misfortunes opposed him.' One dark night, while sheltering under the eaves of Mirkwood, Thrain disappeared from camp. His companions 'searched for him many days, until at last giving up hope they departed and came at length back to [his son] Thorin. Only long after was it learned that Thrain had been taken alive and brought to the pits of Dol Guldur' (p. 1077, III: 358).
    In The Hobbit, Chapter 1 and elsewhere, Gandalf tells of finding Thrain in Dol Guldur, but only by chance, while on other business (seeking to learn if the Necromancer was Sauron). In one version of The Quest of Erebor (compare 'Durin's Folk' in Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings) Gandalf recalls a chance meeting with Thorin Oakenshield, who was brooding on the loss of the Dwarves' treasure to Smaug, and thinking of revenge. Then, says Gandalf,
    'I remembered a dangerous journey of mine, ninety-one years before, when I had entered Dol Guldur in disguise, and had found there an unhappy Dwarf dying in the pits. I had no idea who he was. He had a map ... and a key that seemed to go with it, though he was too far gone to explain it. And he said that he had possessed a great Ring.
    'Nearly all his ravings were of that. The last of the Seven he said over and over again. But all these things he might have come by in many ways. He might have been a messenger caught as he fled, or even a thief trapped by a greater thief. But he gave the map and key to me. "For my son," he said; and then he died, and soon after I escaped myself.. ..
    'Now I remembered ... and it seemed clear that I had heard the last words of Thrain the Second, though he did not name himself or his son.' [Unfinished Tales, p. 324]
    This explains well enough how Gandalf came to have the map of Erebor and the key to the mountain's secret door, as described in The Hobbit; and it clarifies Gandalf's statement at the Council of Elrond that Thrain's ring was taken from him in torment. But if, as Gandalf says in the present chapter of The Lord of the Rings, that he searched for Thrain when he was lost, it seems strange that he should come upon a Dwarf in Dol Guldur who has a map of the secret way into Erebor, and its key, and who evidently once possessed one of seven rings, and yet not consider at once that it might be Thrain (rather than a messenger or thief) - and this, according to The Tale of Years, only nine years after Thrain's disappearance, when (presumably) the loss of Thrain would still be fresh in Gandalf's mind.
    297 (I: 3!o): 'I too once passed the Dimrill Gate'
    297 (I: 310). 'I too once passed the Dimrill Gate,' said Aragorn ... the memory is very evil - In the first version of this chapter Trotter the


    Hobbit says much the same. For him the memory of Moria was 'evil' because he was caught there by forces of the Dark Lord.
    The Dimrill Gate is 'the eastern or Great Gate of Moria' {Index).
    297 (I: 310): 'I will,' said Aragorn
    297 (I: 310). And I say to you: if you pass the doors of Moria, beware! -
    This is the first of many times that Aragorn shows remarkable foresight.
    298 (I: 311): 'Then let us start
    298 (I: 311). The wolf that one hears is worse than the ore that one fears. - This seems precisely the sort of proverb one would expect in Middle-earth, as does Aragorn's rejoinder: 'But where the warg howls, there also the ore prowls.'
    298 (I: 311): 'My heart's right down
    298 (I: 311). But we aren't etten yet - That is: 'We haven't been eaten yet.'
    298 (I: 311): 'Listen, Hound of Sauron!'
    298 (I: 311). Hound of Sauron - Hound is used here in the generic sense 'canine'. As told in The Silmarillion, Sauron was of old 'lord of werewolves' (p. 156).
    298-9 (I: 312): The night was old
    298 (I: 312). The night was old. - It is now early on 13 January 1419.
    299 (I: 312): Naur an edraith ammen! Naur dan i ngaurhoth!
    299 (I: 312)- Naur an edraith ammen! Naur dan i ngaurhoth! - 'Fire save us! Fire drive back the werewolves!' For an analysis of these words in Sindarin, see Carl F. Hostetter, 'Settled Spells', Anion Hen 122 (July 1993).
    299 (I: 312): There was a roar and a crackle
    299 (I: 312). There was a roar and a crackle, and the trees above him burst into a leaf and bloom of blinding flame. The fire leapt from tree-top to tree-top. The swords of the defenders shone and flickered. - Gandalf now shows himself much more powerful than in the similar attack by wolves in The Hobhit, Chapter 6. In the latter he, the dwarves, and Bilbo climb into fir-trees, then: 'He gathered the huge pine-cones from the branches of his tree. Then he set one alight with bright blue fire, and threw it whizzing down among the circle of wolves.... Then another came and another, one in blue flames, one in red, and another in green. They burst on the ground in the middle of the circle and went off in coloured sparks and smoke.'
    300 (I: 313): Gimli now walked ahead
    300 (I: 313). Sirannon - In his unfinished index Tolkien defines Shannon as '"stream of the Gate", translated] as Gate-stream . .., that formerly


    flowed from springs near the West-door of Moria down the Stair Falls and beside the road from Eregion to Moria'.
    301 (I: 314): At length they came
    301 (I: 314). Rounding the corner they saw before them a low cliff some five fathoms high, with a broken and jagged top. Over it a trickling water dripped, through a wide cleft that seemed to have been carved out by a fall that had once been strong and full. - Tolkien made a carefully finished drawing showing this cliff, and the steps, lake, and west wall described in the following paragraphs. It does not quite agree with the description, and 'probably depicts the approach to the west gate of Moria as Tolkien conceived it before he wrote any of the relevant text. He later cut off the bottom quarter of the drawing ... apparently in an attempt to salvage most of the picture by removing the more active part of the Stair Falls [which appear as more than a trickle]' (Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, Artist and Illustrator-, p. 159, figs. 148-9).
    A fathom is 'a unit of length equal to six feet, chiefly used in reference to the depth of water', originally the length of a man's outstretched arms to the tip of the hands, including the longest finger. Although Tolkien devised some hobbit measures, including a 'fathom' (see note for p. 5), he did not include them in The Lord of the Rings, and the primary world fathom must be meant here.
    301 (I: 314): 'Indeed things have changed!'
    301 (I: 314). Stair Falls - 'Falls of the Sirannon beside the steps leading up onto the level before the West-door of Moria' {Index).
    301 (I: 315): 'There are the Walls
    301 (I: 315). Walls of Moria - 'The great cliffs above the West-gate of Moria looking on Eregion' {Index).
    301 (I: 315). And there the Gate stood once upon a time, the Elven Door
    at the end of the road from Hollin - In the first version of this chapter there were two secret gates on the west side of Moria. In the second version Gandalf says that 'there was the Elven-door at the end of the road from Hollin by which we have come [struck through: and the Dwarven-door further south]. We must get across [struck through: to the Elven-door] as quickly as we can'. Christopher Tolkien explains:
    The idea that there were two distinct western entrances to Moria had appeared in the original version, where Gandalf said ... : 'There were two secret gates on the western side, though the chief entrance was on the East'. Gandalf's words in the present passage in FR [The Fellowship of the Ring] . . . the Elven Door . . . derive from this, although in the context of FR, where there is no 'Dwarven Door', the 'Elven Door' is understood in relation to what Gandalf said subsequently: 'the West-


    door was made chiefly for [the Elves'] use in their traffic with the Lords of Moria'. [The Treason oflsengard, p. 178]
    302 (I: 315): When they came to the northernmost corner
    302 (I: 315). creek - In this context, a recess or inlet in a body of water, not a flowing stream.
    303 (I: 316): 'Well, here we are at last!'
    303 (I: 316). traffic - Here used in the sense 'trade'.
    303 (I: 316). Those were happier days, when there was still close friend­ship at times between folk of different race, even between Dwarves and Elves. - In The Lord of the Rings little more is said of this friendship, but Christopher Tolkien notes that in the late work Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn it is said that
    Celebrimbor had 'an almost "dwarvish" obsession with crafts'; and he soon became the chief artificer of Eregion, entering into a close relationship with the Dwarves of Khazad-dum, among whom his greatest friend was Narvi.... Both Elves and Dwarves had great profit from this association: so that Eregion became far stronger, and Khazad-dum far more beautiful, than either would have done alone. [ Unfinished Tales, pp. 235-6]
    303 (I: 316-17): Turning to the others
    303 (I: 317). water-skins - Leather containers for carrying water.
    304 (I: 317): 'Dwarf-doors were not made to be seen
    304 (I: 317). not made to be seen when shut - This was established in The Hobbit, where a side door into the halls of Erebor could be revealed only when the setting sun on a particular day shone on the position of the key-hole.
    304 (I: 317). their own makers - In editions prior to 2004 this passage read 'their own masters'. The error for 'makers' was made in the first typescript of the chapter and perpetuated in print. See The Treason of Isengardy p. 187, n. 6.
    304 (I: 318): The Moon now shone
    304 (I: 318). The Moon now shone upon the grey face of the rock ... where the Moon caught them - It is the evening of 13 January. The moon had been full five nights earlier, and could not possibly shine on a westward-facing surface in the evening: it would rise in the east after sunset and set the next day after sunrise. This description also contradicts Gandalf's statement later in the chapter, when the Company halt after several hours' journey in Moria, that 'outside the late Moon is riding westward and the middle-night has passed' (p. 312,1: 326).

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard. pp. 190-206.
    321 (I: 335): The Company of the Ring
    321 (I: 335). Balin's visit to the Shire long ago - Presumably the visit described at the end of The Hobbit, recorded in The Tale of Years as occurring in Third Age 2949 (S.R. 1349).
    321 (I: 335): At length they stirred
    321 (I: 335). By both the doors they could now see that many bones were lying, and among them were broken swords and axe-heads, and cloven shields and helms. - In The Hobbit, Chapter 13, Bilbo and his companions come upon a similar scene in the Lonely Mountain, in the 'great chamber of Thror': 'Tables were rotting there; chairs and benches were lying there overturned, charred and decaying. Skulls and bones were upon the floor among flagons and bowls and broken drinking-horns and dust.' In both that book and The Lord of the Rings the protagonists visit a once glorious realm from which the Dwarves have been driven out.
    321 (I: 335). Some of the swords were crooked: orc-scimitars - A scimitar is a 'short, curved, single-edged sword, used among Orientals, especially Turks and Persians' {OED). Tolkien had already associated goblins (ores) with scimitars in The Hobbit, Chapter 17, where 'the bodyguard of Bolg, goblins of huge size' bore 'scimitars of steel'.
    321 (I: 335): There were many recesses
    321 (I: 335). the leaves cracked - This was the reading in the first printing of the first edition (1954). In the unauthorized resetting of The Fellowship of the Ring for its second printing (1954) 'cracked' was mistakenly altered to 'crackled'. The error was corrected in the edition of 2004.
    321 (I: 335). He pored over it for some time - In Artist and Illustrator Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull suggest that here Tolkien may have been thinking 'of the Cottonian Beowulf manuscript, which was scorched and made brittle by fire in 1731 and further damaged by attempts at restoration' (p. 163).
    321 (I: 335). in runes, both of Moria and of Dale, and here and there in Elvish script - See note for p. 337 concerning 'facsimile' pages.


    321 (I: 335): At last Gandalf looked up
    321 (I: 335). their coming to Dimrill Dale nigh on thirty years ago -
    According to The Tale of Years Balin went to Moria in Third Age 2989; it is now early in 3019 (S.R. 1419).
    321 (I: 335): 'We drove out ores
    321 (I: 335). Floi - The name Floi does not appear in either the Dvergatal in the Elder Edda or in Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda.
    321 (I: 335). twenty first hall of North end - One of the upper halls of the North-end, the latter being 'excavations of Moria north of the older halls and the Great Gate' {Index).
    322 (I: 336): 'Well, I can read no more
    ■$11 (I: 336). Third Deep - The Deeps are numbered according to stages below Gate-level.
    322 (I: 336): 'I fear he had ill tidings
    322 (I: 336). He seems to have kept the title that he took for less than five years - According to The Tale of Years Balin was killed and the dwarf-colony in Moria destroyed in Third Age 2994 (S.R. 1394).
    322 (I: 336): 'It is grim reading
    322 (I: 336). Frdr and Loni and Nali - All of these names appear in the Dvergatal in the Elder Edda.
    323 (I: 337): Gandalf raised his head
    323 (I: 337). the Book of Mazarbul - Tolkien spent a great deal of time and effort in producing a series of 'facsimiles' of the three damaged pages of the Book of Mazarbul that Gandalf is able to read. These would have helped to 'authenticate' his fiction, and support the pretence he had estab­lished in his original foreword to The Lord of the Rings, that he had derived his text from ancient records. He made at least four preliminary sketches of the first of the three pages, and at least one sketch of each of the other two, chiefly in coloured pencil. The three finished 'facsimiles' were made before March 1947. They feature genuine tears, losses, burn marks, and 'stab holes' through which the leaves of the book had supposedly once been sewn together.
    Tolkien hoped that the pages could be published at the beginning of Book II, Chapter 5 of The Lord of the Rings, and was disappointed when for reasons of cost that plan had to be abandoned. They were eventually reproduced in 1976 in the Allen & Unwin Lord of the Rings igyj Calendar, and then in Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien (1979, no. 23; 2nd edn. (1992), no. 24) with notes by Christopher Tolkien and transcriptions of the text, including some words that in the story Gandalf is unable to read. In


    Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien Christopher Tolkien says that the first, runic page is written in 'the late form of the Angerthas, called "the usage of Erebor". This use would be expected in a kind of diary, written, hastily and without attempt at calligraphy or meticulous consistency of spelling, by Dwarves coming from Dale.' He describes the second page, in Elvish script, as 'written in the later or Westron convention, in its northern variety, in the application of the Elvish signs to the Common Western Speech'. And he comments on the third page that 'the runes employed are the same as those on the first of these facsimiles, though the hand is different and the shapes differ in detail. The last line is in the same Elvish alphabet as that used on the second page.' See further, The Treason oflsengard, pp. 457-9, 465.
    The three finished facsimiles were first published in The Fellowship of the Ring in the Croatian edition of 1995, but not in an English language edition until 2004 (by HarperCollins and Houghton Mifflin). The second (preliminary) version of the first page and the final version of the third page were published in Artist and Illustrator, figs. 155-6. Another, later, sketch for the first page was published in The Invented Worlds of J.R.R. Tolkien: Drawings and Original Manuscripts from the Marquette University Collection (2004).
    In Of Dwarves and Men Tolkien wrote that in creating the 'Book of Mazarbul' facsimiles
    I followed the general principle followed throughout: the Common Speech was to be represented as English of today, literary or colloquial as the case demanded. Consequently the text was cast into English spelt as at present, but modified as it might be by writers in haste whose familiarity with the written form was imperfect, and who were also (on the first and third pages) transliterating the English into a different alphabet - one which did not for instance employ any letter in more than one distinct value, so that the distribution of English k, c — c, s was reduced to k — s; while the use of the letters for s and z was variable since English uses 5 frequently as = z. In addition, since documents of this kind nearly always show uses of letters or shapes that are peculiar and rarely or never found elsewhere, a few such features are also intro­duced: as the signs for the English vowel pairs ea, oa, ou (irrespective of their sounds). . . .
    But it is of course in fact an erroneous extension of the general linguistic treatment. It is one thing to represent all the dialogue of the story in varying forms of English: this must be supposed to be done by 'translation' - from memory of unrecorded sounds, or from documents lost or not printed, whether this is stated or not, whenever it is done in any narrative dealing with past times or foreign lands. But it is quite another thing to provide visible facsimiles or representations of writings or carvings supposed to be of the date of the events in the narrative. \The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 298-9!


    323 (I: 337). You had better keep it, Gimli - The Book of Mazarbul is never mentioned again.
    323 (I: 337): Gandalf had hardly spoken
    323 (I: 337). Doom, doom - Tolkien uses the sound doom to emphasize an atmosphere fraught with danger, made greater as the Company realize that they are now in much the same situation as the dwarves of whom they have just been reading in the Book of Mazarbul. Tolkien comments in the manuscript of Nomenclature that the
    word doom, original sense 'judgement' (formal and legal, or personal), has in English, partly owing to its sound, and largely owing to its special use in Doomsday, become a word loaded with senses of death; finality; fate (impending or foretold)....
    The use in the text as a word ... associated with boom is of course primarily descriptive of sound, but is meant (and by most English readers would be felt) to recall the noun doom, with its sense of disaster.
    Robert Boenig in 'The Drums of Doom: H.G. Wells' First Men in the Moon and The Lord of the Rings', Mythlore 14, no. 3, whole no. 53 (Spring 1988), suggests that the 'Boom ... Boom ... Boom' of the Selenite machin­ery heard when the travellers arrive on the Moon in Wells' book may have influenced this scene in The Lord of the Rings. Bedford and Cavor are also faced underground with a long narrow bridge extending from the edge of a precipice, and at that point turn on their captors and escape.
    324 (I: 338): 'There are Ores, very many of them'
    324 (I: 338). Uruks - In Appendix A it is said that the Uruks are 'black ores of great strength' (p. 1053, III: 333) employed by Mordor and Isengard during the War of the Ring. They first appeared out of Mordor c. Third Age 2475.
    324 (I: 338): Heavy feet were heard
    324 (I: 338). A huge arm and shoulder, with a dark skin of greenish scales... then a great, flat, toeless foot - This is presumably the cave-troll just mentioned. In Tolkien's illustration The Trolls in The Hobbit the crea­tures appear to have a scaly skin. The flat, toeless foot suggests a lumpish, ill-formed appearance.
    325 (I: 339): But even as they retreated
    325 (I: 339). a huge orc-chieftain, almost man-high___His broad flat
    face was swart, his eyes were like coals, and his tongue was red - That even a huge ore was only almost man-high suggests that ores generally were shorter than Men.
    The flat face of the orc-chieftain agrees with the description given by Tolkien to Forrest J. Ackerman in June 1958, that Ores are 'are (or were)


    squat, broad, flat-nosed, sallow-skinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes' (Letters, p. 274); see note for p. 5.
    Swart is an archaic or poetic word meaning 'dark, dusky'. A comparison with coal is commonly used to suggest extreme blackness.
    325 (I: 339). thrust his spear ... and it broke. But even as the ore flung down the truncheon - Truncheon here is used in the obsolete or archaic sense 'a fragment of a spear or lance; a piece broken off from a spear' (OED).
    327 (I: 341): 'It is getting hot!'
    327 (I: 341). all the ores ever spawned - Spawned here suggests 'to produce or generate ... in large numbers' (OED), not 'to reproduce through eggs' (as for fish etc.). In The Silmarillion it is said that 'the Ores had life and multiplied after the manner of the Children of Iluvatar' (p. 50).
    328 (I: 342): 'You take after Bilbo'
    328 (I: 342). There is more about you than meets the eye, as I said of him long ago. - Gandalf does not use these precise words in The Hobbit, but in Chapter 6 of that book says: 'What did I tell you? . .. Mr Baggins has more about him than you guess', and in Chapter 16, to Bilbo: 'There is always more about you than anyone expects!'
    328 (I: 342): 'There is some new devilry here'
    328 (I: 342). Old Moria - 'The earliest mansions and passages of Moria near the Great Gates' (Index).
    328 (I: 342): They peered out
    328 (I: 342). pillars ... carved like boles of mighty trees whose boughs upheld the roof with a branching tracery of stone - Similarly in The Silmarillion it is said that in Thingol's underground stronghold, Meneg-roth, the work of Elves and Dwarves, 'the pillars ... were hewn in the likeness of the beeches of Orome, stock [trunk], bough, and leaf (p. 93).
    329 (I: 343): 'Now for the last race!'
    329 (I: 343). If the sun is shining outside, we may still escape. - Ores do not like the sunlight.
    329 (I: 344): It came to the edge of the fire
    329 (I: 344). Its streaming mane - Its mane, or long hair, streams presum­ably because it is impelled backwards by the force of his leap. In The Lay ofLeithian Tolkien refers to 'the Balrog-lords with fiery manes' (The Lays of Beleriand, p. 296).
    329 (I: 344). a whip of many thongs - That is, with many narrow strips of leather or some other material.

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    Chapter 6 LOTHLORIEN
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 217-44.
    333 (I: 347): They rose and looked about them
    333 (I: 347)- glen - A narrow valley.
    333 (I: 347): 'Yonder is the Dimrill Stair'
    333 (I: 347)- Dimrill Stair - In his unfinished index Tolkien includes: 'Dimrill: name of a stream and falls flowing down mountain-side from the N[orth] into Mirrormere'; and 'Dimrill Stair: steep way down beside the Dimrill from the Redhorn Gate'.
    333 (I: 347): To the east the outflung arm
    333 (I: 347)- sward - An expanse of short grass, turf.
    333-4 (I: 347-8): The Company now went down the road
    333 (I: 348). whin - The common furze or gorse, a spiny yellow-flowered shrub.
    334 (I: 348). from the lowlands to the Dwarf-kingdom - This was the reading in the first printing of the first edition (1954). In the unauthorized resetting of The Fellowship of the Ring for its second printing (1954) the passage was mistakenly altered to: 'from the lowlands of the Dwarf-kingdom' (emphasis ours). The erroneous reading suggests that the king­dom included extensive lands outside the Great Gates of Moria on the eastern side of the Misty Mountains. The phrase was restored to its correct form in the edition of 2004.
    334 (I: 348): 'Be swift then!'
    334 (I: 348). The Moon is almost spent - It is just about to enter its last quarter, and will not rise until just after midnight.
    334 (I: 348): They stooped over the dark water
    334 (I: 348). There like jewels sunk in the deep shone glinting stars - In
    the next paragraph, and previously in the poem he chanted in Moria, Gimli refers to these as 'the Crown of Durin', evidently the seven stars (representing the Plough) noted previously. Tolkien seems to suggest that the stars shining in the deep 'though sunlight was in the sky above' (when stars would not be visible) are a reflection from Durin's time in the distant past.


    334 (I: 348): The road now turned south
    334 (I: 348). freshet - A rush of fresh water.
    335 (I: 349): 'There lie the woods
    335 (I" 349)- Lothlorien - In one place in his unfinished index Tolkien partially 'translates' Lothlorien as 'Lorien of the Blossom', but in another as 'The Dream Flower'. The name combines Sindarin loth 'flower' with Quenya Lorien '?Dream Land', the name of the dwelling in Valinor of the Vala Irmo, 'the master of visions and dreams', whose gardens 'are the fairest of all places in the world' {The Silmarillion, p. 28). Lothlorien is often referred to simply as Lorien, or 'the Golden Wood'.
    In a note to the late work Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn, Chris­topher Tolkien explains, it is said that
    Lorinand was the Nandorin name of this region ... and contained the Elvish word meaning 'golden light': 'valley of gold'. The Quenya form would be Lurenande, the Sindarin Glornan or Nan Laur. Both here and elsewhere the meaning of the name is explained by reference to the golden mallorn-trees of Lothlorien;... and in another, later, discussion the name Lorinand is said to have been itself a transformation, after the introduction of the mallorns, of a yet older name Linddrinand, 'Vale of the Land of the Singers'. From many other discussions of the names of Lothlorien, to some extent at variance among themselves, it emerges that all the later names were probably due to Galadriel herself, combin­ing different elements: laure 'gold', nan(d) 'valley', ndor 'land', lin-'sing'; and in Laurelindorinan 'Valley of Singing Gold' ... deliberately echoing the name of the Golden Tree that grew in Valinor [Laurelin], 'for which, as is plain, Galadriel's longing increased year by year to, at last, an overwhelming regret'....
    The further change from Lorinand 'Valley of Gold' to Lorien 'may well be due to Galadriel herself, for 'the resemblance cannot be acciden­tal. She had endeavoured to make Lorien a refuge and an island of peace and beauty, a memorial of ancient days, but was now filled with regret and misgiving, knowing that the golden dream was hastening to a grey awakening.' [ Unfinished Tales, pp. 252-3, n. 5]
    335 (Is 349)- There are no trees like the trees of that land. For in the autumn their leaves fall not, but turn to gold. Not till the spring comes and the new green opens do they fall, and then the boughs are laden with yellow flowers; and the floor of the wood is golden, and golden is the roof, and its pillars are of silver, for the bark of the trees is smooth and grey. - Tolkien illustrated this description by Legolas in his drawing The Forest of Lothlorien in Spring {Artist and Illustrator, fig. 157).
    The name of the trees is not given until later in the chapter: mallorn, Sindarin 'golden tree', plural mellyrn. In Middle-earth, with one exception,


    the mallorn grew only in Lothlorien, and came there from Niimenor. According to A Description of Niimenor, written c. i960, in one part of Numenor
    grew the mighty golden tree [Quenya] malinorne, reaching after five centuries a height scarce less than it achieved in Eressea itself. Its bark was silver and smooth, and its boughs somewhat upswept after the manner of the beech; but it never grew save with a single trunk. Its leaves, like those of the beech but greater, were pale green above and beneath were silver, glistering in the sun; in the autumn they did not fall, but turned to pale gold. In the spring it bore golden blossom in clusters like a cherry, which bloomed on during the summer; and as soon as the flowers opened the leaves fell, so that through spring and summer a grove of malinorni was carpeted and roofed with gold, but its pillars were of grey silver. Its fruit was a nut with a silver shale; and some were given as a gift by Tar-Aldarion, the sixth King of Numenor, to King Gil-galad of Lindon. They did not take root in that land; but Gil-galad gave some to his kinswoman, Galadriel, and under her power they grew and flourished in the guarded land of Lothlorien beside the River Anduin, until the High Elves at last left Middle-earth; but they did not reach the height or girth of the great groves of Numenor. [Unfinished Tales, pp. 167-8]
    335 (I: 349): Soon afterwards they came
    335 (I: 349)- harts-tongue and shrubs of whortle-berry - Harts-tongue is a fern with long, narrow fronds said to resemble the tongues of deer.
    Whortle-berry is another name for 'bilberry': see note for p. 209. The word is spelt without a hyphen in Book IV, Chapter 7.
    336 (I: 350): 'Look, my friends!'
    336 (I: 350). Here's a pretty hobbit-skin to wrap an elven-princeling in!
    - Surely a deliberate echo of the nursery rhyme 'Bye, baby bunting, / daddy's gone a-hunting, / Gone to get a rabbit skin / to wrap the baby bunting in.'
    338 (I: 352): It is long since any of my own folk
    338 (I: 352). It is long since any of my own folk journeyed hither back to the land whence we wandered in ages long ago - In writing of the Elves after publication of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien said that the folk of Thranduil's realm in northern Mirkwood 'had migrated from the south, being the kin and neighbours of the Elves of Lorien; but they had dwelt in Greenwood the Great east of Anduin. In the Second Age their king, Oropher [the father of Thranduil, father of Legolas], had withdrawn north­ward beyond the Gladden Fields' (appendix to The History of Galadriel and Celeborn in Unfinished Tales, p. 258). -


    338-9 (I: 353): 'Here is Nimrodel!'
    338 (I: 353). Nimrodel - In his unfinished index Tolkien writes that Nimro­del 'lady of the white grotto' is the 'name of an Elven-maid, and of a mountain-stream falling into the Celebrant (Silverlode)'. In late writing he said that the name 'cannot be fully explained from Sindarin, though fitting it in form' (Unfinished Tales, p. 257).
    338 (I: 353). Silvan Elves - In a late etymological discussion Tolkien comments that the Silvan Elves (Wood-elves)
    were in origin Teleri, and so remoter kin of the Sindar, though even longer separated from them than the Teleri of Valinor. They were descended from those of the Teleri who, on the Great Journey, were daunted by the Misty Mountains and lingered in the Vale of Anduin, and so never reached Beleriand or the Sea ... but they still remembered that they were in origin Eldar ... and they welcomed those of the Noldor and especially the Sindar who did not pass over the Sea but migrated eastward [i.e. at the beginning of the Second Age]....
    In Lorien, where many of the people were Sindar in origin, or Noldor, survivors from Eregion ..., Sindarin had become the language of all the people, [appendix to The History ofGaladriel and Celeborn in Unfinished Tales, pp. 256-7]
    339 (I: 353): 'Do you hear the voice
    339 (I: 353)- °ur woodland tongue - Later in this chapter an elf of Lothlor-ien speaks to Legolas 'in an elven-tongue. Frodo could understand little of what was said, for the speech that the Silvan folk east of the mountains used among themselves was unlike that of the West. Legolas looked up and answered in the same language' (p. 342,1: 356). In the second edition (1965) Tolkien added a footnote to this passage, directing the reader to Appendix F, where it is said (in a passage also added in the second edition): 'In Lorien at this period Sindarin was spoken, though with an "accent", since most of its folk were of Silvan origin. This "accent" and his own limited acquaintance with Sindarin misled Frodo .. .' (p. 1127, III: 405). In Appendix F it is also noted that Sindarin and Quenya are only two of the Elvish tongues, of which Sindarin was most commonly used in Middle-earth; and from this it follows that other languages were spoken, of which little or nothing is said in The Lord of the Rings: the 'Silvan tongues' as they are called elsewhere in Tolkien's writings. In one late linguistic dis­cussion Tolkien states that Sindarin was spoken in the house of Thranduil (and thus by Legolas, son of the Elven-king) 'though not by all his folk', i.e. other Elves of Mirkwood; and in another late work it is said that 'by the end of the Third Age the Silvan tongues [distinct from Sindarin] had probably ceased to be spoken in the two regions that had importance at the time of the War of the Ring: Lorien and the realm of Thranduil in


    northern Mirkwood' (appendix to The History of Galadriel and Celeborn in Unfinished Tales, pp. 256, 257).
    339-40 (I: 354-5): An Elven-maid there was of old
    339-40 (I: 354-5). An Elven-maid there was of old... - A recording by Tolkien of this poem is included on Disc 1 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    340 (I: 354). yore - In poetic or literary usage, 'long ago'.
    340 (I: 354). haven grey - Apart from this poem, there are only a few references to this particular haven in The Lord of the Rings: the comment by Legolas later in this chapter that the Elves of Lorien set sail from the Bay of Belfalas; Haldir's statement, also in this chapter, that the haven in the south no longer exists; and the greeting of Legolas to Imrahil of Dol Amroth: 'It is long since the people of Nimrodel left the woodlands of Lorien, and yet still one may see that not all sailed from Amroth's haven west over water' (Book V, Chapter 9, p. 872, III: 148). Tolkien mentions this haven also in his Preface to The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from The Red Book: 'In Langstrand and Dol Amroth there were many traditions of the ancient Elvish dwellings, and of the haven at the mouth of the Morthond from which "westward ships" had sailed as far back as the fall of Eregion in the Second Age' (p. 8). On his instructions, Pauline Baynes placed the haven at the mouth of the Morthond on her decorated map with the name Edhellond (Sindarin edhel 'elf + lond 'land­locked haven'). Christopher Tolkien therefore included it in his revised map of Middle-earth in Unfinished Tales. Tolkien mentions the Elvish haven on the Bay of Belfalas in several late writings, but the accounts vary greatly: see Unfinished Tales, pp. 246-8.
    340 (I: 354). mountain-lee - The side of the mountain away from the wind, the sheltered side.
    340 (I: 354). A wind by night in Northern lands /Arose... I And drove
    the ship - According to a late text by Tolkien 'there came a great night of storm.... It came from the Northern Waste, and roared down through Eriador into the lands of Gondor, doing great havoc; the White Moun­tains were no shield against it' (Amroth and Nimrodel in Unfinished Tales, p. 242).
    340 (I: 354). Amroth - In his unfinished index Tolkien says merely that Amroth is the 'name of a prince of the Silvan Elves of Lorien in the Elder Days'. In a late etymological work he says that 'the name Amroth is explained as being a nickname derived from his living in a high talan or flet, the wooden platforms built high up in the trees of Lothlorien in which the Galadhrim dwelt: it meant "upclimber, high climber'" (Unfinished Tales, p. 245). Christopher Tolkien comments: 'This explanation supposes

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 245-66.
    353 (I: 368): Suddenly they came
    353 (I: 368). fosse - A long narrow trench or ditch, especially in fortifica­tion' {Concise OED).
    353 (I: 368): 'Welcome to Caras Galadhon!'
    353 (1:368). Caras Galadhon - Galadhon, spelt with an h, replaced Galadon in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition: see note for p. 341.
    In his unfinished index Tolkien notes caras as a 'circular earthwall with dike', and (using the earlier spelling) Caras Galadon as 'City of Trees', the 'chief dwelling of the Elves of Lorien'. In late writing Tolkien says that the name 'Caras seems to be an old word for a moated fortress not found in Sindarin' (Unfinished Tales, p. 257).
    354 (I: 369): As he climbed slowly
    354 (I: 369). On it was built a house so large - In a late etymological discussion by his father, Christopher Tolkien reports in Unfinished Tales, it is said
    that the custom of dwelling in trees was not a habit of the Silvan Elves in general, but was developed in Lorien by the nature and situation of the land: a flat land with no good stone, except what might be quarried in the mountains westward and brought with difficulty down the Silverlode.... But the dwelling in trees was not universal even in Lorien, and the telain [plural of talon] or flets were in origin either refuges to be used in the event of an attack, or most often (especially those high up in great trees) outlook posts from which the land and its borders could be surveyed by Elvish eyes: for Lorien after the end of the first millennium of the Third Age became a land of uneasy vigilance, and Amroth must have dwelt in growing disquiet ever since Dol Guldur was established in Mirkwood.
    'Such an outlook post', Tolkien says,
    used by the wardens of the north marches, was the flet in which Frodo spent the night. The abode of Celeborn in Caras Galadhon was also of the same origin: its highest flet, which the Fellowship of the Ring did


    not see, was the highest point in the land. Earlier the flet of Amroth at the top of the great mound or hill of Cerin Amroth, piled by the labour of many hands, had been the highest, and was primarily designed to watch Dol Guldur across the Anduin. The conversion of these telain into permanent dwellings was a later development, and only in Caras Galadhon were such dwellings numerous. But Caras Galadhon was itself a fortress, and only a small part of the Galadhrim dwelt within its walls. [Unfinished Tales, pp. 245-6]
    354 (I: 369): The chamber was filled with a soft light
    354 (I: 369). Very tall they were - In a note associated with The Disaster of the Gladden Fields Tolkien indicates that Celeborn, who (according to a late version of his origin) was one of the Teleri, 'was held by them to be tall, as his name indicated ("silver-tall"); but the Teleri were in general somewhat less in build and stature than the Noldor'. Galadriel was 'the tallest of all the women of the Eldar of whom tales tell', and was said to be man-high 'according to the measure of the Dunedain and the men of old', about six feet four inches {Unfinished Tales, p. 286).
    354 (I: 369). No sign of age was upon them, unless it were in the depths of their eyes - Tolkien wrote to W.H. Auden on 7 June 1955: 'of Lothlorien no word had reached my mortal ears till I came there' {Letters, p. 216). Nor is there evidence that he knew anything of Galadriel (or of Celeborn) until he came to write 'The Mirror of Galadriel', and he went on 'dis­covering' more about her until the end of his life.
    Several commentators, most notably John D. Rateliff in 'She and Tol­kien', Mythlore 8, no. 2, whole no. 28 (Summer 1981), have pointed out possible influences on Galadriel by aspects of Ayesha in works by H. Rider Haggard: She (1887), Ayesha: The Return of She (1905), She and Allan (1921), and Wisdom's Daughter (1923). Rateliff writes:
    The most obvious parallel is She herself - Ayesha, Wisdom's daughter, She-Who-Must-Be-Obeyed. An exceedingly beautiful woman, so beautiful that all who see her remember the sight ever after, She rules a small, isolated, ancient kingdom, the borders of which no one is allowed to pass. Strangers are admitted only if she has sent word before­hand to admit them, and even then they must make part of the journey blindfolded. Beautiful and terrible, worshipful but fearsome, she is not only wise and beautiful but also immortal.... Like She, Galadriel is immortal, wise, queenly, and beautiful beyond belief. There are impor­tant differences between Ayesha and Galadriel, but the similarities are striking, [p. 6]
    Steve Linley in 'Tolkien and Haggard: Some Thoughts on Galadriel', Anor 23 (1991) comments that both Galadriel and Ayesha 'have a powerful gaze, the effect of which on the recipient being the feeling of being laid bare or


    psychologically "denuded"', and 'both live amidst a culture of preservation; Ayesha, however, preserves only herself, for selfish reasons.... She treats all other human beings as a lesser species. . . . Ayesha actively seeks power and world domination', whereas Galadriel rejects the power the Ring would have given her. However, Linley points out that had Galadriel accepted the Ring 'the reader familiar with She might recognise that Galadriel would come to resemble Ayesha more closely in respect of her less appealing characteristics' (pp. 12, 13, 14).
    In 1966 Tolkien told Henry Resnik: 'I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything' (An Interview with Tolkien', Niekas 18 (Spring 1967). P- 40).
    355 (Is 37°): 'Nay, there was no change
    355 (I: 37o). But I cannot see him from afar, unless he comes within the fences of Lothlorien: a grey mist is about him, and the ways of his feet and of his mind are hidden from me. - It is not clear whether Galadriel means that she can never see Gandalf from afar, or that now she cannot see him. Readers have interpreted it both ways. At the time she speaks, Gandalf is still fighting with the Balrog underground.
    356 (I: 371): 'Alas!' said Celeborn
    356 (I: 371). had I known that the Dwarves had stirred up this evil in Moria again, I would have forbidden you to pass the northern borders, you and all that went with you - Celeborn presumably is referring to Balin's attempt to resettle Moria. In an unpublished letter to Eileen Elgar, begun 22 September 1963, Tolkien suggests that Celeborn was worried about what might pursue the Company out of Moria and into Lothlorien. Also, as Tolkien wrote of Celeborn in the Second Age, he 'had no liking for Dwarves of any race (as he showed to Gimli in Lothlorien), and had never forgiven them for their part in the destruction of Doriath (Unfinished Tales, p. 235), 'passing over Morgoth's part in this (by angering of Hurin), and Thingol's own faults' (The War of the Jewels, p. 353). See also note for p. 255.
    356 (I: 371): He would be rash indeed
    356 (I: 371). Do not repent of your welcome to the Dwarf. - In the late Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn, dealing with events in the Second Age, Tolkien says that 'Galadriel was more far-sighted' than Celeborn in her attitude to Dwarves. She saw the need for a union of all the peoples against the evil surviving from the First Age, even though this had not yet been identified as Sauron:
    She looked upon the Dwarves also with the eye of a commander, seeing in them the finest warriors to pit against the Ores. Moreover Galadriel was a Noldo, and she had a natural sympathy with their minds and


    their passionate love of crafts of hand, a sympathy much greater than that found among many of the Eldar: the Dwarves were 'the Children of Aule', and Galadriel, like others of the Noldor, had been a pupil oi Aule and Yavanna in Valinor. [Unfinished Tales, p. 235]
    356 (I: 371): 'Dark is the water
    356 (I: 371). the many-pillared halls of Khazad-dum - In Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn it is said that on at least two occasions Galadriel chose to travel through Khazad-dum rather than over the Misty Mountains.
    356-7 (I: 372): 'Your quest is known to us
    357 (Is 372)- the Lord of the Galadhrim is accounted the wisest of the Elves of Middle-earth, and a giver of gifts beyond the power of kings -
    Some readers have doubted Galadriel's statement, since she has just shown herself to have better judgement than her husband. Celeborn does, how­ever, later give help and useful advice for the Company's onward journey. When the Company leave they are given gifts by the Lord and Lady of the Galadhrim, but at least two of the gifts seem to come from Galadriel alone: Frodo's phial with the light of Earendil, and the contents of Sam's box which will help restore the Shire.
    It is difficult to assess the relationship and relative positions of the two rulers of Lothlorien: Celeborn greets the Company, speaking first, but Galadriel wears one of the Three Rings and seems to have the greater innate power. The apparent contradiction may arise from the fact that it took Tolkien some time to appreciate fully the characters who had now entered the story, apparently unplanned; indeed, at first it was the Lord oi Lothlorien (as 'King Galdaran'), rather than the Lady, who was to show Frodo visions in a mirror (see The Treason oflsengard, p. 249).
    357 (!• 372)- He has dwelt in the West since the days of dawn - This may refer to the time since the creation of the Sun, or metaphorically 'since the beginning'.
    357 (I: 372). ere the fall of Nargothrond or Gondolin I passed over the mountains, and together through ages of the world we have fought the long defeat - On this Christopher Tolkien has said:
    There is no part of the history of Middle-earth more full of problems than the story of Galadriel and Celeborn, and it must be admitted that there are severe inconsistencies 'embedded in the traditions'; or, to look at the matter from another point of view, that the role and importance of Galadriel only emerged slowly, and that her story underwent contin­ual refashionings.
    Thus, at the outset, it is certain that the earliest conception was that Galadriel went east over the mountains from Beleriand alone, before


    the end of the First Age, and met Celeborn in his own land of Lorien; this is explicitly stated in unpublished writing, and the same idea under­lies Galadriel's words to Frodo in The Fellowship of the Ring..., where she says of Celeborn that 'He has dwelt in the West since the days of dawn, and I have dwelt with him years uncounted; for ere the fall of Nargothrond or Gondolin I passed over the mountains, and together through ages of the world we have fought the long defeat.' In all prob­ability Celeborn was in this conception a Nandorin Elf (that is, one of the Teleri who refused to cross the Misty Mountains on the Great Journey from Cuivienen).
    On the other hand, in Appendix B to The Lord of the Rings appears a later version of the story; for it is stated there that at the beginning of the Second Age 'In Lindon south of the Lune dwelt for a time Celeborn, kinsman of Thingol; his wife was Galadriel, greatest of Elven women.' And in the notes to The Road Goes Ever On ... it is said that Galadriel 'passed over the Mountains of Eredluin with her husband Celeborn (one of the Sindar) and went to Eregion'. [The History of Galadriel and Celeborn in Unfinished Tales, p. 228]
    Neither Galadriel nor Celeborn had appeared in any of the earlier 'Silmarillion' writings, but obviously both, and especially Galadriel, sub­sequent to The Lord of the Rings had to be found a place in that work. Galadriel, Tolkien decided, was born in Aman, a Noldo of the highest family, the daughter of Finrod (later Finarfin), third son of Finwe, ruler of the Noldor. One of her brothers was Inglor (later Finrod Felagund), later ruler of Nargothrond. But she also had Vanyar blood through her paternal grandmother, Finwe's second wife, Indis, from whom she also inherited her golden hair; and Telerin blood from her mother, Earwen, daughter of King Olwe of Alqualonde, the ruler of the Teleri in Aman and brother of King Thingol of Doriath in Beleriand. Galadriel was among the Noldor who participated in Feanor's revolt against the Valar and went to Middle-earth to recover the Silmarils from Morgoth. According to the Annals of Aman the words of Feanor 'kindled her heart, and she yearned to see the wide untrodden lands and to rule there a realm maybe at her own will' (Morgoth's Ring, p. 113). As first written, the Annals made no mention as to whether Galadriel played any part in the kin-slaying at Alqualonde when Feanor seized the ships of the Teleri.
    In Middle-earth Galadriel spent much time in Doriath with Thingol and his wife, Melian, who by her power as a Maia protected Doriath against intruders and the power of Morgoth. In an addition to the Quenta Silmarillion it is said that Galadriel 'remained long in Doriath and received the love of Melian and there learned great lore and wisdom' {The War of the Jewels, p. 178). The guarded realm of Lorien which few were allowed to enter has some similarities with Doriath.
    This is the story that Christopher Tolkien used in editing his father's

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 267-94.
    367 (I: 383): That night the Company was again summoned
    367 (I: 383). That night - It is still 15 February 1419, but presumably late evening.
    367 (I: 383): 'Now is the time'
    367 (I: 383). the long home of those that fall in battle - Celeborn is using a grand phrase with an echo of the Norse Valhalla, but not really applicable in Middle-earth. The spirits of Elves who are killed go to Mandos (see note for p. 209), and not even the Valar know where the spirits of slain Men (or Hobbits) go after a time of waiting in the halls of Mandos (see note for p. 193). The Dwarves, who are not Children of Iluvatar but the creation of Aule, believe that after death Aule ... cares for them, and gathers them to Mandos in halls set apart; and that he declared to their Fathers of old that Iluvatar will hallow them and give them a place among the Children in the End. Their part shall be to serve Aule and to aid him in remaking Arda after the Last Battle' (The Silmarillion, p. 44).
    367 (I: 383): 'I see that you do not yet know what to do'
    367 (I: 383). Forest River - A river in Mirkwood.
    368 (I: 384): 'That is well'
    368 (1:384). Sarn Gebir - In the manuscript for Nomenclature (as part of the entry for Sarn Ford, see note for p. 172) Tolkien notes that lSarn Gebir "the rapids of the spikes" in the R[iver] Anduin was so named because of upjut-ting spikes and snags of rocks that made this part of Anduin's course impass­able by boats unless they were steered with great skill (or good fortune) into a clear, but narrow and dangerously swift, central channel'. In his unfinished index he writes that Sarn Gebir 'stone-spiked' was the 'name of rapids in Anduin, above the Argonath, so called because of the upright stake-like spikes of rock at their beginning'. In Index he also notes the derivation of Sarn Ford, from Sindarin sarn '(small) stone' + ceber (plural cebir) 'stake'.
    368 (I: 384). the great falls of Rauros - 'Rauros "roaring spray", the great falls of Anduin at south-end of the Emyn MuiP (Index).
    368 (I: 384). Nen Hithoel - In his unfinished index Tolkien defines Nen Hithoel as 'the lake in the midst of the Emyn Muil', and notes that Sindarin


    nen 'water' is 'used both of lakes, pools, and (lesser) rivers'. Sindarin Hithoel means 'mist-cool'.
    369 (I: 385): In the morning
    369 (I: 385). In the morning - It is the morning of 16 February 1419.
    369 (I: 385): 'Craml he said
    369 (I: 385). cram - Cram is first mentioned in The Hobbit, Chapter 13: 'If you want to know what cram is, I can only say that I don't know the recipe; but it is biscuitish, keeps good indefinitely, is supposed to be sustaining, and is certainly not entertaining being in fact very uninteresting except as a chewing exercise. It was made by the Lake-men for long journeys.' In the Etymologies Tolkien notes under the base KRAB- 'press' 'Nfoldorin, i.e. Sindarin] cramb, cram cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing honey and milk) used on long journey' {The Lost Road and Other Writings, p. 365). There is also an English dialect word cram, however, defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as 'a mass of dough or paste used for cramming fowls, etc.: any food used to fatten'. The OED also includes the combination cram-cake '?fried-cake, pancake', and Joseph Wright in his English Dialect Dictionary notes one meaning of the verb cram as 'to stuff, to eat to repletion'. Compare cramsome bread and cram-some cake in Tolkien's poem Perry-the-Winkle, published in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book.
    369 (I: 385): 'So it is,' they answered
    369 (I: 385). letnbas or waybread - In June 1958 Tolkien wrote to Forrest J. Ackerman:
    In the book lembas has two functions. It is a 'machine' or device for making credible the long marches with little provision, in a world in which ... 'miles are miles'. But this is relatively unimportant. It also has a much larger significance, of what one might hesitatingly call a 'religious' kind. This becomes later apparent, especially in the chapter 'Mount Doom' [Book VI, Chapter 3, p. 936, III: 213: 'The lembas had a virtue without which they would long ago have lain down to die. It did not satisfy desire... . And yet this waybread .. . had a potency that increased as travellers relied on it alone and did not mingle it with other foods. It fed the will, and it gave strength to endure, and to master sinew and limb beyond the measure of mortal kind.']. [Letters, p. 275]
    On 25 October 1958 Tolkien commented to Deborah Webster that a reader 'saw in the waybread (lembas) = viaticum and the reference to it feeding the will and being more potent when fasting, a derivation from the Eucharist' {Letters, p. 288).
    In a work written in the 1950s, Of Lembas, Tolkien wrote:


    This food the Eldar alone knew how to make. It was made for the comfort of those who had need to go on a long journey in the wild, or of the hurt whose life was in peril. Only these were permitted to use it.... The Eldar say that they first received this food from the Valar in the beginning of their days in the Great Journey. For it was made of a kind of corn which Yavanna brought forth in the fields of Aman, and some she sent to them by the hand of Orome for their succour upon the long march.
    Since it came from Yavanna, the queen, or the highest among the elven-women of any people, great or small, had the keeping and gift of the lembas.... [The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 403-4]
    Tolkien continues with an account of the growing of the special grain, and says that the Eldar 'gathered its great golden ears, each one, by hand, and set no blade of metal to it', and that 'from the ear to the wafer none were permitted to handle this grain, save those elven-women who were called . . . the maidens of Yavanna; and the art of the making of the lembas, which they learned of the Valar, was a secret among them, and so ever has remained' (p. 404).
    At the end of the essay Tolkien says that 'Lembas is the Sindarin name, and comes from the older form lenn-mbass "journey-bread". In Quenya it was most often named coimas which "life-bread"' (p. 404). In the 1966 Index the derivation is given as len-bas 'way-bread'.
    369-70 (I: 386): 'Indeed it is'
    369 (I: 386). honey-cakes of the Beornings - In The Hobbit, Chapter 7 Bilbo and the dwarves stay with Beorn, who keeps large bees. When the travellers leave, among the supplies Beorn gives them for their journey are 'twice-baked cakes that would keep good a long time, and on a little of which they could march far. The making of these was one of his secrets; but honey was in them . .. and they were good to eat, though they made one thirsty.'
    370 (I: 386): 'I do not know what you mean by that'
    370 (I: 386). the web is good - Web here means 'woven fabric'.
    370 (I: 386). They are Elvish robes certainly - The elf seems to deny any 'magic', but events will prove that these cloaks provide a better camouflage than anything in our world: in Book III, Chapter 2, for instance, Eomer and his Riders, even though they are keeping watch ahead and to both sides and it is broad daylight, do not see Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli in their elven-cloaks sitting beside the trail.
    370 (I: 386): After their morning meal
    370 (I: 386). though they could not count the days and nights they had passed there - In Tolkien's first time-scheme for the period following the


    Company's escape from Moria, they crossed the Silverlode and came to Caras Galadon on 14 December and were to leave with the New Year (according to the Gregorian Calendar). But then he wrote: 'Dec. 15 onwards time at Caras does not count, therefore they leave on morning of Dec. 15' (The Treason oflsengard, p. 367). It was in accordance with this chronology that in late 1941 Tolkien wrote the first account of 'The Great River'; there, when Sam sees the New Moon and comments, 'Why, anyone would think we had come straight from Nimrodel without stopping a night or seeing Caras Galadon', Trotter replies: 'Whether we were in the past or the future or in a time that does not pass, I cannot say: but not I think till Silverlode bore us back to Anduin did we return to the stream of time that flows through mortal lands to the Great Sea' (The Treason oflsengard, pp. 354-5). A similar theory is put forward by Frodo in Book II, Chapter 9 as pub­lished, but is repudiated by both Legolas and Aragorn (see notes for pp. 388-9). When Tolkien moved the departure of the Company from Rivendell to 25 December, they crossed the Silverlode on 14 January and left Lorien on 15 January.
    Tolkien also considered other possibilities: time might pass faster in the world outside Lothlorien ('Does time cease at Lorien or go on faster? So that it might be Spring or nearly so [when the Company left]', The Treason oflsengard, p. 368), or it might pass in Lorien but very slowly ('They spend what seems many days in Lorien, but it is about the same time and date when they leave. [Added: In fact, one day later, time moving at about 20 times slower (20 days = 1)]' (p. 369). It was not until he was writing Book V in the period c. September 1946-Autumn 1947 that Tolkien decided, after all, that time did pass at the same rate both inside and outside Lothlorien, but that the Company should find it difficult to reckon the passing of time while they are there.
    Tolkien now also introduced the Shire Reckoning, and reached the chronology of The Tale of Years: the Company cross the Silverlode on 16 January 1419, and leave on 16 February. Marquette MSS 4/2/17, headed 'New Time Table allowing 30 days sojourn in Lothlorien' with an added note 'which seems less long than it is (in traditional way)', includes an entry: 'The Coy. [Company] stays in Lorien for many days. They cannot count the time, for they do not age in that time, but outside in fact 30 days goes by' In Scheme a similar note says: 'They cannot count the time, for they themselves do not age or only very slowly. Outside in fact about 30 days passes.'
    This was one of the effects of the Elven-ring worn by Galadriel. Bilbo had commented on a similar inability to reckon time in Rivendell, where Elrond also wore an Elven-ring (see note for p. 231).
    For further discussion of Tolkien's ideas concerning time in Lothlorien, see especially Verlyn Flieger, A Question of Time: J.R.R. Tolkien's Road to Faerie (1997), Chapter 4.


    370 (I: 386-7): 'I have returned
    370 (I: 386). the Northern Fences - 'The north borders of Lorien, between Nimrodel and Anduin' (Index).
    370 (I: 387). I am sent now to be your guide again. The Dimrill Dale is full of vapour and clouds of smoke, and the mountains are troubled. There are noises in the deeps of the earth. - In both the draft and the fair copy for this chapter, immediately before the sentence now beginning 'The Dimrill Dale is full of vapour', Tolkien wrote, as words by Haldir: ' "There are strange things happening away back there," he said. "We dc not know the meaning of them."' These words were struck through, then marked Stet; and that direction in turn was struck through, so that the two additional sentences by Haldir were omitted from the text as il developed further and was finally published. Christopher Tolkien com­ments in The Treason oflsengard that 'it is very hard to see why my father removed' the words,
    and why he hesitated back and forth before finally doing so. Apparently as a comment on this, he pencilled a note on the manuscript: 'This won't do - if Lorien is timeless, for then nothing will have happened since they entered.' I can only interpret this to mean that within Lorien the Company existed in a different Time - with its mornings and evenings and passing days - while in the world outside Lorien no time passed: they had left that 'external' Time, and would return to it at the same moment as they left it.... But it does not seem to me to explain why only Haldir's opening words were removed. His announcement which was allowed to stand, that the Dimrill Dale was full of smoke and that there were noises in the earth, merely explains what the 'strange things' were which the Elves did not understand; and these 'strange things' had obviously only begun since the Company had entered the Golden Wood. [pp. 285-6]
    With Tolkien's intentions in regard to this passage unclear, no attempt was made to restore the two sentences to the text for the edition of 2004.
    Some at least of the vapours, clouds, and noises of which Haldir speaks were probably caused by Gandalf's battle with the Balrog, under the earth and on mountain-top: 'Those that looked up from afar thought that the mountain was crowned with storm. Thunder they heard, and lightning, they said, smote upon Celebdil, and leaped back into tongues of fire. . . . A great smoke rose about us, vapour and steam. Ice fell like rain. I threw down my enemy, and he fell from the high place and broke the mountain­side where he smote it in his ruin' (Book III, Chapter 5, p. 502, II: 105-6). But this battle lasted only until 25 January, and Haldir seems to suggest that the area is still in turmoil.

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    Chapter 9 THE GREAT RIVER

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason of Isengard, pp. 350-69.
    380 (I: 396): Frodo was roused 380 (I: 396). Frodo was roused - It is 17 February 1419.
    380 (I: 396): They started again 380 (I: 396). husbanding - Saving, preserving.
    380 (I: 396): Nonetheless they saw no sign
    380 (I: 396). As the third day of their voyage wore on - The day of
    18 February 1419.
    380 (I: 396). the Brown Lands - In his unfinished index Tolkien describes the Brown Lands as a 'translation' of Berennyn (Sindarin baran 'brown, yel­low-brown') 'a devastated region, east of Anduin, between Lorien and the Emyn Muil'. In Book III, Chapter 4 Treebeard tells Merry and Pippin that the Entwives once had rich gardens there, but towards the end of Second Age, when the Ents went to visit them, they found the area 'a desert; it was all burned and uprooted, for war had passed over it' (p. 476, II: 79).
    380 (I: 396): Upon the west to their right
    380 (I: 396). meads - A poetic or literary form of meadow.
    381 (I: 397): 'Yes,' said Aragorn
    381 (I: 397). black swans - Tolkien never indicates whether the swans are spies for Sauron, but that they are black suggests evil motives (see note for p. 846). In his letter to Milton Waldman in ?late 1951 Tolkien wrote: 'All through the book hints of the watchfulness of spies have multiplied' {Waldman LR).
    381 (I: 397): But we have not journeyed
    381 (I: 397). You are looking now south-west across the north plains of the Riddermark - On p. 429, II: 32 and on the general map this is named 'the Wold of Rohan'. In his unfinished index Tolkien describes it as the 'northern part of the Eastemnet'.
    381 (I: 397). Limlight - In his unfinished index Tolkien describes the Limlight as: 'river flowing from Fangorn to Anduin and forming the extreme north-bound of Rohan. ([The] name is a partial translation] of E[lvish, i.e.


    Sindarin] Limlint "swift-light".)' (Sic, compare limlihtbelow.) In Nomencla­ture Tolkien notes that in Limlightthe element light means 'bright, clear'. The name is also mentioned in the late work Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan, on which Christopher Tolkien comments:
    There are two versions of the text and note at this point, from one of which it seems that the Sindarin name was Limlich, adapted to the language of Rohan as Limliht ('modernized' as Limlight). In the other (later) version Limlich is emended, puzzlingly to Limliht in the text, so that this becomes the Sindarin form. Elsewhere (in The Disaster of the Gladden Fields, Unfinished Tales, p. 281) the Sindarin name of this river is given as Lim-laith. In view of this uncertainty I have given Limlightin the text. Whatever the original Sindarin name may have been, it is at least clear that the Rohan form was an alteration of it and not a translation, and that its meaning was not known. [ Unfinished Tales, p. 318, n. 46]
    381 (1:397). of old all that lay between Limlight and the White Mountains belonged to the Rohirrim - See note for p. 374.
    381 (I: 397-8): In the next day or two
    381 (I: 397). In the next day or two - Presumably (given the uncertainty of or) the fourth and fifth days of the voyage, 19 and 20 February 1419.
    381 (I: 397). gravel-shoals - A shoal is a place of shallow water, here with a bottom of gravel.
    381 (I: 397). wolds - A wold is high, open, uncultivated land.
    382 (I: 398): As dusk drew down
    382 (I: 398). on the fourth day - On 19 February 1419.
    382 (I: 398): That night they camped
    382 (I: 398). a small eyot - An eyot is a small island, especially in a river.
    383 (I: 399-400): In the dead hours
    383 (1:400). dead hours - In the early hours after midnight on 20 February 1419.
    383-4 (I: 400): He lay down
    384 (I: 400). gunwale - The upper edge on the side of a boat.
    384 (I: 400): 'Gollum,' answered Frodo
    384 (I: 400). Gollum - Scheme gives details of Gollum's movements since Moria:
    January 15: Gollum dogs the Coy. [Company] and climbs up flet. Then escapes and haunts west borders of Lorien.


    January 17: For many days Gollum lurks near Lorien, moving slowly towards the southern borders.
    January 24: Gollum captured by Ugluk [see note for p. 416], but escapes after revealing that Hobbits of Shire were with Gandalf, and enough is said to make Ugluk certain that Ring was with the company
    February 16: Observes departure of Company and follows them.
    February 18: Follows Coy. on log.
    February 19: Seen by Sam on log.
    February 20: Driven off by vigilance from Company's camp.
    February 23 [Sarn Gebir]: Unable to follow by water, G[ollum] in terror of Ores makes his way to Eastern Emyn Muil by east bank.
    384 (I: 400): 'Ah!' said Aragorn
    384 (I: 400). footpad - A figurative use of the term: historically, a highway­man who robbed on foot rather than on a horse. Tolkien may be playing on the verbs pad 'to walk steadily with a soft sound' and paddle 'to use one's limbs like paddles in the water'. In The Hobbit, Chapter 5, Gollum 'had a little boat.... He paddled it with large feet dangling over the side, but never a ripple did he make.'
    384 (I: 400): The night passed
    384 (I: 400). until the seventh day - The seventh day counting the day of departure. It is now 22 January 1419.
    384 (I: 400-1): The weather was still grey
    384 (I: 400). the white rind of the new Moon - This is the night of 22/ 23 February. A new moon is visible in the west just before and after sunset.
    384-5 (I: 401): The next day
    384 (I: 401). The next day - It is 23 February 1419.
    384 (I: 401). chimneys - A chimney in this sense is a steep, narrow cleft in a rock face.
    385 (I: 401). wind-writhen - Writhen 'twisted or contorted' (compare writhe).
    385 (I: 401): There were many birds 385 (I: 401). descried - Caught sight of.
    385 (I: 401): The eighth night of their journey
    385 (I: 401). The eighth night of their journey came. - It is the night of 23/24 February 1419.

    386 (I: 402): At that moment
    386 (I: 402). shingle-banks - Shingle is small stones or pebbles worn by water.
    387 (I: 403): Legolas laid down
    387 (I: 403). Stringing the bow - An archer's bow of the traditional kind is carried with the bowstring loose. When ready for use, the bow is bent, and the bowstring fitted into a notch and drawn tight.
    387 (I: 403): 'Elbereth Gilthoniel.p
    387 (I: 403). Soon it appeared as a great winged creature - Although not so identified until later, this is a Ringwraith riding on a winged beast.
    388 (I: 404): 'Well, I can remember
    388 (I: 404). Anyone would think that time did not count in there! -
    See note for p. 370.
    388 (I: 404-5): Legolas stirred in his boat
    388 (I: 405). because they need not count the running years - In editions prior to 2004 these words read: 'because they do not count the running years'. Christopher Tolkien notes in The Treason of Isengard: 'The phrase as my father wrote it was "because they need not count the running years", but in copying I missed out the word need. Looking through my copy, but without consulting his own manuscript, he wrote in do' (p. 366, n. 23). Although do is authorial, Christopher Tolkien felt that it was so only artificially, because of the transcription error, and that need should be restored.
    389 (I: 405): When the day came
    389 (I: 405). When the day came - It is 24 February 1419.
    389 (I: 405): 'I do not see why
    389 (I: 405). cockle-boats - A cockle-boat is small, shallow boat resembling a cockle shell.
    389 (I: 406): 'No!' answered Aragorn
    389 (I: 406). Rauros-foot - 'The basin at the foot of the [Rauros] falls' (Index).
    389 (I: 406). the North Stair and the high seat upon Amon Hen - 'North Stair, a great stair cut by the Numenoreans up beside the falls of Rauros, from the Nindalf to Emyn Muil' (Index).
    Amon Hen is Sindarin for 'hill of the eye'; see note for p. 400.


    390 (I: 406): 'Boats of the Elves
    390 (I: 406). No road was made by the Men of Gondor in this region, for even in their great days their realm did not reach up Anduin beyond the Emyn Muil - This is contradicted by statements given in the note for p. 374. Although some of the evidence cited there is later than the publi­cation of The Lord of the Rings, Boromir himself says that the boundaries of Gondor had once reached Fangorn Forest, which is considerably north of the Emyn Muil.
    390 (I: 406). portage-way - A path along which boats or cargo can be carried between two bodies of water.
    392 (I: 408): Nothing happened that night 392 (I: 408). As soon as it was fully light - It is 25 February 1419.
    392 (I: 408): The rain, however 392 (I: 408). thrawn - Twisted, crooked.
    392 (I: 409): 'Behold the Argonath'
    392 (I: 409). Argonath - In the manuscript of Nomenclature Tolkien writes that Argonath means 'royal stones', containing 'the element gon-d = "stone" in Elvish'.
    Cf. Quenya ondo stone as a material, or a large mass of stone or great rock; Ondonore = Sindarin Gondor lit[erally] 'land of Stone', referring to the great works and buildings of stone for which the Numenoreans were renowned. In Sindarin the shorter gon- was used for smaller objects made of stone, especially carved figures. In Sindarin -ath was the sign of collective or group plurals, here used because the Argonath were a pair of twin statues.... Ar(a)- was a prefix expressing royalty: Cf. Quenya and Sindarin aran 'king'.
    In Appendix A it is said that the Argonath was built during the reign of Romendacil II (1304-1366).
    These gigantic figures recall ancient Egyptian statues such as the two Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of the Mortuary Temple of Amen-ophis III (1417-1379 BC) on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings.
    In one of his working manuscripts on distance and time in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien states that from the Tongue of Lorien to the Argonath is '230 miles direct: over 300 by water, takes 10 days' (Marquette MSS 4/2/19).
    392-3 (I: 409): As Frodo was borne
    392 (I: 409). in each right hand there was an axe - The sword seems to have been the usual Numenorean weapon, but axe is a deliberate change from sword which appeared in the draft.

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    Chapter 10
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Treason oflsengard, pp. 370-7.
    395 (I: 411): 'Here we will rest
    395 (I: 411)- Parth Galen - In his unfinished index Tolkien notes: 'Parth "sward": Parth Galen "green sward", a grassy place on the N[orth] slope of Amon Hen by the shore of Lake Nen Hithoel'; and 'calen "green"'.
    395 (I: 411): The day came like lire
    395 (I: 411). The day came - It is 26 February 1419.
    396 (I: 412): Frodo sat for a moment
    396 (I: 412). plain as a pikestaff - Clear, obvious. An earlier form of the phrase is 'plain as a packstaff' (i.e. 'the staff on which a pedlar carried his pack, which was worn plain and smooth', Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 15th edn., p. 57).
    396 (I: 412). putting in his spoke - In this colloquial sense, to put in a spoke is to offer advice.
    398 (I: 415): 'No, I am afraid
    398 (I: 415). I am glad to have heard you speak so fully. My mind is clearer now. - Boromir has fallen to the temptation of the Ring, but without his actions Frodo might not have had the strength to come to the right decision.
    399 (I: 415-16): Miserable trickster!
    399 (I: 416). in the lurch - In a difficult situation, without assistance.
    400 (I: 416): He rose and passed his hand over his eyes
    400 (I: 416). What have I done? - Boromir regrets his actions immediately. Yet, as Tolkien has shown both at the Council of Elrond and on several occasions during the journey from Rivendell, Boromir cannot understand and does not really agree with the decision taken at the Council. He is a tragic figure with many good qualities, but with weaknesses that lay him open to temptation. The Ring has been able to play on his wish to save his country and on his desire for personal glory.


    400 (I: 416): Soon he came out alone
    400 (I: 416). the summit of Amon Hen - In reply to a query, Tolkien wrote to 'Benjamin' on 19 June 1959: T don't know the height of Amon Hen but I doubt if it was much over 1,000 feet' (Waterfield's Catalogue 157, Modern Literature, 1995, item 427).
    400 (I: 416). battlement - 'A parapet with openings at regular intervals along the top of the wall, forming part of a fortification' (Concise OED).
    400 (I: 416): At first he could see little
    400 (I: 416). He seemed to be in a world of mist in which there were only shadows: the Ring was upon him. - Similarly, when Sam puts on the Ring in Book IV, Chapter 10, 'his sight was dimmed.... All things about him now were not dark but vague' (p. 734, II: 343). According to Gandalf in Book II, Chapter 1, when the Ring is worn the wearer is half in the wraith world. In Book I, Chapter 11, Aragorn says that the Ringwraiths 'do not see the world of light as we do' (p. 189,1: 202). This effect is mentioned only in The Lord of the Rings, not in The Hobbit when Bilbo wears the Ring.
    400 (I: 416). He was sitting in the Seat of Seeing, on Amon Hen, the Hill of the Eye of the Men of Numenor. - Frodo certainly sees, even if only as small and remote visions, much further than would be normal even from the height of Amon Hen. The published text seems to say that the Ring interferes with his sight, but that the power of the Seat of Seeing gradually overcomes this. Christopher Tolkien notes that the present text replaced one in which the power of Amon Hen follows immediately and explicitly on the description of the inhibiting effect of the Ring on sight: 'At first he could see little: he seemed to be in a world of mist in which there were only shadows. The Ring was on him. [Then the virtue (written above: power) of Amon Hen worked upon him]' (The Treason oflsengard, P- 373> square brackets in original). See further, note for p. 413.
    Several readers have compared the seat on Amon Hen with the high seat of Odin from which he could see over the whole earth, and which Tolkien mentions in On Fairy-Stories.
    400 (I: 416). fume - In this sense, spray from the falls.
    400 (I: 416). Ethir Anduin ... the mighty delta of the River. - 'Ethir "outflow": Ethir Anduin, the Mouths of Anduin, with delta in Bay of Belfalas. Called in Gondor simply the Ethir' (Index).
    400 (I: 416-17): But everywhere he looked
    400 (I: 416-17). Under the boughs of Mirkwood there was deadly strife of Elves and Men and fell beasts. The land of the Beornings was aflame ... smoke rose on the borders of Lorien. - Nowhere in the text is it suggested that the Seat of Seeing shows events other than those occurring


    at the time. But this is 26 February, and the only entries in The Tale of Years concerning attacks on the areas named in the description are on later dates: 11 March 'First assault on Lorien'; 15 March 'Battle under the Trees in Mirkwood; Thranduil repels the forces of Dol Guldur. Second assault on Lorien'; 22 March 'Third assault on Lorien'.
    The land of the Beornings lies 'on either side of Anduin, between [the] Misty Mts. and Mirkwood, immediately east of RivendelT (Index).
    400-1 (I: 417): Horsemen were galloping
    401 (I: 417). wains - Wain is an archaic word for 'wagon'.
    401 (I: 417). reek - Smoke, fumes.
    401 (I: 417). Mount Doom was burning ... wall upon wall, battlement upon battlement, black, immeasurably strong, mountain of iron, gate of steel, tower of adamant, he saw it: Barad-dur - Tolkien drew a picture of Barad-dur, or rather of a part of the Dark Tower but one which suggests its great strength and size, with Mount Doom in the background: see Artist and Illustrator, fig. 145.
    401 (I: 417): He heard himself crying
    401 (I: 417). Never, never!... Verily I come, I come to you-----Take it
    off! Take it off! Fool, take it off! Take off the Ring! - In Book III, Chapter 5, Gandalf confirms that the last voice ('Take it off!') is his. Tom Shippey has commented that
    the third voice is Gandalf's, in a 'high place' somewhere striving against the mental force of 'the Dark Power'. But whose are the other two voices? The first one seems to be 'himself, i.e. Frodo. The second one could be, perhaps, the voice of the Ring: the sentient creature obeying the call of its maker, Sauron, as it has been all along. Or could it be, so to speak, Frodo's subconscious, obeying a kind of death-wish, entirely internal but psychically amplified by the Ring? [J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, p. 138]
    403 (I: 419): 'It would indeed be a betrayal
    403 (I: 419). and myself - Aragorn must know that if he goes east to Mordor with Frodo rather than south to assist Minas Tirith in the war, his chances of regaining the throne of Gondor will be much diminished. Yet here he renounces that path, along with the hope of fulfilling Elrond's conditions for his marriage to Arwen. Aragorn puts duty, for the greater good, before his own desires.
    403 (I: 419): 'Now where's he got to?'
    403 (I: 419). a bit of schooling - Training, experience in situations wholly alien to Hobbits.

    404 (I: 421): It was no good
    404 (I: 421). A sudden panic or madness seemed to have fallen on the Company. - Madness, or fate sending them on their appointed paths? Sam to join Frodo and set out on the journey to Mount Doom; Boromir to his good death; Merry and Pippin to rouse the Ents, and then Merry to help destroy the Witch-king, and Pippin to save Faramir; Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli to help win the battle at Helm's Deep; and Aragorn to be in the right place to go south to summon the Dead.

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