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    Форум » Дж.Р.Р. Толкин » Произведения Толкина » The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
    The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
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    A Reader's Companion

    Also by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull:
    J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist 8c Illustrator
    Letters by J.R.R. Tolkien [Index]
    The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide

    As editors of works by J.R.R. Tolkien
    Farmer Giles of Ham (50™ anniversary edition)
    The Lord of the Rings (50™ anniversary edition)

    The Lord of the Rings
    A Reader's Companion
    Wayne G. Hammond
    Christina Scull

    77-85 Fulham Palace Road,
    Hammersmith, London w6 8jb
    Published by HarperCollinsPubliishers 2005 135798642
    Copyright © Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull 2005
    The Authors assert the moral right to be identified as the authors of this work
    Details of all quotations reproduced on page vi
    and 'Tolkien' are registered trademarks of The J.R.R. Tolkien Estate Limited
    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
    isbn 0 00 720308 X
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    Printed and bound in Italy by Lego SpA
    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
    in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
    photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior
    permission of the publishers.
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    The Lord of the Rings is a masterpiece of storytelling, and needs no assist­ance to entertain those sensitive to its qualities. Millions of readers have embraced its special blend of fantasy and adventure, its richness of language, its exploration of universal questions of life and death, friendship and love, duty and heroism, perseverance and sacrifice, the lust for war and the desire for peace, for more than fifty years unaided by enchiridia like the present book. One might say, as Tolkien did of the Appendices to his great work, that those who enjoy The Lord of the Rings as an 'heroic romance' only, without further explanation, will very properly neglect this volume. And yet, like all great works of literature, The Lord of the Rings repays close scrutiny with deeper understanding and appreciation, and to that end many of its readers may after all welcome assistance to some degree. It is a complicated work, with questions of content, vocabulary, antecedents, and variant texts. And it is unusual in that its setting, characters, and events continued to acquire new facets within the author's imagination as long as he lived.
    As the reader will see, we have not produced an annotated edition of Tolkien's work in the manner of Douglas A. Anderson's Annotated Hobbit (1988; 2nd edn. 2003) or of our own editions of Roverandom (1998) and Farmer Giles of Ham (1999), in which text and notes are contained within the same covers, either parallel to each other or in discrete sections. Origin­ally we had thought to follow one of these approaches for The Lord of the Rings, but practical difficulties soon became apparent. At some 1,200 pages The Lord of the Rings is a much longer work than The Hobbit, and of a much greater order of magnitude than that work, or than Roverandom and Farmer Giles of Ham, in its possibilities for commentary. At the same time, we were aware of the phenomenal growth in sales of The Lord of the Rings in recent years which brought the market in Tolkien's work to a high level of saturation, new editions of importance such as those published for the fiftieth anniversary of The Lord of the Rings notwithstanding. These issues led us to consider, and to reject for a variety of reasons - complexity of layout and typography, ease of handling, and cost - the models of annotation used earlier for Tolkien, and instead to devise a separate volume of notes and other material to accompany any edition of The Lord of the Rings the reader may have at hand.
    In choosing what to gloss we have been guided by a sense, honed by decades of work in Tolkien studies and of reading the comments of scholars, enthusiasts, and ordinary readers, of those details of The Lord of the Rings that have been found of special interest, or that have given readers special difficulty. We have not glossed every detail, by any means. The late


    Dr. Richard E. Blackwelder once counted in The Lord of the Rings 632 named individuals (of which 314 are in the Appendices), a number which soars to 1,648 when one adds titles, nicknames, and descriptive epithets (Sauron alone has 103) - to say nothing of place-names, battle names, etc. - far too many for the present book to cover exhaustively, if it is to stay within reasonable bounds. We are indebted, and recommend the reader also to refer, to invaluable encyclopedic works such as Robert Foster's Complete Guide to Middle-earth. Nor have we felt it advisable to try to predict every word which a reader might not understand among Tolkien's extensive and often very precise lexicon (to say nothing of that employed in our notes). We have glossed some of these words, in particular if they are obsolete, archaic, colloquial, rare, or otherwise (according to our judgement) unusual or liable to be misinterpreted; but readers' vocabu­laries vary widely, and what is an unfamiliar word to one may be common­place to another. To the former group we recommend the use of a good (British) English language dictionary, such as the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, if not the larger OED. As Tolkien wrote in a draft letter to Walter Allen, April 1959, in regard to writing for children but also more generally true: 'an honest word is an honest word, and its acquaintance can only be made by meeting it in a right context. A good vocabulary is not acquired by reading books written according to some notion of the vocabulary of one's age-group. It comes from reading books above one' (Letters ofJ.R.R. Tolkien, pp. 298-9).
    For the basis of our annotations we have naturally looked first to Tolkien's own writings and comments. The Lord of the Rings is a sequel to The Hobbit, and echoes elements of the earlier book; and it is a continu­ation of the 'Silmarillion' mythology which occupied Tolkien all of his life, with strong ties to that work (such as the parallel love-stories of Aragorn and Arwen in The Lord of the Rings, and Beren and Luthien in a previous age) and references to its places, people, and events. It has been instructive sometimes to refer as well to the volumes of drafts and ancillary writings by Tolkien edited by his son and literary executor, Christopher, as Unfinished Tales (1980) and the twelve volumes of The History of Middle-earth (1983-96), in particular vols. VT-IX and XII which trace the evolution of The Lord of the Rings in detail; and also to miscellaneous linguistic writings by Tolkien published in the journal Vinyar Tengwar. These works reveal the often tortuous progress of Tolkien's thoughts as he crafted The Lord of the Rings and continued, after publication, to add to his creation and further interweave it with 'The Silmarillion'. It is not been our aim, however, to repeat here every variant idea or name considered by Tolkien in the course of writing or revision - these are legion, and best compre­hended in the context of the drafts to which they belong - but rather to illuminate The Lord of the Rings as published, occasionally by pointing to texts ultimately altered or rejected, or to post-publication writings by Tolkien containing further development or invention.

    PREFACE xiii

    Tolkien's letters have been a particularly important source of authoritat­ive comment, both published, for the most part in the selected Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (1981), and in various library and archival collections. Most important among the latter are the files of correspondence between Tolkien and his publisher George Allen & Unwin, now held by HarperCollins in London, and the main Allen & Unwin archive in the library of Reading University. Letters includes much about The Lord of the Rings, during its writing and after publication, as Tolkien sought to answer queries from friends and enthusiasts. The reader should be aware, however, that Tolkien's thoughts sometimes changed with the years and his memories varied, so that a comment at one moment may be contradicted by another written at a different time (see, for instance, his comments on the name Elrond, note for p. 15). Although he was concerned, by and large, when adding to his invention not to contradict what had been said in print, statements sent privately in correspondence were of a different order, to be held or discarded as the author wished.
    The correspondence files at HarperCollins yielded, among much else, several pages which Tolkien wrote to the translator of the Dutch Lord of the Rings (1956-7), commenting on the meanings of various names. He later prepared a more extensive guide for translators, Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, which was first published as Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings in the first edition of A Tolkien Compass, edited by Jared Lobdell (1975), but omitted from the second (2003). It has seemed more appropriate to us and to the Tolkien Estate that the Nomenclature be reprinted in the present book, newly transcribed and with additions from the original manuscript and typescripts. These papers were kindly provided to us by Christopher Tolkien, along with photocopies of a glossary-index his father began to prepare for The Lord of the Rings probably in 1953 but never finished (it includes only place-names), quotations from his father's check copies of The Lord of the Rings, and a copy of the portion (omitted from Letters) of Tolkien's important letter to publisher Milton Waldman, written probably in late 1951, which describes The Lord of the Rings as part of his larger mythology. We have referred to the unfinished index and check copies freely in our notes, and include the extract from Tolkien's letter to Milton Waldman as an appendix.
    For some notes, primarily questions of textual development and matters of chronology, we have consulted the invaluable collection of original manuscripts, typescripts, and proofs of The Lord of the Rings held in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives of the Mar­quette University Libraries, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Notable among these materials is a series of time-schemes, especially those in Marquette MSS Series 4, Box 2, Folder 18, with which Tolkien kept track of the whereabouts and actions of his various characters, and the plot outlines and time-schemes in Marquette MSS 4/2 comprising The Hunt for the Ring (some of which is published in Unfinished Tales).

    These and other sources, especially the enormous (if extremely variable) body of criticism and comment on The Lord of the Rings that has grown up since the first publication of that work, presented us with a wealth of material which we have winnowed and boiled down into this 'reader's companion'. The list of 'Works Consulted' near the end of this book includes only those that we cite or quote in our notes, or otherwise found particularly useful; it does not nearly approach a complete list of the books, articles, and even videos that we reviewed as sources. There is, of course, much more that could be said about The Lord of the Rings, of use and of interest, and no doubt much that readers will wish we had included, or had said differently (as they themselves have said, or would say); but as it is, we have written a volume at least twice as long as our publisher expected.
    There is a strong desire, in writing this sort of book, to want to explain, and in trying to explain thoroughly there is a danger of venturing too far into speculation, until reach exceeds grasp. Therefore, although we have occasionally ventured to speculate, we have tried to do so very conserva­tively, and have thought it best for an understanding of Tolkien's work to prefer fact to interpretation, and the author's own views when they are available, together with a selection of well founded observations as they have appeared in the literature of Tolkien studies. We will be glad to receive corrections, and suggestions for further annotations along the same lines.
    The structure of this book may be described as follows. Selected names, words, and other features of The Lord of the Rings are annotated at their first appearance in that work, except when a note seems more logically placed at a later point: in such cases we have included a cross-reference at the earlier location. Each note is keyed in the first instance, by page, to the emended text of 2004 (published, with continuous pagination, by HarperCollins, London, and by the Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts), reprinted with further corrections in 2005, and to the previous standard second edition, first published in three individually paginated volumes by George Allen & Unwin, London, in 1966 (further revised in the second printing of 1967), and by the Houghton Mifflin Company in 1967, and reprinted many times. (In fact the pagination of the first edition is almost entirely identical to that of the second, except for preliminary matter and the Appendices.) Thus, for example, 1 (I: 10) indicates p. 1 in the current edition, and p. 10 of vol. I in the old standard edition. To help readers who have other editions at hand locate the text in question, we have divided our annotations also according to section (Foreword, Prologue, Books I-VI, Appendices) and subsection (part or chapter), and have quoted the first few words of each paragraph which contains text that is the basis for comment. For this purpose, poems are considered self-contained 'paragraphs'.
    Inevitably in a set of annotations for The Lord of the Rings one must


    refer forward and back, among Prologue, main text, and Appendices, as well as to outside sources, and in the process of glossing one term or phrase, will use terms which themselves have not been glossed because they have not yet been introduced in Tolkien's text. In such cases we have preferred generally not to cross-reference to other notes, or to nest note within note, but to rely on our index, so as to keep our apparatus as straightforward as possible. On this point also, in the unlikely event that we are now addressing someone consulting this book while reading The Lord of the Rings for the first time, be advised that we necessarily assume a familiarity with the story, and sometimes refer ahead to events later in the work (as, indeed, does Tolkien's Prologue, though most readers seem not to have noticed, so immersed do they become in the events of the 3tory once it begins, or else leave the Prologue until they have come to the end of the book).
    Our notes are preceded by a general history of The Lord of the Rings and comments on the process by which the 2004 text was edited; and are followed by a list of changes made in the editions of 2004 and 2005.
    Titles of Tolkien's works are italicized with two exceptions: chapter titles; and 'The Silmarillion', which designates Tolkien's larger mythology, as distinct from The Silmarillion, the book first published in 1977. We have made no distinction between titles devised by J.R.R. Tolkien and those assigned by Christopher Tolkien to gatherings of like works by his father, e.g. The Hunt for the Ring in Unfinished Tales.
    Readers should note the following abbreviations frequently used in this book:
    Artist and Illustrator - Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator (1995)
    Biography - Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography (1977)
    Concise OED - The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (2002)
    Descriptive Bibliography - Wayne G. Hammond, with the assistance oi Douglas A. Anderson, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography (1993)
    Index - J.R.R. Tolkien, manuscript glossary-index to place-names in The Lord of the Rings; also cited as the 'unfinished index'
    1966 Index - Expanded index first published in the George Allen & Unwin second edition of The Lord of the Rings (1966; in America by the Houghton Mifflin Co., 1967, but not by Ballantine Books)
    Letters - Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, selected and edited by Humphre) Carpenter, with the assistance of Christopher Tolkien (1981)
    Marquette - J.R.R. Tolkien Papers, Marquette University Libraries
    Nomenclature - J.R.R. Tolkien, Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings
    OED - Oxford English Dictionary (1987)
    Scheme - J.R.R. Tolkien, latest and only complete manuscript time-scheme for The Lord of the Rings (Marquette MSS 4/2/18)
    S.R. - Shire Reckoning

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    J.R.R. Tolkien began to write The Lord of the Rings in December 1937, not, as he erroneously recalled in the Foreword to its second edition (1965; see note to p. xxii, below) and as numerous critics have repeated, 'soon after The Hobbit was written and before its publication' (i.e. between late 1936 and September 1937). Indeed he might never have written his masterpiece if The Hobbit had not been an immediate success, and publisher Stanley Unwin, of the London firm George Allen & Unwin, had not encouraged him to produce a sequel. Within only a few weeks of the publication of The Hobbit on 21 September 1937 Unwin warned Tolkien that 'a large public' would be 'clamouring next year to hear more from you about Hobbits!' (quoted in Letters, p. 23). Tolkien was flattered but 'a little perturbed. I cannot think of anything more to say about hobbits. ... But I have only too much to say, and much already written, about the world into which the hobbit intruded' (letter to Stanley Unwin, 15 October 1937, Letters, p. 24). For more than twenty years he had been concerned with the development of a private mythology broadly called 'The Silmarillion'. Scattered elements of this appeared first in poems he wrote before and during the First World War; then, in 1916-17, with the writing of the prose Book of Lost Tales, his great creation began to take fuller form. At the same time, in parallel with his stories, he devised languages for the Elves, Men, Dwarves, and other peoples of his invented world. The Hobbit seems originally not to have been set within the same world, but Tolkien borrowed from his mythology to enrich what was, to begin with, no more than a long story told to his children.
    Now, with The Hobbit in print, Tolkien wished to return to his 'secret vice', the creation of languages and stories set in the world of Arda and the lands of Middle-earth. But Unwin aroused in him 'a faint hope.... I have spent nearly all the vacation-times of seventeen years examining, and doing things of that sort, driven by immediate financial necessity (mainly medical and educational)' - that is, earning money to supplement his teaching salaries from the universities of Leeds and Oxford, in order to pay doctor's bills and support his children's schooling. 'Writing stories in prose or verse has been stolen, often guiltily, from time already mortgaged, and has been broken and ineffective. I may perhaps now do what I much desire to do, and not fail of financial duty' (letter to Stanley Unwin, 15 October 1937, Letters, p. 24). On 19 October 1937 Unwin wrote again with encouragement ('You are one of those rare people with genius', quoted in Letters, p. 25), to which Tolkien replied: 'I will start something soon, &

    submit it to your boy [Rayner Unwin, who had enjoyed The Hobbit] at the earliest opportunity' (23 October, Letters, p. 25). But he did not do so at once. On 15 November he met Stanley Unwin in London, handed over for consideration by Allen & Unwin parts of 'The Silmarillion' and other stories, including the brief Farmer Giles of Ham, and then continued to work on his mythology.
    On 15 December Stanley Unwin expressed his opinion that 'The Silmar­illion' contained 'plenty of wonderful material' which might be mined to produce 'further books like The Hobbit rather than a book in itself (quoted in The Lays ofBeleriand, p. 366). What Allen & Unwin needed, he felt, was another Hobbit, or failing that, a volume of stories like Farmer Giles of Ham. On 16 December Tolkien replied that it was now clear to him that 'a sequel or successor to The Hobbit' was called for, to which he promised to give thought and attention. But it was difficult with 'the construction of elaborate and consistent mythology (and two languages)' occupying his mind, and the Silmarils in his heart. Hobbits, he said, 'can be comic, but their comedy is suburban unless it is set against things more elemental' (Letters, p. 26). He did not need to add, for Unwin knew it already, that his academic and administrative duties as a professor in the Oxford English School consumed many hours of his time, and he had responsibilities also to his wife and four children. Nonetheless, inspiration seems to have struck at once - happily, at a free moment during the Christmas vacation - for on 19 December he informed C.A. Furth at Allen & Unwin that he had 'written the first chapter of a new story about Hobbits - "A long expected party"' (Letters, p. 27).
    In this as first conceived Bilbo Baggins, the hero of The Hobbit, gives a magnificent party to celebrate his seventieth (not yet 'eleventy-first') birth­day, then disappears from Hobbiton. The treasure he had gained in The Hobbit is now depleted, and he has a renewed desire to travel again outside his own land. But Tolkien did not yet know what adventures might be in store for Bilbo, or whether his new story would be about Bilbo or one of Bilbo's descendants. After five pages he abandoned this version of the opening chapter, though many aspects, even some of its phrasing, survived with little change into the published book. He then wrote a second version, closely based on the first, with much new material, including the presence of the wizard Gandalf; but after heavy emendation left this draft unfinished. A third version soon followed, in which the party is given not by Bilbo, who has left his homeland, but by his son Bingo (so called, perhaps, because Tolkien's children owned a 'family' of stuffed koala bears, the 'Bingos'), and then a fourth, in which the party is given by Bilbo's adopted cousin Bingo Bolger-Baggins. On 1 February 1938 Tolkien wrote to C.A. Furth: 'Would you ask Mr Unwin whether his son [Rayner], a very reliable critic, would care to read the first chapter of the sequel to The Hobbit7. ... I have no confidence in it, but if he thought it a promising beginning, could add to it the tale that is brewing' (Letters, p. 28).


    A few jottings from this time reveal the ideas that Tolkien was now considering. In one he noted: 'Make return of ring a motive', that is, the magic ring that Bilbo found in The Hobbit and which in the third and fourth versions of the new chapter is Bilbo's parting gift to Bingo (The Return of the Shadow, p. 41). In another memo Tolkien began to consider the nature of the ring:
    The Ring: whence its origin. Necromancer [an evil figure mentioned but not seen in The Hobbit]'? Not very dangerous, when used for good purpose. But it exacts its penalty. You must either lose it, or yourself. Bilbo could not bring himself to lose it. He starts on a holiday handing over ring to Bingo. But he vanishes. Bingo worried. Resists desire to go and find him - though he does travel round a lot looking for news. Won't lose ring as he feels it will ultimately bring him to his father.
    At last he meets Gandalf. Gandalf's advice. You must stage a dis­appearance, and the ring may then be cheated into letting you follow a similar path. But you have got to really disappear and give up the past. Hence the 'party'.
    Bingo confides in his friends. Odo, Frodo, and Vigo (?) [ > Marma-duke] insist on coming too... . [The Return of the Shadow, p. 42]
    From these and similar thoughts Tolkien began to write a tale in which the hobbits Bingo, Frodo, and Odo set out for Rivendell. On the road they are overtaken by a rider wrapped in a great cloak and hood, who after a moment of tension is comically revealed to be Gandalf. But Tolkien immediately abandoned this idea, already beginning to conceive a story much darker than The Hobbit, and instead decided that Bingo and com­pany were being pursued by Black Riders. He began the chapter anew, and much as in the finished Lord of the Rings (if with many differences of detail) brought the hobbits to a meeting with elves in the Woody End, to Farmer Maggot's house, and to a house in Buckland with their friend Marmaduke (precursor of Merry) Brandybuck. On 4 March 1938 Tolkien wrote to Stanley Unwin: 'The sequel to The Hobbit has now progressed as far as the end of the third chapter. But stories tend to get out of hand, and this has taken an unpremeditated turn' (Letters, p. 34). 'Beyond any doubt', Christopher Tolkien has said, that turn was 'the appearance of the Black Riders' (Return of the Shadow, p. 44). But it would be some time yet before their nature and purpose became clear.
    After a pause, from the end of August to mid-September 1938 Tolkien continued The Lord of the Rings as far as the middle of Bingo's conversation with the dwarf Gloin during the feast at Rivendell (the equivalent of published Book II, Chapter 1). During this period the story continued to change and evolve, and new ideas arose in the process. When Tolkien reached the point at which the hobbits are captured by a Barrow-wight, he made a rough plot outline for the story as far as the hobbits' arrival at Rivendell, and already foresaw a journey to the Fiery Mountain (Mount

    Doom). But he had doubts about some of the story he had written to date, and considered possible changes. The character Trotter, a hobbit 'ranger' who joins Bingo and company in Bree, was a particular mystery; and as Tolkien considered the powers and history of Bingo's ring, the idea that it is the Ruling Ring began to emerge.
    From probably late September to the end of 1938 Tolkien altered the cast of hobbits, introducing Sam Gamgee, and added a new second chapter, 'Ancient History' (later 'The Shadow of the Past', published Book I, Chapter 2), in which Gandalf tells Bingo about the Ring and Gollum, and advises Bingo to leave the Shire. Also added was an account of the Black Riders' attack on Crickhollow. Tolkien now made a new fair copy manuscript of the work as far as the conversation between Frodo (the name now replacing 'Bingo') and Gloin out of existing drafts, incorporating many small changes and moving generally closer to the published text. Here in places, as in later workings, he tried out several versions of new or revised material before he was satisfied. He also wrote a new text to provide background information about Hobbits - the precursor of the Prologue - and drew a first selection of Hobbit family trees.
    On 31 August he had written to C.A. Furth that The Lord of the Rings was 'getting quite out of hand' and progressing 'towards quite unforeseen goals' (Letters, p. 40). On 13 October he wrote to Stanley Unwin that the work was 'becoming more terrifying than The Hobbit. It may prove quite unsuitable [for its original intended audience of children]. It is more "adult".. .. The darkness of the present days [as war with Germany was an evident possibility] has had some effect on it. Though it is not an "allegory"' (Letters, p. 41). The Lord of the Rings now ran to over 300 manuscript pages, and according to the author's overly optimistic estimate, required at least another 200 to complete. He was eager to finish it. 'I am at the "peak" of my educational financial stress,' he wrote to C.A. Furth on 2 February 1939, 'with a second son [Michael] clamouring for a univer­sity and the youngest [Christopher] wanting to go to school (after a year under heart-specialists), and I am obliged to do exams and lectures and what not.' The Lord of the Rings was 'in itself a good deal better than The Hobbit] he felt, 'but it may not prove a very fit sequel. It is more grown-up - but the audience for which The Hobbit was written [his children] has done that also.' Although his eldest son (John) was enthusiastic about the new work, 'it would be a relief to me to know that my publishers were satisfied.... The writing of The Lord of the Rings is laborious, because I have been doing it as well as I know how, and considering every word' (Letters, p. 42). On 10 February he wrote again to Furth, vowing to make a special effort to complete The Lord of the Rings before 15 June; but other duties occupied his time, and later that summer he had an accident while gardening which resulted in concussion and required stitches.
    Tolkien's injury left him unwell for a long time, 'and that combined with the anxieties and troubles that all share [with the outbreak of war],


    and with the lack of any holiday, and with the virtual headship of a department in this bewildered university have made me unpardonably neglectful', he wrote to Stanley Unwin on 19 December 1939 (Letters, p. 44). Nonetheless, during the second half of the year Tolkien produced rough 'plot-outlines, questionings, and portions of the text' which show the author temporarily 'at a halt, even at a loss, to the point of a lack of confidence in radical components of the narrative structure that had been built up with such pains' (Christopher Tolkien, The Return of the Shadow, p. 370). He considered, inter alia, a version of the story once more with Bilbo as the hero, that the hobbit Trotter was actually Bilbo's well-travelled cousin Peregrin Boffin, that a dragon should invade the Shire, and that Frodo should meet the 'Giant Treebeard'; and he accurately foresaw final elements of the story yet to be written: a snowstorm in the pass over the mountains, the Mines of Moria, the loss of Gandalf, a siege, that Frodo would find himself unable to destroy the Ring, that Gollum would seize it and fall, the devastation of the Shire.
    Tolkien now, after several false starts, completed a version of 'The Council of Elrond' (published Book II, Chapter 2), still far from its final form, in which the Fellowship consisted of Gandalf, Boromir, and five hobbits, one of whom was Peregrin Boffin (alias Trotter). He then wrote first drafts of'The Ring Goes South' (Book II, Chapter 3) and 'The Mines of Moria' (later 'A Journey in the Dark', Book II, Chapter 4), and substantially revised his account of the journey to Rivendell told in Book I in order to clarify Gandalf's part in events. To this end he made many outlines, notes, and time-schemes co-ordinating events and the movements of Gandalf, the Black Riders, and Frodo and his companions. In the process, he decided that Trotter was not a Hobbit but a Man, whose true name was Aragorn.
    In his Foreword to the second edition of The Lord of the Rings (1965) Tolkien said that in writing the story he suffered delays because of his academic duties, which were
    increased by the outbreak of war in 1939, by the end of which year the tale had not yet reached the end of Book I. In spite of the darkness of the next five years I found that the story could not now be wholly abandoned, and I plodded on, mostly by night, till I stood by Balin's tomb in Moria. There I halted for a long while. It was almost a year later when I went on and so came to Lothlorien and the Great River late in 1941.
    But in his letter to Stanley Unwin of 19 December 1939 (Letters, p. 44) Tolkien wrote that he had 'never quite ceased work' on The Lord of the Rings, which had 'reached Chapter XVI' - a clear indication that he was at work on 'The Mines of Moria' (published as A Journey in the Dark'), and in Book II, during 1939. From this Christopher Tolkien has convinc­ingly argued that his father's hiatus in writing must have begun in that year rather than 1940 as the Foreword implies. He comments in The Return

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    In The Hobbit Tolkien provides only a few specific dates, preferring general suggestions of the passing of time ('Long days after they had climbed out of the valley . .. they were still going up and up', Chapter 4). The situation in The Lord of the Rings is very different: even the first version of the first chapter provides a date for Bilbo's birthday, 22 September. And once Frodo leaves Bag End, both the narrative and The Tale of Years (Appendix cool give a detailed account of his and other characters' movements, more or less on a daily basis with the exception of periods in Rivendell and Lothlorien. In order to keep track of these, early in writing The Lord of the Rings Tolkien began to make lists and tables to record the chronology of events. As the story developed and changed, he emended these time-schemes or began new ones. From about the point that the Company of the Ring leave Lothlorien until the destruction of the Ring, many of Tolkien's time-schemes are synoptic, recording events day by day horizontally across a series of columns, with each column devoted to the movements of one or more members of the scattered Company or to a general group such as 'Enemies'.
    Occasionally a new idea came to Tolkien, or one thread of the story required more time than he had first thought, requiring other threads to be adjusted so that they would come together at the right time; for instance, in remarking to himself on moving the Battle of the Pelennor Fields from 14 to 15 March, he wrote:
    But more time is needed for Aragorn. Fellowship could be broken sooner giving 2 days (5) [i.e. presumably 5 days instead of 3] to F[rodo and] S[am] in Emyn Muil and moving Hornburg ride back 2 days. But this would all throw out of gear in rest [of] story. Best would be to make Pelennor later. [Marquette MSS 4/2/17]
    At other times more substantial shifts were needed: these generally had little effect on the details of the narrative since they did not alter the sequence of events, but they required the emendation of blocks of dates. The first such change was Tolkien's decision that the Company of the Ring should leave Rivendell on 25 December instead of 24 November 3018 (Third Age).
    Although Tolkien could adjust the movements of his characters so that a journey took more or less time, the phases of the moon were beyond his control. He took great care, however, to ensure that the moons described in The Lord of the Rings acted according to the standard lunar cycle, and

    that the widely separated actors in his story saw the same moon on the same date. During 1944, for instance, while working on Book IV, he wrote to his son Christopher: 'at this point [24 April] I need to know how much later the moon gets up each night when nearing the full, and how to stew a rabbit'; and 'I found my moons in the crucial days between Frodo's flight and the present situation (arrival at Minas Morghul) were doing impossible things, rising in one part of the country and setting simultaneously in another' (14 May; Letters, pp. 74, 80).
    In winter 1941-2, while writing of the journey of the Company of the Ring down the Anduin, he decided to base the moons in his book on the primary world lunar calendar. He wrote on one time-scheme (Marquette MSS 3/1/34 ADDS):
    Moons are after 1941-2 + 6 [> 5] days thus F[ull] M[oon] Jan 2 is Jan 7
    In the first scheme in which this formula was applied, based on the calendar for (AD) 1942, the departure from Rivendell has been moved to 25 December, the Company arrive in Hollin on 6 January, and there is a full moon on 7 January. At this point in the development of the story, no time passes in Middle-earth while the Company are in Lorien. The same time-scheme also records a new moon on 21 January, the night before the Company are attacked by Ores at Sarn Gebir. In 1942 the moon was full on 2 January, and new on 16 January. Since the Company still reach Hollin in January in the published Lord of the Rings, one would expect a full moon on 7/8 January (2 + 5), but instead it appears on 8/9 January.
    The difference in dates is due to further developments in the story, centred on the full moon seen by Frodo early in the morning of 8 March at Henneth Annun (Book IV, Chapter 6). When this episode was first written it took place on the night of 6/7 February, with a full moon on 6 February entered in time-schemes. Whitaker's Almanack for 1942 indi­cates that the moon became full on 1 February, and that 1/2 February was the night of the full moon. In Book V this same moon is seen by Pippin as he rides with Gandalf to Minas Tirith, and it also governs the date set for the muster of Rohan. But during the writing of Book V Tolkien made two important decisions: he concluded (after having twice changed his mind) that time in the outside world did continue to pass while the Company was in Lothlorien; and he decided to apply to the story a new calendar of his own invention, the 'Shire Reckoning'. In this every month has thirty days, there are two Yule days between 30 December and 1 January, and in a normal year three days (Lithe, Mid-year's Day, and Lithe) between 30 June and 1 July. To effect this, Tolkien now had to adjust his time-schemes to take account of such matters as February having thirty days rather than twenty-eight.
    A scheme headed 'New Time Table; allowing 30 days sojourn in Lothlor­ien', Marquette MSS 4/2/17, originally showed the Company leaving Lothlor­ien on 14 February, Sam seeing the new moon on 20 February, and Frodo

    being at Henneth Annun now on 7/8 March. In 1942 there was a new moon on 15 February and a full moon on 3 March - it became full just after midnight, therefore 2/3 March was the night of the full moon - thus the scheme applies the formula of date plus five days for a full moon on 7/8 March. But at the bottom of the first sheet of this scheme Tolkien struck through '[January] 31' and wrote beside it 'Feb 1' - clearly the introduction of Shire Reckoning into the chronology. He then adjusted the other dates in the scheme upward, so that the Company left Lofhlorien on 15 rather than 14 February. He evidently soon realized, however, that although this adjustment accounted for one of die extra two days in February in the Shire Reckoning, the second extra day would place Frodo's night at Henneth Annun on 6I7 March, not at the full moon. Therefore he altered the time-scheme yet again, so that the Company leaves Lothlor­ien on 16 February and Frodo is at Henneth Annun correctly on 7/8 March. The new moon which had been on 20 February was now on 22 February. To the side of the entry for 16 February Tolkien scribbled a rough note:
    if dates at ?crucial points later Mar 1 — > [sic] are to be correct then if S.R. to be used Lorien stay must be 2 days long [?longer]. Coy. [Company] must come out on Feb. 16 our ?reckoning = S.R. W[ed] Feb 16 and all other dates pushed back ?to ?agree after Feb. 30 all would then be ?correct ?again. [Marquette MSS 4/2/17]
    This is the clue to his lunar calendar as finally conceived: the moons in The Lord of the Rings are based on those of 1941-2, but with their dates adjusted on either side of the full moon of 7/8 March to take account of Shire Reckoning. When this is checked against Tolkien's latest and only complete time-scheme (for the period 22 September 3018, S.R. 1418 -6 October 3021, S.R. 1421), every phase of the moon entered there agrees. We have used this (Marquette MSS 4/2/18) frequently in the present book, where it is referred to as Scheme.
    In the table given below, the first column A gives the dates and phases of the moon for the relevant parts of 1941-2 (Gregorian calendar); the second column B shows the same dates + 5; and the third column C shows dates in the Shire Reckoning adjusted from 7/8 March with the phases of the moon as they are entered on this final time-scheme. Entries are included at relevant points to clarify the adjustments to Shire Reckoning. Entries of date or phases of the moon in square brackets do not appear in the time-scheme, but are calculated from other entries.
    Another piece of evidence supporting the accuracy of this table is the state of the moon when Gandalf escapes from Orthanc. The Tale of Years states that he left in the early hours of 18 September 3018 (Third Age). In one version of The Hunt for the Ring (Marquette MSS 4/2/33) it is said that 'Gandalf escapes night of 17/18. Full Moon 6 days waned'. Whitaker's Almanack for 1941 has the moon at full late on 5 September, therefore 5/ 6 September is the night of the full moon; in the chart this becomes S.R.


    11/12 September, 6 days before 17/18. One aspect of the 1942 lunar calendar which Tolkien did not introduce into The Lord of the Rings was a complete lunar eclipse on 2 March beginning 22.31 GMT. On one time-scheme, however (Marquette MSS 3/1/36 ADDS, with dates altered from February to March), Tolkien notes between 7 and 8 March 'Total eclipse at 10.30'.
    Tolkien often entered in his schemes specific times, sometimes to the odd minute, for the rising and setting of the sun and the moon, or when a journey began or ended. These aided him in judging what length of journey or sequence of events plausibly could be fitted into a given period of time. The times do not appear in the final text, where they were replaced by more general references such as 'at dawn', 'early morning', 'noon', 'dusk', etc. as witnessed by the characters. These more general terms did not need to be changed when events were moved forward, and differences of latitude or longitude need not be taken into account.

    A B C
    5 Sep FM 10 Sep 11 Sep FM
    11 Sep 16 Sep 17 Sep
    13 Sep LQ 18 Sep 19 Sep
    16 Sep 21 Sep 22 Sep
    21 Sep NM 26 Sep 27 Sep NM
    24 Sep 29 Sep 30 Sep
    25 Sep
    26 Sep 30 Sep 1 Oct 1 Oct
    2 Oct
    27 Sep FQ 2 Oct 3 Oct FQ
    30 Sep 5 Oct 6 Oct
    5 Oct FM 10 Oct 11 Oct FM
    13 Oct
    20 Oct 24 Oct LQ
    NM 18 Oct 25 Oct 29 Oct 19 Oct 26 Oct 30 Oct LQ
    25 Oct
    26 Oct 30 Oct
    31 Oct 1 Nov
    2 Nov
    27 Oct FQ 1 Nov 3 Nov [FQ]
    3 Nov
    4 Nov FM 8 Nov
    9 Nov 10 Nov
    11 Nov [FM]
    12 Nov LQ 17 Nov 19 Nov [LQ]
    19 Nov 23 Nov NM 24 Nov 28 Nov 26 Nov 30 Nov [NM]
    24 Nov
    25 Nov FQ 29 Nov
    30 Nov 1 Dec
    2 Dec [FQ]
    26 Nov 1 Dec 3 Dec
    3 Dec 11 Dec FM LQ 8 Dec 16 Dec 10 Dec 18 Dec [FM] [LQ]
    18 Dec NM 23 Dec 25 Dec NM
    23 Dec 28 Dec 30 Dec


    A B C
    24 Dec 29 Dec 1 Yule
    25 Dec FQ 30 Dec 2 Yule [FQ]
    26 Dec 31 Dec 1 Jan
    27 Dec 1 Jan 2 Jan
    31 Dec 5 Jan 6 Jan
    1 Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan
    2 Jan FM 7 Jan 8 Jan FM
    10 Jan LQ 15 Jan 16 Jan LQ
    16 Jan NM 21 Jan 22 Jan NM
    24 Jan FQ 29 Jan 30 Jan FQ
    25 Jan 30 Jan 1 Feb
    26 Jan 31 Jan 2 Feb
    27 Jan l Feb 3 Feb
    31 Jan 5 Feb 7 Feb
    1 Feb FM 6 Feb 8 Feb FM
    8 Feb LQ 13 Feb 15 Feb LQ
    15 Feb NM 20 Feb 22 Feb NM
    23 Feb FQ 28 Feb 30 Feb FQ
    24 Feb 1 Mar 1 Mar
    28 Feb 5 Mar 5 Mar
    1 Mar 6 Mar 6 Mar
    3 Mar FM 8 Mar 8 Mar FM
    9 Mar LQ 14 Mar 14 Mar LQ
    16 Mar NM 21 Mar 21 Mar NM
    20 Mar 25 Mar 25 Mar
    25 Mar FQ 30 Mar 30 Mar [FQ]
    26 Mar 31 Mar 1 Apr
    27 Mar 1 Apr 2 Apr
    31 Mar 5 Apr 6 Apr
    1 Apr FM 6 Apr 7 Apr FM
    2 Apr 7 Apr 8 Apr
    8 Apr 13 Apr 14 Apr [LQ]
    15 Apr NM 20 Apr 21 Apr [NM]
    23 Apr FQ 28 Apr 29 Apr [FQ]
    24 Apr 29 Apr 30 Apr
    25 Apr 30 Apr 1 May
    30 Apr FM 5 May 6 May [FM]
    7 May LQ 12 May 13 May [LQ]
    15 May NM 20 May 21 May
    23 May FQ 28 May 29 May [FQ]
    24 May 29 May 30 May
    25 May 30 May 1 Jun
    26 May 31 May 2 Jun
    27 May 1 Jun 3 Jun

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    Dust-jacket (1954-5) - Tolkien was consulted closely about the design of the dust-jacket for the first George Allen & Unwin edition. In January 1954 he was asked to suggest a design for the jacket of The Fellowship of the Ring, to be published six months later. He replied on 23 February that he had neither the time nor the inspiration to do so, but soon produced a series of sketches for jackets for both The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers (see Artist and Illustrator, figs. 176-80).
    For the first he envisioned a large gold ring in the centre, representing Sauron's Ring, surrounded by the fiery letters of its inscription. Above this would be a ring with a red jewel, representing Narya, the ruby Ring of Fire worn by Gandalf, in symbolic opposition to Sauron; and towards the bottom of the jacket would be the other two Elven-rings, Nenya and Vilya, the Rings of Water and Air, set with adamant and sapphire.
    The Two Towers jacket also had the One Ring in the centre, but it was now flanked by two towers. One design for The Two Towers featured the Ring surrounded by the three Elven-rings and the seven Dwarf-rings, but containing the nine rings given to mortal Men. The most dramatic of the Two Towers designs, a moody painting in black, red, white, and grey on grey-brown paper {Artist and Illustrator, fig. 180), features the tower of Minas Morgul at left, headquarters of the Nazgul, with their nine rings, and at right, the tower of Orthanc. Above the One Ring is a flying Nazgul, and elsewhere are pertinent symbols such as the White Hand of Saruman.
    In March 1954 Tolkien also made a dust-jacket design for The Return of the King which was even more elaborate and impressive. Drawn and painted on black paper, it features the empty winged throne of Condor awaiting the return of the King. The circular form of the throne echoes and replaces that of the One Ring, destroyed in the course of the volume. Above this is the White Tree of Gondor and the Seven Stars of Elendil, and below it, a green jewel which represents the coming of the King Elessar, the 'Elfstone'. Finally, above and behind the throne is the shadow of Sauron stretching out his long arm across red and black mountains. (See Artist and Illustrator, figs. 181-2.)
    Although superb designs, these were too costly to produce at that time, even if technically feasible, and it was felt by Allen & Unwin that a single design should be used for all three volumes of the original edition, with minor variation in paper or ink colour. In the event, this was a simplifi­cation of Tolkien's most developed design for The Fellowship of the Ring {Artist and Illustrator, fig. 177), which also included the Eye of Sauron within the One Ring. Two of the Elven-rings were omitted, retaining only


    Narya, and Tolkien's calligraphy was replaced with titling set in type. The jacket for the second Allen & Unwin edition (1966) featured the same 'Ring and Eye' motif, reproduced at a smaller size.
    In 1969 Allen & Unwin adapted Tolkien's design for the Return of the King jacket for the binding of the first de luxe one-volume edition of The Lord of the Rings. In 1998 HarperCollins adapted Tolkien's original designs on jackets for a new three-volume edition, with new lettering. The bindings of the HarperCollins and Houghton Mifflin fiftieth anniversary editions of 2004 featured, at last, Tolkien's design for the One Ring and the Three Rings together.
    For details of other jackets and bindings, see Descriptive Bibliography A5.
    In order to promote The Lord of the Rings George Allen & Unwin sent proof copies of the first volume to selected reviewers. Among these were Richard Hughes, who had enthusiastically reviewed The Hobbit in 1937; the author Naomi Mitchison; and Tolkien's friend C.S. Lewis. Extracts from their comments subsequently appeared on the front flap of the original dust-jacket:
    The Lord of the Rings is not a book to be described in a few sentences. It is an heroic romance - 'something which has scarcely been attempted on this scale since Spenser's Faerie Queene, so one can't praise the book by comparisons - there is nothing to compare it with. What can I say then?' continues RICHARD HUGHES, 'for width of imagination it almost beggars parallel, and it is nearly as remarkable for its vividness and for the narrative skill which carries the reader on, enthralled, for page after page.'
    By an extraordinary feat of the imagination Mr. Tolkien has created, and maintains in every detail, a new mythology in an invented world. As for the story itself, 'it's really super science fiction', declared NAOMI MITCHISON after reading the first part, The Fellowship of the Ring, 'but it is timeless and will go on and on. It's odd you know. One takes it completely seriously: as seriously as Malory'.
    C.S. LEWIS is equally enthusiastic. 'If Ariosto rivalled it in invention (in fact he does not) he would still lack its heroic seriousness. No imaginary world has been projected which is at once multifarious and so true to its own inner laws; none so seemingly objective, so disinfected from the taint of an author's merely individual psychology; none so relevant to the actual human situation yet so free from allegory. And what fine shading there is in the variations of style to meet the almost endless diversity of scenes and characters - comic, homely, epic, mon­strous, or diabolic'
    Spenser, Malory, Ariosto or Science Fiction? A flavour of all of them and a taste of its own. Only those who have read The Lord of the Rings will realise how impossible it is to convey all the qualities of a great book.


    On seeing this blurb Tolkien wrote to publisher Rayner Unwin:
    I am pleased to find that the preliminary opinions are so good, though I feel that comparisons with Spenser, Malory, and Ariosto (not to mention super Science Fiction) are too much for my vanity! I showed your draft notice to Geoffrey Mure (Warden [at Merton College, Oxford, where Tolkien was a Fellow]), who was being tiresome this morning and threatening to eject me from my room in favour of a mere tutor. He was visibly shaken, and evidently did not know before what the college had been harbouring.... Anyway my stock went up sufficiently to obtain me an even better room, even at the cost oi ejecting one so magnificent as the Steward. So if you have any more appreciations which I have not seen, please let me have a look at them. I promise not to become like Mr Toad [in The Wind in the Willows, vain and conceited]. [13 May 1954, Letters, pp. 181-2, corrected from the Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins]
    Title-page - The title-page inscription, also printed identically on the facing page, runs continuously in two alphabets by Tolkien, who also provided the calligraphy. The first line reads, in his runic Cirth, 'THE LORD OF THE RINGS TRANSLATED FROM THE RED BOOK', and the remainder reads, in the script Tengwar, 'of Westmarch by John Ronald Reuel Tolkien herein is set forth the history of the War of the Ring and the return of the King as seen by the Hobbits'. Tolkien drew the inscription for the first edition of The Lord of the Rings, but made minor errors in the lettering: these were corrected in the first printing of The Return of the King and the second printing of The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers. Tolkien earlier drew inscriptions in runes for the dust-jacket of The Hobbit (1937).
    The variety of Cirth used on the title-page differs slightly from the Dwarvish Angerthas Moria as described in Appendix E, but is essentially consistent with the 'usage of Erebor' employed by Tolkien in his 'facsimiles' of the Book of Mazarbul (see Book II, Chapter 5; Artist and Illustrator, fig. 156; Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien, 2nd edn., no. 24). On the Tengwar employed on the title-page, Tolkien writes in Appendix E:
    There was of course no 'mode' [of Tengwar] for the representation of English. One adequate phonetically could be devised from the Feanorian system [the letters said to be invented by the Noldorin Elf Feanor]. The brief example on the title-page does not attempt to exhibit this. It is rather an example of what a man of Gondor might have produced, hesitating between the values of the letters familiar in his 'mode' and the traditional spelling of English, [p. 1122, III: 400]
    The Ring-verse - Printed since the first edition in the preliminaries, and repeated by Gandalf to Frodo in Book I, Chapter 2 (see further, notes for

    p. 50). Tolkien said in an interview that it had come to him while he was taking a bath, but he made several versions before reaching its final form. In the first complete text, for instance, published in The Return of the Shadow, p. 269, there were nine Elven-rings (rather than three) and only three for Men (rather than nine); and in a later version there were twelve rings for Men (rather than nine) and nine for the Dwarf-lords (rather than seven).

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    During the writing of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien made several working maps, some of which were published in The History of Middle-earth, vols. VI-VIII. From an early stage it was also his intention to include one or more finely drawn maps in the finished book, but he found them difficult to make. On 11 April 1953 he wrote to Rayner Unwin:
    Maps are worrying me. One at least (which would then have to be rather large) is absolutely essential. I think three are needed: 1. Of the Shire; 2. Of Gondor; and 3. A general small-scale map of the whole field of action. They exist, of course; though not in any form fit for reproduction - for of course in such a story one cannot make a map for the narrative, but must first make a map and make the narrative agree. 3 is needed throughout. 1 is needed in the first volume and the last. 2 is essential in vols II and III. [Letters, p. 168]
    On 9 October 1953 he wrote to W.N. Beard at George Allen & Unwin that he was 'stumped' by the Lord of the Rings maps, 'indeed in a panic. They are essential; and urgent; but I just cannot get them done. I have spent an enor­mous amount of time on them without profitable result. Lack of skill com­bined with being harried. Also the shape and proportions of "The Shire" as described in the tale cannot (by me) be made to fit into shape of a page; nor at that size be contrived to be informative.' He felt that 'even at a little cost there should be picturesque maps, providing more than a mere index to what is said in the text. I could do maps suitable to the text. It is the attempt [for the sake of economy] to cut them down and omitting all their colour (verbal and otherwise) to reduce them to black and white bareness, on a scale so small that hardly any names can appear, that has stumped me' (Letters, p. 171). Ultimately, in its first edition and many of its later hardcover editions, The Lord of the Rings featured three maps printed in black and red, with the two larger maps on fold-out sheets. All of these were drawn by Christopher Tolkien, a general map of Middle-earth in late 1953, a map of the Shire in March 1954, and a large-scale map in April 1955. On 18 April 1955 Tolkien wrote to Rayner Unwin: 'The map is hell! I have not been as careful as I should in keeping track of distances. I think a large scale map simply reveals all the chinks in the armour - besides being obliged to differ somewhat from the printed small scale version [in The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers], which was semi-pictorial. May have to abandon it for this trip!' (Letters, p. 210). But he did not abandon it, as he recalled in April 1956 in a draft letter to H. Cotton Minchin:


    I had to call in the help of my son - the C.T. or C.J.R.T. of the modest initials on the maps - an accredited student of hobbit-lore. And neither of us had an entirely free hand. I remember that when it became apparent that the 'general map' would not suffice for the final Book [VI], or sufficiently reveal the courses of Frodo, the Rohirrim, and Aragorn, I had to devote many days, the last three virtually without food or bed, to drawing re-scaling and adjusting a large map, at which he [Christopher] then worked for 24 hours (6 a.m. to 6 a.m. without bed) in re-drawing just in time. [Letters, p. 247]
    The scale of this third map, Tolkien informed Rayner Unwin, 'is 5 times enlarged exactly from that of the general map' (18 April 1955, Letters, p. 210).
    In The Return of the Shadow Christopher Tolkien lists four extant maps of the Shire made by his father, and two by himself. The earliest of these, by J.R.R. Tolkien, was published as the frontispiece to The Return of the Shadow, in colour in the British and American hardcover editions and in black and white in the British paperback (but omitted in the American paperback). The final version, drawn by Christopher, was first published in The Fellowship of the Ring in 1954 (but not, as Tolkien wished, also in The Return of the King in 1955, to accommodate the action of the final chapters of Book VI). That map, A Part of the Shire, was based on a large-scale map Christopher had drawn in 1943, in which he developed the villages and other features north of the Water. In that part of the 1954 map are Nobottle, Little Delving, Needlehole, Rushock Bog, Bindbole Wood, Oatbarton, Dwaling, Brockenborings, and Scary (with an adjoining quarry); the map of 1943 had, in addition, Chivery, Goatacre, Ham Burrows, Ravenbeams, Ham's Barton, Grubb's Spinney, Windwhistle Wood, Ham Hall Woods, Long Cleeve, and Sandy Cleeve, among others. Christopher Tolkien has told the present authors that he is
    virtually certain that my father allowed me some latitude of invention in that region of the Shire; and altogether certain that I proposed the name Nobottle and some (at least) of the others (Needlehole, Rushock Bog, Scary). I must have got them from browsing in my father's large collection of books on English place-names (including field-names, wood-names, stream-names, and their endlessly varying forms). It may be that we discussed each one that I proposed, but of that I have now no recollection. He would scarcely have tolerated any that he thought poorly of, and he certainly wouldn't have allowed anything of that sort to reappear on the 1954 map. (He certainly used the 1943 map himself - there are pencillings of his on it - 'Budgeford' and 'Bridgefields', with a road running north from Whitfurrows to Scary.) [private corre­spondence]

    According to the Took family tree in Appendix C, Bandobras Took (the Bullroarer) had 'many descendants, including the North-tooks of Long Cleeve', and Peregrin Took eventually married 'Diamond of Long Cleeve' (cleeve from Old English clif 'cliff, hill').
    Several of the names on the Shire map do not also appear in the text, or do not appear there in the same form.
    Christopher Tolkien is certain that Bindbole Wood is a real place-name somewhere in England, but he has not been able to locate it again, nor we have been able to do so ourselves. Bindbole is presumably related to bind (or bine) 'bind' (compare bindweed, woodbine) and bole 'tree-trunk'. Bindbole Wood, however, sometimes has been misread as Bindbale Wood: as printed on the 1954 map the 0 of Bindbole resembles a compressed italic a. Chris­topher has confirmed to us that the intended reading is Bindbole, but the word is rendered Bindbale on the Shire map in the Ballantine Books edition of The Lord of the Rings (1965), in the cartography of Barbara Strachey and Karen Wynn Fonstad (see below), in Robert Foster's Complete Guide to Middle-earth (1978), and even, curiously, in a manuscript note by Tolkien himself which he prepared as part of comments on names suggested for the Dutch translation of The Lord of the Rings and submitted to him in 1956 (Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins; letter from Tolkien to Rayner Unwin, 3 July 1956, cf. Letters, p. 251). The Dutch translator Max Schuchart had rendered Bindbale Wood (as he thought it was) as Het Boze Woud 'The Devil's Wood'. Tolkien replied: 'This at any rate does not and could not mean het boze woudl As it stands it means rather pakke-baal or binde-balen! To which he added, unfortunately with­out elaboration (if he had any elaboration to give for Bindbale rather than Bindbole): 'The reason for the name is not, of course, given in the map -but there is one.' The Dutch translation as published renders the name as 'Pakkebaal Bos' after pakken 'to grab, pack' and baal 'bag, bale', with bos 'wood' - thus 'Bindbale Wood' once again. In writing his reply Tolkien evidently referred to the 1954 map, where 'Bindbole' might be mistaken for 'Bindbale'; according to Christopher Tolkien, 'Bindbole', so spelled, is unmistakable in his map of 1943.
    Brockenborings is spelled thus on the Shire map, but is Brockenbores in the text (see note for p. 1021).
    Budge Ford is spelled thus on the map, but 'Budgeford' in the text (see note for p. 108).
    Deephallow is mentioned in a draft of A Short Cut to Mushrooms' (Book I, Chapter 4), in connection with the way south from the Brandy-wine Bridge ('the causeway that runs from the Bridge through Stock and past the Ferry down along the River to Deephallow', The Return of the Shadow, p. 286), but not in the final text. In his notes to the Dutch translator Tolkien says that Deephallow 'is not clear in etymology (not meant to be - not all names are!)', but probably contains the Old English element -hall (or -healh) 'recess, a piece of land half-enclosed (by slopes,

    woods, or a river-bend)', as also in Woodhall. Deephallow is 'in the angle between Shirebourn, and Brandywine'.
    Dwaling suggests a form of 'dwelling' from the root dwal- (dwel-). In his notes to the Dutch translator, however, Tolkien wrote that 'according to English toponymy' Dwaling 'should be the settlement of (the descend­ants of) a person called Dwale, probably a nick-name and therefore also probably uncomplimentary: older English dwale "dull"?' The latter word is cognate with Gothic dwals 'foolish', which appears in Tolkien's 'Gothiciz-ation' of his surname, Dwalakoneis (see Letters, p. 357). But it is impossible to say whether he had considered the meaning of Dwaling, added to the map by Christopher, before this point. The German translator (1969) assumed that Dwaling was derived from the plant-name dwale 'deadly nightshade, belladonna', thus 'Nachtschatten'.
    Girdley Island is so named probably because it is 'girdled' or enclosed by the branching river Brandywine. Girdley contains the element -ey, y 'small island' (from Old Norse ey).
    Green-Hill Country is spelled thus on the map (with a hyphen), but 'Green Hill Country' in the text (see note for p. 71).
    The village Little Delving is the smaller 'companion' of Michel Delving on the White Downs (see notes for pp. 5, 6), like other Hobbit place-names containing an element {delve) related to digging.
    Needlehole is also the name of a village in Gloucestershire. Its elements needle + hole are simple, but 'hole' again suggests the Hobbit tendency to dig.
    Newbury 'new burg or castle' is a name also found in Berkshire.
    In The Treason of Isengard Christopher Tolkien notes that his father allowed him to add 'Nobottle', after the name of a village in Northampton­shire, to his 1943 Shire map. Nobottle is related to Newbold and Nobold 'new building', from Old English bold (bodl, boil) 'building' - though in 1943 Christopher 'was under the impression that the name meant that the village was so poor and remote that it did not even possess an inn' (p. 424). In Nomenclature Tolkien cautions that the element -bottle (as also in Hardbottle, see note for p. 1021) 'is not connected with bottle "glass con­tainer" '.
    Oatbarton combines oat, for the grain, with the common English place-name element -barton, from Old English beretun or *bcertun, gener­ally 'corn farm' (from bere 'barley, corn' + tun 'enclosure'), later usually 'outlying grange, demesne farm'. The artist of the Shire map in the 1965 Ballantine Books edition of The Lord of the Rings misread 'Oatbarton' as 'Catbarion'.
    In the name Overbourn Marshes the element -bourn is straightforward 'stream', from Old English burna, and is common in English river- and place-names. As some readers have remarked, the marshes are indeed 'over (across) the bourn (stream)', i.e. the river Shirebourn (see below), but Old English ofer 'border, margin, edge, brink, river-bank' is well attested.
    Pincup, Tolkien wrote to the Dutch translator, 'would, of course, not


    be analyzable by a modern Englishman, but is of a well-known pattern, containing bird/animal name and hop "recess, retreat". In this case the bird-name is pinnuc, pink (a finch or sparrow)'.
    Rushy is spelled thus on the map, but is 'Rushey' in the text (see note for p. 98).
    Rushock (ofRushock Bog) is also the name of villages in Worcestershire and Herefordshire. It is related to Old English *riscuc or *rixuc 'a rushy place, a rush-bed'. In his notes for the Dutch translator Tolkien wrote that 'rushock is a derivative of rush (water plant) or from rush + hassock (Old. E. hassuc) coarse grass'.
    Shirebourn contains, like Overbourn (see above), bourn 'stream', but it 'has nothing to do with "The Shire".... It represents a genuine river-name, ancient Scire-burna "bright-spring", or "bright-stream"' from Old English sclr 'bright, clear, pure' (Tolkien, notes to the Dutch translator). The Cam­bridge Dictionary of English Place-Names (2004) notes that Old English burna was used normally 'for a stream not large enough to be called a river, used especially for streams with clear water, flowing over gravelly beds from springs, with seasonally variable flow and distinctive plant association' (p. xliii) - though for Hobbits it evidently was large enough to be called a river, and is so labelled on the Shire map. The river Sher-bourne which runs by Coventry in Warwickshire was recorded in the fourteenth century as 'Schirebourn' and 'Shirebourn' among other spell­ings. Tolkien expanded the geography of this part of the Shire in his Preface to The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (1962), in regard to his poem Bombadil Goes Boating:
    Grind-wall was a small hythe on the north bank of the Withywindle; it was outside the Hay, and so was well watched and protected by a grind or fence extended into the water. Breredon (Briar Hill) was a little village on rising ground behind the hythe, in the narrow tongue between the end of the High Hay and the Brandywine. At the Mithe [from Old English m?Se 'mouth of a stream'], the outflow of the Shirebourn, was a landing stage, from which a lane ran to Deephallow and so on to the Causeway road that went through Rushey and Stock, [p. 9, n. 1]
    Standelf combines Old English stem 'stone, stones' and delf 'digging, mine, quarry, ditch', thus stan-gedelf 'quarry'; compare 'Stonydelph' in Warwickshire. In a draft of 'A Conspiracy Unmasked' (Book I, Chapter 5) the main road in Buckland is described as running 'from the Bridge to Standelf and Haysend'. Christopher Tolkien writes in The Return of the Shadow: 'Standelf is never mentioned in the text of [The Lord of the Rings], though marked on my father's map of the Shire and on both of mine [1943 and 1954]; on all three the road stops there and does not continue to Haysend, which is not shown as a village or any sort of habitation' (pp. 298-9)-

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    In his Foreword to the first edition of The Lord of the Rings (1954-5) Tolkien adopted the same pose that he had used in his prefatory note to the second edition of The Hobbit (1951) and that survives in the Appendices of its sequel, that he was not the author of the work but merely its translator and editor. He also explicitly stated, anticipating comparison of the new work with his earlier book, that The Lord of the Rings was not written for children; he thanked his friends the Inklings, and his children, for their support during the long process of composition ('if "composition" is a just word' - returning to his 'editorial' pose); and he provided helpful information, before the text began, about the correct pronunciation of names. The original Foreword read in full (I: 7-8):
    This tale, which has grown to be almost a history of the great War of the Ring, is drawn for the most part from the memoirs of the renowned Hobbits, Bilbo and Frodo, as they are preserved in the Red Book of Westmarch. This chief monument of Hobbit-lore is so called because it was compiled, repeatedly copied, and enlarged and handed down in the family of the Fairbairns of Westmarch, descended from that Master Samwise of whom this tale has much to say.
    I have supplemented the account of the Red Book, in places, with information derived from the surviving records of Gondor notably the Book of the Kings; but in general, though I have omitted much, I have in this tale adhered more closely to the actual words and narrative of my original than in the previous selection from the Red Book, The Hobbit. That was drawn from the early chapters, composed originally by Bilbo himself. If 'composed' is a just word. Bilbo was not assiduous, nor an orderly narrator, and his account is involved and discursive, and sometimes confused: faults that still appear in the Red Book, since the copiers were pious and careful, and altered very little.
    The tale has been put into its present form in response to the many requests that I have received for further information about the history of the Third Age, and about Hobbits in particular. But since my children and others of their age, who first heard of the finding of the Ring, have grown older with the years, this book speaks more plainly of those darker things which lurked only on the borders of the earlier tale, but which have troubled Middle-earth in all its history. It is, in fact, not a book written for children at all; though many children will, of course, be interested in it, or parts of it, as they still are in the histories and legends of other times (especially in those not specially written for them).


    I dedicate this book to all admirers of Bilbo, but especially to my sons and my daughter, and to my friends the Inklings. To the Inklings, because they have already listened to it with a patience, and indeed with an interest, that almost leads me to suspect that they have hobbit-blood in their venerable ancestry. To my sons and my daughter for the same reason, and also because they have all helped me in the labours of composition. If 'composition' is a just word, and these pages do not deserve all that I have said about Bilbo's work.
    For if the labour has been long (more than fourteen years), it has been neither orderly nor continuous. But I have not had Bilbo's leisure. Indeed much of that time has contained for me no leisure at all, and more than once for a whole year the dust has gathered on my unfinished pages. I only say this to explain to those who have waited for this book why they have had to wait so long. I have no reason to complain. I am surprised and delighted to find from numerous letters that so many people, both in England and across the Water, share my interest in this almost forgotten history; but it is not yet universally recognized as an important branch of study. It has indeed no obvious practical use, and those who go in for it can hardly expect to be assisted.
    Much information, necessary and unnecessary, will be found in the Prologue. To complete it some maps are given, including one of the Shire that has been approved as reasonably correct by those Hobbits that still concern themselves with ancient history. At the end of the third volume will be found also some abridged family-trees, which show how the Hobbits mentioned were related to one another, and what their ages were at the time when the story opens. There is an index of names and strange words with some explanations. And for those who like such lore in an appendix some brief account is given of the languages, alphabets, and calendars that were used in the West-lands in the Third Age of Middle-earth. Those who do not need such information, or who do not wish for it, may neglect these pages; and the strange names that they meet they may, of course, pronounce as they like. Care has been given to their transcription from the original alphabets, and some notes are offered on the intentions of the spelling adopted.* But not all are interested in such matters, and many who are not may still find the account of these great and valiant deeds worth the reading. It was in that hope that I began the work of translating and selecting the stories of the Red Book, part of which are now presented to Men of a later Age, one almost as darkling and ominous as was the Third Age that ended with the great years 1418 and 1419 of the Shire long ago.
    ""Some may welcome a preliminary note on the pronunciation actu­ally intended by the spellings used in this history.
    The letters c and g are always 'hard' (as k, and g in get), even before e, i, and f; ch is used as in Welsh or German, not as in English church.


    The diphthongs ai (ae), and au (aw), represent sounds like those heard in brine and brown, and not those in brain and brawn.
    Long vowels are all marked with an accent, or with a circumflex, and are usually also stressed. Thus Legolas has a short o, and is meant to be stressed on the initial syllable.
    These remarks do not apply to the names of the Hobbits or their Shire, which have all been anglicized, for reasons later explained.
    For draft texts including some of these phrases, or words to the same effect, see The Peoples of Middle-earth, Chapters 1 and 2.
    Tolkien wrote an entirely new Foreword for the second edition of The Lord of the Rings, first published by Ballantine Books in 1965. This was, in part, a response to the need for new text in order to establish new copyright in the work in the United States, where rival publisher Ace Books had argued that The Lord of the Rings had fallen into the public domain. But also Tolkien had come to dislike the approach he had taken in the Foreword of 1954. He wrote of this in one of his check copies of The Lord of the Rings: 'Confusing (as it does) real personal matters with the "machinery" of the Tale is a serious mistake' (quoted in The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 26). He did not add, and in the event it may be that none of his readers noticed, that the original Foreword indicated that Frodo and Sam, at least, survived the War of the Ring - Sam to the extent that he had descendants; but the Prologue also included, and still includes, minor 'spoilers' in other respects.
    xxii (I: 5): This tale grew
    xxii (I: 5). This tale grew in the telling, until it became a history of the Great War of the Ring and included many glimpses of the yet more ancient history that preceded it. - As described more fully in the 'Brief History' above, The Lord of the Rings began as another children's story about Bilbo Baggins or one of his descendants, but soon became a much greater conception, far longer than Tolkien anticipated or was able accu­rately to project, darker and more complex than his earlier work about Bilbo, and as much a continuation of the 'Silmarillion' mythology on which Tolkien had worked for decades as it was a sequel to The Hobbit. On 20 September 1963 Tolkien wrote to Colonel Worskett (as at other times to other readers): 'Part of the attraction of The L.R. [The Lord of the Rings] is, I think, due to the glimpses of a large history in the background: an attraction like that of viewing far off an unvisited island, or seeing the towers of a distant city gleaming in a sunlit mist' (Letters, p. 333). The published Silmarillion (1977), Unfinished Tales (1980), and History of Middle-earth (1983-96) document the 'large history' referred to only in passing in The Lord of the Rings.
    xxii (I: 5). It was begun soon after The Hobbit was written and before its publication in 1937; but I did not go on with this sequel, for I wished


    first to complete and set in order the mythology and legends of the Elder Days, which had then been taking shape for some years. - In fact, Tolkien began The Lord of the Rings three months after The Hobbit was published on 21 September 1937. His correspondence with George Allen & Unwin leaves no doubt that once The Hobbit was published he wished to return to work on his 'mythology and legends of the Elder Days', i.e. 'The Silmarillion', concerned with the earlier ages of the world prior to that in which The Lord of the Rings is set, which had 'been taking shape' since at least 1916. On 16 December 1937 he wrote to Stanley Unwin, who had suggested a sequel to The Hobbit: T am sure you will sympathize when I say that the construction of elaborate and consistent mythology (and two languages) rather occupies the mind, and the Silmarils are in my heart' (Letters, p. 26). But by 19 December he was able to inform C.A. Furth at Allen & Unwin: T have written the first chapter of a new story about Hobbits - "A long expected party"' (Letters, p. 27). Tolkien now made little progress with 'The Silmarillion' until he had finished The Lord of the Rings.
    xxii (I: 5). I had little hope that other people would be interested in this work ['The Silmarillion'] - On 15 November 1937 Tolkien handed over to Stanley Unwin the Quenta Silmarillion, the Lay of Leithian, and other 'Silmarillion' manuscripts, among works to be considered for publication. The critic Edward Crankshaw was impressed with a prose version accom­panying the poetic Lay of Leithian (the story of Beren and Luthien), despite 'eye-splitting' names which he took to be Celtic; but neither this, nor any of the other 'Silmarillion' writings, was of the sort that Allen & Unwin wanted from Tolkien to follow The Hobbit. The Quenta Silmarillion, in fact, was felt to be too peculiar and difficult even to be given to a publisher's reader. On 15 December Stanley Unwin wrote to Tolkien that he thought that 'The Silmarillion' contained 'plenty of wonderful material' which might be mined to produce 'further books like The Hobbit rather than a book in itself (quoted in The Lays of Beleriand, p. 366).
    xxii (I: 5). it ['The Silmarillion'] was primarily linguistic in inspiration and was begun in order to provide the necessary background of 'history' for Elvish tongues - So Tolkien said also at other times: his stories, he told W.H. Auden on 7 June 1955, 'are and were so to speak an attempt to give a background or a world in which my expressions of linguistic taste could have a function. The stories were comparatively late in coming' (Letters, p. 214). But while Tolkien's interest in the invention of languages dated from his youth, so too did an interest in the creation of imaginative poetry and prose. See further, note for pp. 80-1.
    xxii (I: 5): When those whose advice
    xxii (I: 5). When those whose advice and opinion I sought corrected little hope to no hope, I went back to the sequel, encouraged by requests


    from readers for more information concerning hobbits and their adven tures. - More precisely, when Allen & Unwin rejected 'The Silmarillion Tolkien did not go back to the sequel but began to write it. It is true however, that by December 1937 he was convinced that readers were inter­ested in knowing more about the world of The Hobbit. On 15 October 193; he wrote to Stanley Unwin: 'My daughter would like something [morej on the Took family. One reader wants fuller details about Gandalf and the Necromancer [as Sauron is called in The Hobbit]' (Letters, p. 24). And or 16 December of that year he informed Unwin that he had 'received severa queries, on behalf of children and adults, concerning the runes [on the Hobbit dust-jacket and Thror's map] and whether they are real and can be read' (Letters, p. 27).
    xxii (I: 5). But the story was drawn irresistibly towards the older world
    - On 24 February 1950 Tolkien wrote to Stanley Unwin that 'The Silmaril­lion' had 'bubbled up, infiltrated, and probably spoiled everything (thai even remotely approached "Faery") which I have tried to write since. 11 was kept out of Farmer Giles [of Ham] with an effort', but there are points of convergence in his story Roverandom (published 1998) and his 'Father Christmas' letters (selection first published 1976). 'Its shadow was deep on the later parts of The Hobbit. It has captured The Lord of the Rings, so that that has become simply its continuation and completion ...' (Letters, pp. 136-7).
    xxii (I: 5). The process had begun in the writing of The Hobbit, in which there were already some references to the older matter: Elrond, Gondolin, the High-elves, and the ores, as well as glimpses that had arisen unbidden of things higher or deeper or darker than its surface: Durin, Moria, Gandalf, the Necromancer, the Ring. - The extent of the influence of 'The Silmarillion' on The Hobbit is a matter of debate, and is discussed at length in the entry for The Hobbit in our J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide. Here it will suffice to express our opinion that Tolkien occasionally 'borrowed' from his mythology in writing The Hobbit, but did not necessarily set that work in the world of 'The Silmarillion'. The jolly children's-book elves of Rivendell in The Hobbit, for instance, are not very like the noble and tragic race of Elves in Tolkien's legends of the Elder Days (or of The Lord of the Rings), though they share the same name; nor did the magic ring in The Hobbit do more than convey invisibility to its wearer - in that book it is merely a ring, not yet the terrible One Ring of Sauron. Only later, when The Lord of the Rings was consciously made an extension of 'The Silmarillion', did The Hobbit too become a part of the larger work, by virtue of its sequel.
    xxii-xxiii (I: 5-6): Those who had asked
    xxii (I: 5). the composition of The Lord of the Rings went on at intervals during the years 1936 to 1949, a period in which I had many duties that

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    For drafts and history of the Prologue, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 310-14, and The Peoples of Middle-earth, Chapter 1.
    1 Concerning Hobbits
    1 (1:10): This book is largely concerned
    1 (I: 10). Hobbits - Tolkien first used the word hobbit when he wrote, c. 1929-30: 'In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit.' He did not immediately know its meaning, in what would become the famous first sentence of The Hobbit, nor could he explain its inspiration. He conceived the race of Hobbits, especially the hero of The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, to fit the name. Critics have suggested, inter alia, that Tolkien may have unconsciously derived hobbit from hob 'hobgoblin, sprite, elf or hob (hobb, hobbe) 'rustic, clown', words well known in English literature and folklore, or from the goblins known as 'Hobyahs' in a tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in More English Fairy Tales (1894). The word hobbit in fact had already appeared in The Denham Tracts (1892-5), a folklore collection by Michael Aislabie Denham, as a kind of spirit. Tolkien himself suspected an influence of the title of the novel Babbit by Sinclair Lewis (1922), but denied any connection with rabbit. In regard to the latter, Douglas A. Anderson argues in The Annotated Hobbit, 2nd edn. (2003), that a connection did exist, on the evidence of Tolkien's several comparisons in The Hobbit of Bilbo Baggins to a rabbit, and his (cancelled) footnote to a discussion of hobbit ('my own invention') in a draft of Lord of the Rings Appendix F written no later than summer 1950: 'I must admit that its faint suggestion of rabbit appealed to me. Not that hobbits at all resembled rabbits, unless it be in burrowing' (see The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 49).
    On 8 January 1971 Tolkien wrote to Roger Lancelyn Green that his claim to have invented hobbit, then being investigated by the Oxford English Dictionary, rested on
    unsupported assertion that I remember the occasion of its invention (by me); and that I had not then any knowledge of Hobberdy, Hobbaty, Hobberdy Dick etc. (for 'house-sprites') [dialectal forms that had been called to his attention; the latter was also, in 1955, the title of a book by folklorist Katharine Briggs]; and that my 'hobbits' were in any case of wholly dissimilar sort, a diminutive branch of the human race. Also that


    the only E[nglish] word that influenced the invention was 'hole'; that granted the description of hobbits, the trolls' use of rabbit was merely an obvious insult, of no more etymological significance than Thorin's insult [in The Hobbit] to Bilbo 'descendant of rats!' [Letters, p. 406]
    The OED subsequentiy defined hobbit as 'a member of an imaginary race of half-sized people in stories by Tolkien . .. said by him to mean "hole-dweller"'. A good overview of this question is provided by Donald O'Brien in 'On the Origin of the Name "Hobbit"', Mythlore 16, no. 2, whole no. 60 (Winter 1989).
    In Appendix F it is said that 'Hobbit was the name usually applied by the Shire-folk to all their kind.' Its origin 'was by most forgotten. It seems, however, to have been at first a name given to the Harfoots by the Fal-lohides and Stoors [see note for p. 3], and to be a worn-down form of. .. holbytla "hole-builder"' (p. 1130, III: 408). Also in Appendix F is an 'internal' explanation of the word:
    Hobbit is an invention. In the Westron the word used, when this people was referred to at all, was banakil 'halfling'. But at this date the folk of the Shire and of Bree used the word kuduk, which was not found elsewhere. Meriadoc, however, actually records that the King of Rohan used the word kud-dukan 'hole-dweller'. Since, as has been noted, the Hobbits had once spoken a language closely related to that of the Rohirrim, it seems likely that kuduk was a worn-down form of kud-dukan. The latter I have translated ... by holbytla; and hobbit provides a word that might well be a worn-down form of holbytla, if that name had occurred in our own ancient language [i.e. Old English hoi 'hole' + bytla 'builder'], [pp. 1137-8, III: 416]
    In The Hunt for the Ring, written after The Lord of the Rings and published in Unfinished Tales, it is said that the name Hobbit 'was local [to the Shire] and not a universal Westron word' (p. 342).
    On the capitalization of Hobbit(s), hobbit(s), see note for p. 5 (Ores).
    1 (1:10). Red Book of Westmarch - The name of Tolkien's fictitious source for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings echoes that of the 'Black Book of Carmarthen', a twelfth-century manuscript collection of ancient Welsh poetry with references to King Arthur, and the 'Red Book of Hergest', a fourteenth-century Welsh manuscript which contains, among other works, the Mabinogion. Here Tolkien continues the pose he first adopted in the first edition Foreword, as translator and editor of a work from antiquity, parts of which indeed were themselves based on still older works. The device of the 'found manuscript' was common in English fiction at least from the eighteenth century, in works such as Pamela and Clarissa by Samuel Richardson, and the Pickwick Papers of Charles Dickens. Tolkien also applied it in his Notion Club Papers (published in Sauron Defeated). The name Red Book of Westmarch is supposedly derived from the colour


    of the red leather binding of Bilbo's diary, and of three other volumes, 'probably in a single red case' as described later in the Prologue (p. 14, I: 23), and from the place in the Shire where it was long preserved (see further, note for p. 14). It first appeared, however, in the author's note added by Tolkien to the second edition of The Hobbit (1951).
    1 (I: 10): Hobbits are an unobtrusive but very ancient people
    1 (I: 10). Hobbits ... love peace and quiet and good tilled earth: a well-ordered and well-farmed countryside was their favourite haunt. They do not and did not understand or like machines more complicated than a forge-bellows, a water-mill, or a hand-loom, though they were skilled with tools. - In a letter to Deborah Webster, 25 October 1958, Tolkien wrote:
    I am in fact a Hobbit (in all but size). I like gardens, trees, and unmech-anized farmlands; I smoke a pipe, and like good plain food (unrefriger-ated), but detest French cooking. I like, and even dare to wear in these dull days, ornamental waistcoats. I am fond of mushrooms (out of a field); have a very simple sense of humour (which even my appreciative critics find tiresome); I go to bed late and get up late (when possible). I do not travel much. [Letters, pp. 288-9]
    Some of these similarities are mentioned later in the Prologue, and in Book I, Chapter 1.
    1 (1:10). the art of disappearing swiftly and silently - In The Hobbit it is said about Hobbits: 'There is little or no magic about them, except the ordinary everyday sort which helps them to disappear quietly and quickly when large stupid folk like you and me come blundering along' (Chapter 1).
    1-2 (I: 10-11): For they are a little people
    1-2 (I: 10-11). For they are a little people, smaller than Dwarves: less stout and stocky, that is, even when they are not actually much shorter. Their height is variable, ranging between two and four feet of our measure. They seldom now reach three feet; but they have dwindled, they say, and in ancient days they were taller. - In The Hobbit (2nd edn. and later) it is said only that Hobbits 'are (or were) a little people, about half our height, and smaller than the bearded dwarves' (Chapter 1). In a letter written to his American publisher, Houghton Mifflin, probably in March or April 1938, Tolkien gave the 'actual size' of Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit as 'about three feet or three feet six inches' (Letters, p. 35). But in one of the Tolkien manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford are these three variant statements, written c. 1969, with some repetition as Tolkien develops the text (the second is partly printed in Unfinished Tales, pp. 286-7):


    Halflings was derived from the Niimenorean name for them (in Sindarin Periannath). It was given first to the Harfoots, who became known to the rulers of Arnor in the eleventh century of the Third Age ... ; later it was also applied to the Fallohides and Stoors. The name thus evidently referred to their height as compared with Numenorean men, and was approximately accurate when first given. The Niimenoreans were a people of great stature.... Their full-grown men were often seven feet tall.
    The descriptions and assumptions of the text are not in fact haphazard, and are based on a standard: the average height of a male adult hobbit at the time of the story. For Harfoots this was taken as 3 ft. 6; Fallohides were slimmer and a little taller; and Stoors broader, stouter, and some­what shorter. The remarks in the Prologue [concerning the height of Hobbits] . .. are unnecessarily vague and complicated, owing to the inclusion of references to supposed modern survivals of the race in later times; but as far as the LR [Lord of the Rings] is concerned they boil down to this: the hobbits of the Shire were in height between 3 and 4 feet in height, never less and seldom more. They did not of course call themselves Halflings.
    The description of the height of hobbits is perhaps unnecessarily vague and complicated in the Prologue.... But it boils down to this: Dwarves were about 4 ft. high at least. Hobbits were lighter in build, but not much shorter; their tallest men were 4 ft., but seldom taller. Though nowadays their survivors are seldom 3 ft. high, in the days of the story they were taller which means that they usually exceeded 3 ft. and qualified for the name of halfling. But the name 'halfling' must have originated circa T[hird] A[ge] 1150, getting on for 2,000 years (1868) before the War of the Ring, during which the dwindling of the Numenoreans had shown itself in stature as well as in life-span. So that it referred to a height of full-grown males of an average of, say, 3 ft. 5. The dwindling of the Dunedain was not a normal tendency, shared by peoples whose proper home was Middle-earth; but due to the loss of their ancient land far in the West, nearest of all mortal lands to 'The Undying Realm'. The much later dwindling of hobbits must be due to a change in their state and way of life; they became a fugitive and secret people, driven as Men, the Big Folk, became more and more numerous, usurping the more fertile and habitable lands, to refuge in forest or wilderness: a wandering and poor folk, forgetful of their arts and living a precarious life absorbed in the search for food and fearful of being seen; for cruel men would shoot them for sport as if they were animals. In fact they relapsed into the state of 'pygmies'. The other stunted race, the Driiedain, never rose much above that state.


    In The Marvellous Land of Snergs (1927) by E.A. Wyke-Smith, a work acknowledged by Tolkien as 'an unconscious source-book for the Hobbits (letter to W.H. Auden, 7 June 1955, Letters, p. 215), the title characters 'are a race of people only slightly taller than the average table but broad in the shoulders and of great strength. Probably they are some offshoot of the pixies who once inhabited the hills and forests of England, and who finally disappeared about the reign of Henry VIII' (p. 7). Critics of The Hobbil and The Lord of the Rings have often compared Hobbits to antecedents in fairy- and folk-tales, noting especially that hobs, brownies, leprechauns, and the like are also 'little people', who likewise often dress in green and live underground.
    In his letter of ?late 1951 to Milton Waldman Tolkien said that he made Hobbits
    small (little more than half human stature, but dwindling as the years pass) partly to exhibit the pettiness of man, plain unimaginative par­ochial man - though not with either the smallness or the savageness of Swift, and mostly to show up, in creatures of very small physical power, the amazing and unexpected heroism of ordinary men 'at a pinch'. [Letters, p. 158]
    Tolkien saw his Hobbits as different from Men only in size, and in being longer lived except in relation to Men of Numenorean descent (though at the end of the Third Age even their span of years was no longer as great as it once had been). The Dwarves are different again in size, mortal like Men and Hobbits, but unless slain usually lived at least 250 years. In Tolkien's mythology Elves, Men, Hobbits, and Dwarves are all basically human, but their division and differences enabled Tolkien to isolate and explore certain aspects of humankind. Inter-species relationships in his fiction to some extent replace interaction between different nationalities and races in reality.
    1 (I: 10). Dwarves - Here, as earlier in The Hobbit, Tolkien uses dwarves as the plural of dwarf. He acknowledged in correspondence that in English grammar the 'correct' plural is dwarfs; 'but philology suggests that dwar-rows would be the historical form [if developed from Old English dweorgas]. The real answer is that I knew no better' (letter to the Observer, ?February 1938, Letters, p. 31). Tolkien added a note about dwarves to The Hobbit with the Unwin Books edition of 1966, and inserted the following pp
    It may be observed that in this book as in The Hobbit the form dwarves is used, although the dictionaries tell us that the plural of dwarf is dwarfs. It should be dwarrows (or dwerrows), if singular and plural had each gone its own way down the years, as have man and men, or goose and geese. But we no longer speak of a dwarf as often as we do of a man, or even of a goose, and memories have not been fresh enough

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    the fellowship of the ring

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow pp. 11-44, 233-41, 314-15, 370-4, 376-9, 384-6; The Treason of Isengard pp. 18-21.
    21 (I: 29). [chapter title] - The title of the first chapter of The Lord of the Rings, A Long-expected Party', is a deliberate echo of the title of the first chapter of The Hobbit (1937), 'An Unexpected Party'.
    21 (I: 29): When Mr. Bilbo Baggins
    21 (I: 29). Baggins of Bag End - In Nomenclature Tolkien notes thai Baggins is 'intended to recall "bag" - compare Bilbo's conversation with Smaug in The Hobbit - and meant to be associated (by hobbits) with Bag End (sc. the end of a "bag" or "pudding bag" = cul-de-sac), the local name for Bilbo's house. (It was the local name for my aunt's [Jane Neave] farm in Worcestershire [Dormiston Manor], which was at the end of a lane leading to it and no further.)' In The Hobbit, Chapter 12, Bilbo says to the dragon Smaug: T came from the end of a bag, but no bag went over me. Bag End (spelt Bag-End in The Hobbit) is at the end of a lane leading up The Hill, a high point in the village of Hobbiton, as shown in Tolkien's illustration for The Hobbit, The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the Water {Artist ana Illustrator, fig. 98; see also figs. 89-97).
    Tom Shippey comments in The Road to Middle-earth that
    cul-de-sacs are at once funny and infuriating. They belong to no lan­guage, since the French call such a thing an impasse and the English a 'dead-end'. The word has its origins in snobbery, the faint residual feeling that English words, ever since the Norman Conquest, have beer 'low' and that French ones, or even Frenchified ones, would be better, Cul-de-sac is accordingly a peculiarly ridiculous piece of English class-feeling - and Bag End a defiantly English reaction to it. As for Mi Baggins, one thing he is more partial to than another is his tea, which he has at four o'clock. But over much of the country 'tea', indeed anything eaten between meals but especially afternoon tea 'in a substan­tial form' as the OED says, is called 'baggins'. The OED prefers the 'politer' form 'bagging', but Tolkien himself knew that people who used words like that were almost certain to drop the terminal -g (another post-Conquest confusion anyway). He would have found the term glossed under bazggin ... in W.E. Haigh's [New] Glossary of the Dialect of the Huddersfeld District (London: Oxford University Press), for which he had written an appreciative prologue in 1928. [2nd edn, p. 66]


    Haigh defines the word as 'a meal, now usually "tea", but formerly any meal; a bagging. Probably so called because workers generally carried their meals to work in a bag of some kind' (p. 6). But 'baggin' also appears (under Bagging) in the great English Dialect Dictionary of Tolkien's friend and mentor Joseph Wright, in the example 'He did eit a looaf an' a peawnd o' ham an' three eggs at his baggin'. Douglas A. Anderson comments in The Annotated Hobbit that Baggins 'is therefore an appropriate name to be found among hobbits, who we are told have dinner twice a day, and for Bilbo, who later in Chapter 1, sits down to his second breakfast. In the Prologue to The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien notes that hobbits were fond of "six meals a day (when they could get them)"' (2nd edn., p. 30).
    21 (I: 29). his eleventy-first birthday - The term eleventy-first (111) is in the humorous, sometimes childish vein of language (with other words such as tweens) found in parts of The Hobbit, and which Tolkien uses in The Lord of the Rings to characterize the Hobbits and their culture in contrast with other races of Middle-earth. The Tolkien scholar Arden R. Smith informs us that
    the word eleventy has a philological basis, seen in Old English hund-endleofantig and Old Norse ellifu tigir 'no'. The Old English word is attested in such forms as hundendlyftig, hundxndlafiig, and hundazlleftig (see OED s.v. fhund). Although the prefix hund- was often omitted in words of this type, there do not appear to be any attestations oi*endleo-fantig without the prefix, [private correspondence]
    21 (I: 29): Bilbo was very rich
    21 (I: 29). Bilbo ... had been the wonder of the Shire for sixty years, ever since his remarkable disappearance and unexpected return. - For
    a bare summary of the story of Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit, see part 4 of the Prologue, 'Of the Finding of the Ring' (pp. 11-14, Is 20-3). Bilbo 'disappeared' from the Shire in S.R. 1341, most remarkably for a quiet-loving hobbit, on the spur of the moment, and (though no eyewitnesses are reported) most publicly in the company of twelve dwarves and the wizard Gandalf from the Green Dragon Inn at Bywater. He returned to Hobbiton in S.R. 1342 to find himself presumed dead and his home and personal property being sold at auction. 'The return of Mr Bilbo Baggins created quite a disturbance, under the Hill and over the Hill, and across the Water; it was a great deal more than a nine days' wonder. The legal bother, indeed, lasted for years' (The Hobbit, Chapter 19).
    21 (I: 29). the Hill - A small isolated hill on the south side of which lay Hobbiton' (Index). The name first appeared in The Hobbit, Chapter 1, with an illustration: see Artist and Illustrator, figs. 92-8. Tom Shippey comments in The Road to Middle-earth that at the time of The Hobbit it was Tolkien's common practice 'simply to make names out of capital letters. Thus Bilbo


    lives in a tunnel which goes "not quite straight into the side of the hill -The Hill, as all the people for many miles round called it'" (2nd edn, p. 87).
    21 (I: 29). At ninety he [Bilbo] was much the same as at fifty. At ninety-nine they began to call him well-preserved - In ?late 1951 Tolkien wrote to Milton Waldman that 'the normal [life] span of hobbits is represented as being roughly in the proportion of 100 [years] to our 80' (Waldman LR). Indeed it is not unusual to find entries in the family trees of Appendix C for hobbits who lived to be 100 or more.
    21 (I: 29): But so far trouble had not come
    21 (I: 29). He remained on visiting terms with his relatives (except, of course, the Sackville-Bagginses) - 'Sackville is an English name (of more aristocratic association than Baggins). It is of course joined in the story with Baggins because of the similar meaning in English (= Common Speech) sack and bag, and because of the slightly comic effect of this conjunction' {Nomenclature). In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey remarks that Bilbo's cousins 'have severed their connection with Bag End while calling it cul-de-sac{k) and tagging on the French suffix -ville (2nd edn., p. 66). In his draft letter to A.C. Nunn, probably late 1958-early 1959, Tolkien wrote that in some 'great families the headship might pass through a daughter of the deceased [head] to his eldest grandson. ... In such cases the heir (if he accepted the courtesy title) took the name of his mother's family - though he often retained that of his father's family also (placed second). This was the case with Otho Sackville-Baggins. For the nominal headship of the Sackvilles had come to him through his mother Camellia' {Letters, p. 295).
    In The Hobbit, when Bilbo returns from his adventure, the Sackville-Bagginses 'never admitted that the returned Baggins was genuine, and they were not on friendly terms with Bilbo ever after. They really had wanted to live in his hobbit-hole so very much' (Chapter 19).
    21 (I: 29): The eldest of these
    21 (I: 29). When Bilbo was ninety-nine he adopted Frodo as his heir ... and the hopes of the Sackville-Bagginses were finally dashed. - At the
    end of The Hobbit, Chapter 19, 'Bilbo's cousins the Sackville-Bagginses were ... busy measuring his rooms [at Bag End] to see if their own furniture would fit. In short Bilbo was "Presumed Dead", and not every­body that said so was sorry to find the presumption wrong.' Otho Sackville-Baggins was heir not only to the headship of the Sackville family, but also to that of the Baggins family on his cousin Bilbo's 'death' in S.R. 1342 (Bilbo had succeeded to the title on his mother's death in 1334), but Bilbo returned, and once Bilbo had adopted Frodo as his heir, Otho was denied 'his rather absurd ambition to achieve the rare distinction of being "head"


    of two families ... a situation which will explain his exasperation with the adventures and disappearances of Bilbo, quite apart from any loss of property involved in the adoption of Frodo.' After the 'legal fiasco' of 1342 regarding Bilbo's 'death', 'no one dared to presume his death again' (draft letter to A.C. Nunn, probably late 1958-early 1959, Letters, pp. 294, 295).
    21 (I: 29). tweens, as the hobbits called the irresponsible twenties between childhood and coming of age at thirty-three - Tweens is a play on 'teens', i.e. the teenage years, but also on 'between' and 'twenties'. In Tolkien's day, one legally 'came of age' at twenty-one.
    21-2 (I: 29-30): Twelve more years passed
    22 (I: 30). the Old Took - Gerontius Took (1190-1320). The Old Took was first mentioned in The Hobbit, Chapter 1, as the father of Bilbo Baggins' mother Belladonna Took and the friend of Gandalf. Frodo, Merry, and Pippin are also among his many descendants. In the fifth draft version of Book I, Chapter 1 (in which the Old Took lived only to 125) Tolkien wrote that 'the title Old was bestowed on him ... not so much for his age as for his oddity, and because of the enormous number of the young, younger, and youngest Tooks' (The Return of the Shadow, p. 245). When preparing The Tale of Years Tolkien wanted to call the Old Took Tsembard', but The Two Towers was already in print, in which Pippin refers to 'Old Gerontius' (Book III, Chapter 4). Gerontius is probably derived from the Greek for 'old man'; the poem The Dream of Gerontius by John Henry Newman was widely celebrated in the late 19th century. In an unpublished letter to Anneke C. Kloos-Adriaansen and P. Kloos, 18 April and 6 May 1963, Tolkien wrote that the Old Took
    has part of his origins in the fact that both my grandfathers were longeval. My father's father was in his eleventh year when Waterloo was fought; my mother's father, a much younger man, was born before Queen Victoria came to the throne, and survived till his ninety-ninth year [Biography gives his dates as 1833-1930], missing his 'hundred' (with which he was as much concerned as Bilbo was to surpass the Old Took) only because he mowed a large lawn that spring and then sat in the wind without a jacket, [courtesy of Christopher Tolkien]
    22 (I: 30): Tongues began to wag
    22 (1:30). Bywater - 'Village name: as being beside the wide pool occurring in the course of the Water, the main river of the Shire, a tributary of the Brandywine' (Nomenclature). Bywater was first mentioned in The Hobbit, Chapter 2: Bilbo Baggins met Thorin and company there at the Green uragon inn.


    22 (I: 30): No one had a more attentive audience
    22 (I: 30). Ham Gamgee, commonly known as the Gaffer - Ham is
    intended to be short for Hamfast, from Old English hdm.jx.st 'stay at home'. In Appendix F it is said that the 'true' name of Hamfast is Ranugad, or Ran for short.
    In the finished Nomenclature Tolkien notes that Gamgee is 'a surname found in England though uncommon. I do not know its origin; it does not appear to be English. It is also a word for "cotton-wool" (now obsoles­cent but known to me in childhood), derived from the name of S. [Samp­son] Gamgee, died 1886, a distinguished surgeon, who invented "Gamgee tissue")'. But in a draft of this entry it is said that Gamgee is
    a difficult name, but important as that of one of the chief characters [Sam]. It has no recognizable meaning in this form, and therefore, according to the theory of translation from C[ommon] S[peech] into Anglicized names the actual CS name had no meaning still apparent in its own time. ... Gamgee has the second g soft. . ..
    According to the general theory [described at the beginning of Nomenclature] a hobbit name that had no recognizable meaning should be retained, and its sound represented according to the habits of English, or any other Language of Translation. It might therefore be a reasonable procedure in this case to replace Gamgee by its real contemporary form, stated [at the end of Appendix F] to have been Galbasi or contracted Galpsi.
    Gamgee is however a borderline case. Though the origin or meaning of Galbasi, Galpsi was not at that time generally known, in the family it was said to be derived from the village name Galabas, which had a meaning, being composed of elements = English play + one of the words common in place-names, in full or reduced form, such as -ham, -ton, -wich, or -stow.... Gamgee is an English surname, though not a common one. To my surprise I once received a letter about my book from a living person bearing the name Sam Gamgee. He had not, and I have not any information about its origin, but some relationship to the surnames Gammidge, Gam(m)age is possible... .
    As a matter of personal history, distinct from the internal fictions of the tale, the use of Gamgee has a history that might interest some people. I knew the name as a child, and thought it amusingly odd and it stuck in my mind. But its oddity was largely due to the fact that gamgee was to me the ordinary name for (surgical) 'cottonwool'. I supposed that Dr. Gamgee got his name from it. Many years later for the amusement of my children a character, partly fictitious but based on an actual old rustic met on holiday, fond of talking to anybody over his garden fence, was invented and called Gaffer Gamgee. He did not get into The Hobbit, then beginning to be composed (1932 [a questionable date - authors]), but a few years later got into the early chapters of the sequel.

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    Chapter 2

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 75-87, 250-72, 318-23; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 21-9, 38-9.
    42 (I: 51): But in the meantime
    42 (I: 51). run off into the Blue___The blame was mostly laid on
    Gandalf. - Into the Blue 'into the unknown, into the "wide (or wild) blue yonder"'. In The Hobbit, Chapter 1, Bilbo says: 'Not the Gandalf who was responsible for so many quiet lads and lasses going off into the Blue for mad adventures?'
    42 (I: 51): 'If only that dratted wizard
    42 (I: 51). a party in honour of Bilbo's hundred-and-twelfth birthday, which he called a Hundred-weight Feast - In Britain a hundredweight is 112 pounds.
    42-3 (I: 51-2): He lived alone, as Bilbo had done
    42 (I: 51). he had a good many friends, especially among the younger hobbits (mostly descendants of the Old Took).... Folco Boffin and Fredegar Bolger were two of these; but his closest friends were Peregrin Took (usually called Pippin), and Merry Brandybuck (his real name was Meriadoc - Frodo was born in S.R. 1368, Folco in 1378, Fredegar 'Fatty' in 1380 (as was Sam Gamgee), Merry in 1382, and Pippin in 1390. Of the four leading hobbits of The Lord of the Rings, Frodo is by far the eldest, twelve years older than Sam, fourteen older than Merry, and twenty-two older than Pippin. Folco helps Frodo pack for his move to Crickhollow in Book I, Chapter 3, then has no more part in the story. It has been noted that Folco, Fredegar, Pippin, and Merry are all great-great-grandsons of the Old Took (Frodo is a great-grandson).
    43 (I: 52): There were rumours of strange things
    43 (I: 52). Elves, who seldom walked in the Shire, could now be seen passing westward through the woods in the evening, passing and not returning; but they were leaving Middle-earth and were no longer con­cerned with its troubles. There were, however, dwarves on the road in unusual numbers. The ancient East-West Road ran through the Shire to its end at the Grey Havens, and dwarves had always used it on their way to their mines in the Blue Mountains. They were the hobbits' chief source of news.... - As first published this passage read: 'Elves, who


    seldom walked in the Shire, could now be seen passing westward through the woods in the evening, passing but not returning; but they shook their heads and went away singing sadly to themselves. There were, however, dwarves in unusual numbers, [paragraph:] The great West Road, of course, ran through the Shire over the Brandywine Bridge, and dwarves had always used it from time to time. They were the hobbits' chief source of news....' Tolkien intended the revision to include 'through the Shire over the Brandy-wine Bridge to its end at the Grey Havens', but the words here italicized were omitted in the second edition (1965) by Ballantine Books, and Tolkien chose to accept the error.
    On the elves passing westward, Tolkien wrote to Naomi Mitchison on 25 September 1954:
    But the promise was made to the Eldar (the High Elves - not to other varieties, they had long before made their irrevocable choice, preferring Middle-earth to paradise) for their sufferings in the struggle with the prime Dark Lord [Melkor] had still to be fulfilled: that they should always be able to leave Middle-earth, if they wished, and pass over Sea to the True West by the Straight Road, and so come to Eressea - but so pass out of time and history, never to return. [Letters, p. 198]
    In his unfinished index Tolkien defines the 'East Road' as 'the great ancient road from the Grey Havens to Rivendell, called by Hobbits the East Road (or great East Road from Brandywine Bridge eastwards)'.
    The Blue Mountains are the Ered Luin; see note for p. 4.
    43 (I: 52). But now Frodo often met strange dwarves of far countries, seeking refuge in the West. - As first published this sentence read: 'But now Frodo often met strange dwarves of different kinds, coming out of southern lands.' It was revised in the second edition (1965).
    43 (1:52). Mordor - Mordor 'black-land' (Index) is the land under the direct rule of Sauron, east of the mountains of the Ephel Duath in the East of Middle-earth. The name is derived from Sindarin morn (adjective) 'dark, black' + dor 'land'. In a letter to Alina Dadlez, foreign rights coordinator at George Allen & Unwin, 23 February 1961, Tolkien commented that
    the placing of Mordor in the east was due to simple narrative and geographical necessity, within my 'mythology'. The original stronghold of Evil was (as traditionally) in the North [the lands of Melkor/Morgoth in 'The Silmarillion']; but as that had been destroyed, and was indeed under the sea, there had to be a new stronghold, far removed from the Valar, the Elves, and the sea-power of Numenor. [Letters, p. 307]
    44 (I: 53): That name the hobbits only knew in legends
    44 (1:53). the evil power in Mirkwood had been driven out by the White Council - See Gandalf's account in Book II, Chapter 2. In The Hobbit,


    Chapter 19, it is revealed that 'Gandalf had been to a great council of the white wizards, masters of lore and good magic; and that they had at last driven the Necromancer from his dark hold in the south of Mirkwood'. In the first and second editions of The Hobbit (1937,1951) Gandalf says of this that 'the North is freed from that horror for many long years, I hope'; but as revised in 1966, with the events of The Lord of the Rings in mind, he says instead that 'the North will be freed from that horror for many long years, I hope' (emphasis ours).
    In Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age it is said that when, after a time of watchful peace, the shadow of evil fell upon Mirkwood, 'in that time was first made the Council of the Wise that is called the White Council, and therein were Elrond and Galadriel and Cirdan, and other lords of the Eldar, and with them were Mithrandir [Gandalf] and Curunir [Saruman]' (The Silmarillion, p. 300). On the White Council, see further, The Hunt for the Ring in Unfinished Tales, especially pp. 349-52.
    44 (I: 53). the Dark Tower had been rebuilt - Barad-dur, the fortress of Sauron, built in Mordor as a stronghold against the power of the Numenoreans c. 1000-1600 (Second Age), besieged in Second Age 3434-41. In that conflict the tower itself was broken, but its foundations, built with the power of the Ring, were not destroyed. Sauron returned openly to power and began to rebuild Barad-dur in Third Age 2951.
    44 (I: 53). Trolls - In Appendix F it is said that
    Troll has been used to translate the Sindarin Torog. In their beginning far back in the twilight of the Elder Days, these were creatures of dull and lumpish nature.... But Sauron had made use of them, teaching them what little they could learn and increasing their wits with wickedness....
    But at the end of the Third Age a troll-race not before seen appeared in southern Mirkwood and in the mountain borders of Mordor. ... Olog-hai were they called in the Black Speech. That Sauron bred them none doubted, though from what stock was not known.. .. Trolls they were, but filled with the evil will of their master: a fell race, strong, agile, fierce and cunning, but harder than stone, [p. 1132, I: 410]
    In Book III, Chapter 4, Treebeard states his belief that Trolls are counterfeits made by Morgoth, the Dark Lord of an earlier age, in mockery of Ents. See further, note for p. 205.
    44 (I: 53): Little of all this
    44 (1:53). The Green Dragon - Dozens of pubs with this name are recorded in Britain. There was one in Oxford, in different buildings in St Aldates, from 1587 until its final demolition in 1926.
    44 (I: 53). the spring of Frodo's fiftieth year - It is S.R. 1418.


    44 (I: 53): Sam Gamgee was sitting
    44 (I: 53). Sam Gamgee - On 24 December 1944 Tolkien wrote to his son Christopher:
    Cert[ainly] Sam is the most closely drawn character, the successor to Bilbo of the first book, the genuine hobbit. Frodo is not so interesting, because he has to be highminded, and has (as it were) a vocation. The book will prob[ably] end up with Sam. Frodo will naturally become too ennobled and rarefied by the achievement of the great Quest, and will pass West with all the great figures; but S[am] will settle down to the Shire and gardens and inns. {Letters., p. 105]
    44 (I: 53): 'No thank 'ee'
    44 (I: 53)- No thank 'ee - 'No thank you'; 'ee is a colloquial contraction for ye.
    44 (I: 53): 'All right,' said Sam
    44 (I: 53)- Tree-men, these giants ... one bigger than a tree was seen up away beyond the North Moors - As first written in draft, Sam spoke of 'giants . .. nigh as big as a tower or leastways a tree', changed at the time of writing to 'Tree-men'. Christopher Tolkien comments in The Return of the Shadow: 'Was this passage . . . the first premonition of the Ents? But long before my father had referred to "Tree-men" in connection with the voyages of Earendel' (p. 254). In Appendix D it is said that it was 'a jesting idiom in the Shire to speak of "on Friday the first" when referring to a day that did not exist [since no month began on a Friday in the Shire Calendar], or to a day on which very unlikely events such as the flying of pigs or (in the Shire) the walking of trees might occur' (p. 1109, III: 387).
    44 (I» 53)- North Moors - 'The lower-slopes of the Hills of Evendim, and north-boundary of the Shire' (Index).
    44 (I; 53): 'My cousin Hal for one
    44 (I: 53). My cousin Hal for one. He works for Mr. Boffin at Overfull and goes up to the Northfarthing for the hunting. - Cousin Hal is Halfast Gamgee, son of Hamfast Gamgee's younger brother, Halfred of Overfull. In a draft revision of this chapter the 'Tree-men' were seen by Jo Button, who worked for 'Mr Fosco Boffin of Northope', at that point in the develop­ment of the story Bilbo's first cousin once removed, the son of Jago Boffin and grandson of Hugo Boffin. Jago and Hugo survived into the final Boffin family tree (published at last in Appendix C in the edition of 2004), but in Fosco's place is 'Vigo'. Tolkien later changed Northope to The Yale, then to Overhill (moving 'The Yale' elsewhere; see note for p. 76). In his notes for the —-Dutch translator Tolkien said of Overhill: 'plainly the village received its name since it was over or beyond The Hill from Hobbiton'.


    Hal's hunting in the Northfarthing is presumably for food: in the Prologue it is said that Hobbits killed nothing for sport.
    44 (I: 53): 'But this one was as big as an elm tree
    44 (I: 53)- seven yards to a stride - If the 'giant' is an Ent, then this is an exaggeration: a true Ent-stride measures four feet (see note for p. 470).
    45 (I: 54): 'And I've heard tell that Elves
    45 (I: 54). the White Towers - The elf-towers on the Tower Hills; see note for p. 7.
    45 (I: 54)- elven-ships - One of the issues considered in preparing the anniversary edition of 2004 was that of compound words beginning elven-or Elven- (of which elven-ships is merely the first to appear in the text). In 1975 Christopher Tolkien advised Allen & Unwin, regarding a list of sug­gested emendations to a reprint of the 1974 Unwin Books edition of The Lord of the Rings, that in words such as dwarf-candles, elf-fountains, and goblin-barkers the first element is used attributively and is properly in lower case. Of similar kind are forms in elven- : elven-blade, elven-blood, elven-boat, elven-bows, elven-brooch, elven-cake, elven-cloak(s), elven-eyes, elven-fair, elven-fingers, elven-flowers, elven-glass, elven-grey, elven-hoods, elven-light, elven-maids (excepting the poetic 'An Elven-maid there was of old', Book II, Chapter 6), elven-mail, elven-princeling, elven-rope, elven-runes, elven-script, elven-sheath, elven-ship(s), elven-skill, elven-song, elven-strands, elven-sword, elven-tongue, elven-tower, elven-voices, elven-white, elven-wise (but compare 'the Elven-wise, lords of the Eldar', Book II, Chapter 1), and elven-work. In Tolkien's usage these are clearly in the majority compared with capitalized Elven-folk, Elven-home (as a place name), Elven-kin, Elven-kind, Elven-king(s), Elven-lady ('the Elven-lady', lady of the Elves, i.e. Galadriel), Elven-latin, Elven-lord(s), Elven-lore, Elven-rings, Elven-river (i.e. the Esgalduin), Elven-smiths, Elven-speech (but compare elven-tongue), Elven-stars (poetically), Elven-tears (poetically), Elven-way ('the Elven-way from Hollin'), and (the) Elven-wise. Of this second group, most appear to be specific names or titles, or to refer to specific groups, e.g. Elven-rings denotes the whole body of rings made by the Elves of Eregion, and Elven-smiths refers to those particular Elves; and on this basis we emended one instance of elven-folk in Appendix F ('the Elven-folk of Mirkwood and Lorien') to Elven-folk. Elven-lore, used only twice in The Lord of the Rings, seems of a more general nature, akin to elven-runes, elven-script, etc., unless it means a specific body of knowledge, the lore of the Elves; and Elven-speech is surely similar, if not equivalent, to elven-tongue, but in the context of its single use in The Lord of the Rings (Appendix F, 'the native speech of the Numenoreans remained for the most part their ancestral Mannish tongue, the Adunaic, and to this in the

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    Chapter 3

    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, pp. 40-72, 273-85, 323-5, 330; The Treason oflsengard, pp. 29-32.
    65 (I: 74). [chapter title] - 'Three Is Company' plays on the proverb Two is company, three is a crowd. The original draft of the chapter was called 'Three's Company and Four's More'.
    65 (I: 74): He looked at Frodo
    65 (I: 74). I shall really turn him into a toad - Nowhere in The Hobbit or The Lord of the Rings does Gandalf exercise the power to transform one kind of being into another, and one suspects that here he does not literally mean what he says. It makes no difference to Sam, however, who believes that Gandalf could, if he chose, change him into something 'unnatural', a belief which Frodo encourages ('if you even breathe a word of what you've heard here, then I hope Gandalf will turn you into a spotted toad and fill the garden full of grass-snakes', p. 64,1: 73).
    65-6 (I: 74-5): 'I have been so taken up
    66 (I: 75). Bilbo went to find a treasure, there and back again - There and Back Again is the subtitle of The Hobbit. Of course, Frodo too goes 'there' to Mount Doom, 'and back again' to Bag End.
    66 (I: 75): 'Towards danger, but not too rashly
    66 (I: 75). the Road ... will grow worse as the year fails - Fail is used here in an obsolete sense, 'come to an end'.
    66 (I: 75): 'Rivendell!' said Frodo
    66 (I: 75). Halfelven - The forms Halfelven and Half-elven both appear in The Lord of the Rings, the former in the text proper, the latter in Appendix A (e.g. 'the long-sundered branches of the Half-elven were reunited') as also in The History of Galadriel and Celeborn in Unfinished Tales. Christopher Tolkien does not believe that his father ever intended a distinction between the forms, and no clear preference by Tolkien can be discerned. In the index to The Silmarillion the term Half-elven (thus) is glossed: 'translation of Sindarin Peredhel, plural Peredhu" (p. 334).
    67 (I: 76): As a matter of fact
    67 (1:76). Crickhollow in the country beyond Bucklebury - In Nomencla­ture Tolkien states that Crickhollow 'is meant to be taken as composed of


    an obsolete element + known word hollow', in the sense 'a small depression in the ground'. In his notes for the Dutch translator Tolkien calls crick-'another of the "Celtic" elements in Buckland and East-farthing names', thus probably from British cruc 'a hill' or Old Welsh *creic 'rock, cliff'. In Book I, Chapter 5, when Frodo and his companions approach Crickhollow they follow a lane 'for a couple of miles as it climbed up and down into the country' (p. 100,1: 110).
    67 (I: 76): 'Well no; but I have heard
    67 (I: 76). I have heard something - How and from whom Gandalf heard something, while he 'kept himself very quiet and did not go about by day' (p. 66,1: 75), is not revealed; but clearly he has had a message or messages of some sort. Compare Book II, Chapter 2, in which Gandalf says merely that at this time 'a cloud of anxiety was on my mind' and T had a foreboding of some danger, still hidden from me but drawing near' (p. 256, I: 269). In notes dated 'Autumn 1939' Tolkien planned that 'it was a messenger of Trotter's [then a hobbit "ranger" who kept watch on the Shire] ... that took Gandalf away - fearing Black Riders' {The Treason of Isengard, p. 9).
    67 (I: 76-7): On September 20th two covered carts
    67 (I: 77)- Thursday, his birthday morning dawned - It is 22 September 1418.
    67 (I: 77): The next morning they were busy packing
    67 (I: 77). The next morning - 23 September.
    68-9 (I: 77-8): After lunch, the Sackville-Bagginses
    68 (I: 77). Lotho - During the writing of The Lord of the Rings the name of Otho and Lobelia Sackville-Baggins' son was Cosimo. Only after he completed the narrative did Tolkien replace it with Lotho, possibly formed from elements in the names of both his parents.
    68 (I: 78). she was now a hundred years old - Lobelia was born in S.R. 1318. At 23 or 24 she was already married to Otho when Bilbo returned to the Shire in 1342 in The Hobbit. Lotho was not born for another twenty-two years. The Hobbit family-trees in Appendix C show that another young wife and mother, Rosa Baggins, who married Hildigrim Took, had a son when she was 24, but otherwise they suggest that female Hobbits generally married in their thirties. Christopher Tolkien points out that in early drafts of this chapter Lobelia was even younger: 'Lobelia was in both versions 92 years old at this time, and had had to wait seventy-seven years (as in FR [The Fellowship of the Ring]) for Bag-end, which makes her a grasping fifteen year old when Bilbo came back at the end of The Hobbit to find her measuring his rooms' {The Return of the Shadow, p. 283, n. 5).

    69 (I: 78): He took his own tea
    69 (I: 78). to do for Mr. Frodo - To do for 'to look after, keep house for'. 69 (I: 78): The sun went down
    69 (I: 78). Hill Road - 'The road up the Hill to Bag End and Overfull
    beyond' {Index).
    69 (I: 78): The sky was clear
    69 (I: 78). I am going to start - Some have criticized Tolkien for taking so long to launch Frodo on his quest. Not until the third chapter does he start, and then proceeds at a leisurely pace, arriving at Crickhollow in Chapter 5. But as Wayne G. Hammond observes in 'All the Comforts: The Image of Home in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings', Mythlore 14, no. 1, whole no. 51 (Autumn 1987):
    If Tolkien had hurried Frodo and his companions into adventure ... we would not appreciate so well the arcadia that Frodo is willing to give up for the sake of his people.. . . Proceeding at the author's deliber­ately casual pace, we grow to love the Shire as we never loved Bag End in The Hobbit (though we found it a desirable residence), having visited there so briefly before Bilbo was hurried away. [p. 31]
    70 (I: 79): Pippin was sitting
    70 (I: 79). Sam! Time! - Since Sam has been having a final drink before leaving, it may not be coincidental that Frodo's call is similar to that heard in an English pub at closing time.
    70 (I: 79): 'All aboard, Sam?'
    70 (I: 79). All aboard - A traditional call for passengers to board a vessel, signalling an imminent departure.
    70 (I: 79): Frodo shut and locked
    70 (I: 79). cut along - Run, move quickly.
    70-1 (I: 80): For a short way they followed the lane
    71 (I: 80). along hedgerows and the borders of coppices - A hedgerow is a row of bushes or shrubs, and sometimes trees, forming a living fence, boundary, or enclosure. Hedgerows are a quintessential part of the English landscape: some are centuries old.
    A coppice is a small wood or thicket, grown for the purpose of periodic cutting.
    71 (I: 80): After some time they crossed the Water
    71 (I: 80). The stream was there no more than a winding black ribbon, bordered with leaning alder-trees. A mile or two further south they


    hastily crossed the great road from the Brandywine Bridge; they were now in the Tookland and bending south-eastwards they made for the Green Hill Country. As they began to climb its first slopes they looked back and saw the lamps in Hobbiton far off twinkling in the gentle valley of the Water. - As first published this passage read: 'The stream was there no more than a winding black ribbon, bordered with leaning alder-trees. They were now in Tookland, and going southwards; but a mile or two further on they crossed the main road from Michel Delving to Bywater and Brandywine Bridge. Then they struck south-east and began to climb into the Green Hill Country south of Hobbiton. They could see the village twinkling down in the gentle valley of the Water.' It was revised in the second edition (1965).
    Alders, in the birch family, commonly grow on riverbanks and in damp places.
    Tolkien evidently concluded that the northern limit of the Tookland (or folkland of the Tooks; see note for p. 9) was not immediately across the Water from Hobbiton, but further south across the great East Road. That road, moreover, as drawn in the map A Part of the Shire, does not pass through Bywater, which is reached by a side road running north near the Three-Farthing Stone.
    Green Hill Country was spelt with a hyphen ('Green-Hill Country') by Christopher Tolkien on the Shire map, but his father preferred the unhyphened form in the text. The name refers to a hilly region of the Shire from Tookbank in the west to the Woody End in the east.
    71 (I: 80): When they had walked for about three hours
    71 (I: 80). Soon they struck a narrow road, that went rolling up and down, fading grey into the darkness ahead: the road to Woodhall, and Stock, and the Bucklebury Ferry. - As first published this sentence read: 'Soon they struck a narrow road, that went rolling up and down, fading grey into the darkness ahead: the road to Woodhall and the Bucklebury Ferry.' The words 'and Stock' were added in the second edition (1965). In the map A Part of the Shire the village of Stock is too prominent not to be mentioned when referring to this particular road.
    In a note for the Dutch translator of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien commented that the -hall of Woodhall 'in English toponymy is very com­monly (as is here intended) a "recess, a piece of land half enclosed (by slopes, woods, or a river-bend)". The word (ancient halh, hale) is peculiar to English....'
    The name Stock probably derives from Old English stoc 'place'. It is common in English place-names as stoke or stock, but usually combined with some other element.
    71 (I: 80). Woody End - A wooded district at east-end of the Green Hill Country' {Index). In the edition of 2004 'Woody-End' was here emended to 'Woody End', in accord with all other instances of the name.

    72 (I: 81): 'Hobbits!' he thought
    72 (I: 81). 'Hobbits!' he thought. 'Well, what next? I have heard of strange things in his land, but I have seldom heard of a hobbit sleeping out of doors under a tree. Three of them! There's something mighty queer behind this.' He was quite right, but he never found out any more about
    it. - To be told what the fox thought is a curious departure from the narrative, which otherwise records the experiences of those taking part. It is much more in the manner of The Hobbit, with an outside narrator inserting comments, a device Tolkien grew to dislike.
    72 (I: 81): The morning came, pale and clammy
    72 (I: 81). The morning came - It is 24 September 1418. 73-4 (I: 83): 'I don't know,' said Frodo
    73 (I: 83). It came to me then, as if I was making it up; but I may have heard it long ago. - The reader will recognize the song as almost identical to the one Bilbo sang as he set out on his journey in Book I, Chapter 1. The only change is the replacement in the fifth line of 'eager feet' with 'weary feet'. In The Road to Middle-earth Tom Shippey comments that both Bilbo and Frodo 'are leaving Bag End, but the former cheerfully, without the Ring, without responsibility, for Rivendell, the latter with a growing sense of unwished involvement, carrying the Ring and heading in the end for Mordor' (2nd edn., p. 168).
    73-4 (I: 83). He used often to say there was only one Road; that it was like a great river: its springs were at every doorstep, and every path was its tributary. "It's a dangerous business, Frodo, going out of your door," he used to say. "You step into the Road, and if you don't keep your feet, there is no knowing where you might be swept off to. - The Road is a recurring image in Tolkien's writings, often in contrast with the security and comfort of home. It was also a common literary motif when he was young, when there were fewer cars and people walked a great deal. The 'open road' held the promise of freedom and adventure, but also of risk and uncertainty. In The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, Mr Toad praises 'the open road, the dusty highway, the heath, the common, the hedgerows, the rolling downs! Camps, villages, towns, cities! Here to-day, up and off to somewhere else to-morrow! Travel, change, interest, excitement!' (Chapter 2). The uncertainty of where the Road might lead can also be seen as a metaphor for life: no one knows what the future will bring, and at this point in the story Frodo can think no further than Rivendell. Roads and paths (and waterways) also figure in Tolkien's pic­torial art: note especially, in this regard, The Hall at Bag-End {Artist and Illustrator, fig. 139) for The Hobbit-with its open door and the road beyond.
    74 (I: 83). the Lonely Mountain - Erebor; see note for p. 11.

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, chiefly pp. 88ff., 286-97, 325; The Treason oflsengard, p. 32.
    86 (I: 95): In the morning Frodo woke
    86 (I: 95). In the morning Frodo woke refreshed. - It is 26 September 1418.
    87 (I: 96): 'They seem a bit above my likes and dislikes
    87 (I: 96). so old and young, and so gay and sad - The immortal Elves are in fact centuries old but youthful in appearance, merry in manner but burdened with their own labours and sorrows.
    87 (I: 96): 'Yes, sir. I don't know how to say it
    87 (I: 96). I know we are going to take a very long road, into darkness;
    but I know I can't turn back___I have something to do before the end,
    and it lies ahead, not in the Shire. I must see it through, sir, if you understand me. - Here is our first glimpse of Sam's strength of character: he is not merely a servant, or comic relief. We will see it again several times, especially near the end of Book IV, when Frodo is apparently dead and Sam must choose whether to stay with his fallen master or to continue the quest to Mount Doom: ' "What am I to do then?" he cried again, and now he seemed plainly to know the hard answer: see it through' (p. 732,
    II: 34i).
    Some critics have described the relationship between Frodo and Sam as akin to that of a British army officer and his batman (servant), distin­guished also by their middle- and working-class backgrounds respectively. Indeed Tolkien once remarked that Sam is 'a reflexion of the English soldier, of the privates and batmen I knew in the 1914 war, and recognised as so far superior to myself (quoted in Biography, p. 81). But in dealing with an etymological point in his draft letter to Mr Rang, August 1967, Tolkien described Sam's relationship to Frodo as having the status of one who serves a legitimate master, but the spirit of a friend (if not an equal); see Letters, p. 386.
    Late in 1964 Tolkien commented in a letter to Joan O. Falconer that Sam and Frodo have quite different characters, background, and education. Sam is sententious and cocksure, a 'rustic of limited outlook and know­ledge'. He is a loyal servant, and has a personal love for Frodo, but also 'a touch of the contempt of his kind (moderated to tolerant pity) for motives above their reach'. His attitude towards Frodo is 'slightly paternal, not


    to say patronizing', but his protectiveness is 'largely forced on him by circumstance' after Frodo is injured on Weathertop (Book I, Chapter 11) and takes on the heavy burden of the Ring (Book II, Chapter 2) (Mythprint 8, no. 3 (September 1973), p. 3).
    88 (I: 97): 'We can cut straighter than the road
    88 (I: 97). The Ferry is east from Woodhall; but the hard road curves
    away to the left___It goes round the north end of the Marish so as to
    strike the causeway from the Bridge above Stock. - As first published the first part of this passage read:' "The Ferry is south-east from Woodhall; but the road curves away to the left'. It was revised in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition. In the map A Part of the Shire the road meets the causeway in the village of Stock itself, not above it, but in this instance Tolkien made no change to the text to accommodate the map.
    A causeway is a raised road, usually over wet ground or water.
    88 (I: 97): 'All right!' said Pippin
    88 (I: 97). the Golden Perch - This name is not recorded for any inn or pub in Britain, though there are many with Golden, such as the Golden Cross once in Cornmarket Street, Oxford, and a few named Perch, including three in Oxfordshire. In Nomenclature Tolkien describes this as 'an inn name; probably one favoured by anglers. In any case Perch is the fish-name (and not a land-measure or bird-perch).'
    88-9 (I: 97-8): It was already nearly as hot
    88 (I: 98). Their course had been chosen to leave Woodhall to their left, and to cut slanting through the woods that clustered upon the eastern side of the hills - As first published the final word of this passage read 'hilP. It was emended to 'hills' in the edition of 1994.
    89 (I: 98): 'Why, this is the Stock-brook!'
    89 (I: 98). Stock-brook - 'A stream running from the Woody End by Stock to join the Brandywine River' [Index).
    90 (I: 99-100): Frodo propped his back against the tree-trunk
    90 (I: 99). Hoi Hoi Hoi to the bottle I go ... - 'Rain may fall and wind may blow, / And many miles be still to go, / But under a tall tree I will lie, / And let the clouds go sailing by' recalls Amiens' song in Shakespeare's As You Like It: 'Under the Greenwood tree / Who loves to lie with me, / .... / Here shall he see / No enemy / But winter and rough weather' (Act II, Scene 5).
    90 (I: 99). A long-drawn wail.... like the cry of some evil and lonely creature - 'The Nazgul were they, the Ringwraiths, the Enemy's most


    terrible servants; darkness went with them, and they cried with the voices of death' (Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age in The Silmarillion, p. 289).
    91 (1:100): 'I know these fields and this gate!'
    91 (I: 100). This is Bamfurlong, old Farmer Maggot's land. - As first published this passage read simply: 'We are on old Farmer Maggot's land.' It was revised, with the name of the property added, in the second printing (1967) of the Allen & Unwin second edition. The name Bamfurlong origin­ally appeared in Book VI, Chapter 8, referring to an entirely different place. It is 'an English place-name, probably from bean "bean" + furlong (in sense: 'a division of a common field'), the name being given to a strip of land usually reserved for beans. The name is now, and so is supposed to have been at that time in the Shire, without clear meaning' (Nomenclature). Maggot was intended by Tolkien 'to be a "meaningless" name, hobbit-like in sound. Actually it is an accident that maggot is an English word = "grub, larva"' (Nomenclature). Farmer Maggot appeared again, with his wife and daughters, in the poem Bombadil Goes Boating, in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (1962).
    91 (1:100): 'One trouble after another!'
    91 (I: 100). the slot leading to a dragon's den - Slot in this sense means 'track, marks of an animal's passage'.
    91-2 (1:101): T know,' said Frodo
    92 (I: 101). When I was a youngster - Later in this chapter Frodo says that he has been in terror of Maggot and his dogs for over thirty years: this suggests that he was caught stealing mushrooms by Maggot in S.R. 1387 or earlier, when he was still in his 'tweens' and living at Brandy Hall.
    92 (I: 101). varmint - Dialectal variant of vermin 'a troublesome person or animal'.
    92 (1:101): They went along the lane
    92 (I: 101). Puddifoots - Puddifoot, a 'surname in the muddy Marish', is 'meant to suggest puddle + foot (Nomenclature).
    92 (1:101): Suddenly as they drew nearer
    92 (I: 101). Grip! Fang! Wolf! - The name is 'meant of course to be the English fang "canine or prominent tooth" .. . associated with Grip, the sense of the now lost verb fang" (Nomenclature).
    95-6 (I: 105): Frodo now accepted the invitation
    96 (I: 105). the fire was mended - Fuel was added to the fire.
    96 (1:105). bacon - Thus the Shire-Hobbits must have kept pigs.


    96 (1:105): 'I will!' said he
    96 (I: 105). crossing a deep dike, and climbing a short slope up on to the high-banked causeway - The dike has probably been excavated to build the raised causeway beside the river. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that past use of dike Varies between "ditch, dug out place" and "mound formed by throwing up the earth" and may include both'.
    97 (I: 106): 'I want Mr. Baggins
    97 (I: 106). a dark lantern was uncovered - A lantern with a moveable panel or shutter to hide or reveal the light.
    97 (1:106-7): 'No, I caught 'em trespassing'
    97 (1:107). worriting - Colloquial 'worrying, fretting, anxious'.
    -a-,'riahB.M yfobunc mi m-omtarmf' s ,!wjV,»hti " . : . ••■r d) «

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    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, chiefly pp. 99-106, 298-302, 304-5, 326-7, 330; The Treason of Isengard, chiefly pp. 32-6,39.
    98 (I: 108): They turned down the Ferry Lane
    98 (1:108). Ferry Lane, which was straight and well-kept and edged with large white-washed stones.... The white bollards near the water's edge glimmered in the light of two lamps on high posts - These features are seen in a rough drawing made by Tolkien, as well as the further landing, the steep and winding path, and the lights of Brandy Hall described in the following paragraph. See Artist and Illustrator, fig. 146.
    A bollard is a short post on a quay or ship for securing a rope.
    98 (1:108): Merry led the pony over a gangway
    98 (I: 108). Buck Hill - The hill on the east bank of the Brandywine 'in which the great "smial" of Brandy Hall was built' {Index).
    98 (1:108): Long ago Gorhendad Oldbuck
    98 (1:108). Gorhendad Oldbuck- Gorhendad is Welsh 'great-grandfather'.
    98 (1:108-9): The people in the Marish
    98 (I: 109). Rushey- '"Rush-isle" (sc. in origin a "hard" among the fens of the Marish). The [Old English] element -ey, y in the sense "small island" ... is very frequent in English place-names' {Nomenclature). Rushey is misspelt Rushy on the map A Part of the Shire. There is a Rushy Weir in Oxfordshire, recorded in the sixteenth century as Russhey.
    99 (I: 109): Their land was originally unprotected
    99 (I: 109). the High Hay. It had been planted many generations ago, and was now thick and tall, for it was constantly tended. It ran all the way from Brandywine Bridge ... to Haysend (where the Withy-windle flowed out of the Forest into the Brandywine): well over twenty miles from end to end. - In his unfinished index Tolkien defines the High Hay as 'a great hedge fencing off the Old Forest from Buckland'. The High Hay appears on the map A Part of the Shire as 'The Hedge'. In notes for the Dutch translator of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien comments that 'Hay is of course an archaic word for hedge still very frequent in place-names'. Dictionaries indicate that it might also be used to mean 'a fence; a boundary', and in medieval times it was


    often used to refer to a part of a forest within such a hedge or fence, reserved for hunting.
    In Nomenclature Tolkien defines Haysend as 'the end of the hay or boundary hedge (not hay "dried grass")'.
    In Nomenclature Tolkien also explains that the Withywindle is 'a winding river bordered by willows (withies). Withy- is not uncommon in English place-names, but -windle does not actually occur (withywindle was mod­elled on withywind, a name of the convolvulus or bindweed)'.
    99 (1:109): On the far stage, under the distant lamps
    99 (I: 109). a dark black bundle - Marquette MSS 4/2/36 (The Hunt for the Ring) gives the following account of the Black Riders' pursuit of Frodo on 25 September 1418:
    As soon as the Elves depart [Khamul] renews his hunt, and reaching the ridge above Woodhall is aware that the Ring has been there. Failing to find the Bearer and feeling that he is drawing away, he summons [his companion] by cries. [He] is aware of the general direction that the Ring has taken, but not knowing of Frodo's rest in the wood, and believing him to have made straight eastwards, he and [his companion] ride over the fields. They visit Maggot while Frodo is still under the trees. [Khamul] then makes a mistake (probably because he imagines the Ringbearer as some mighty man, strong and swift): he does not look near the farm, but sends [his companion] down Causeway towards Overbourn, while he goes north along it towards the Bridge. They tryst to return and meet one another at night; but do so just too late. Frodo crosses by ferry just before [Khamul] arrives. [His companion] joins him soon after. [Khamul] is now well aware that the Ring has crossed the river; but the river is a barrier to his sense of its movement.
    99 (1:109): 'They can go ten miles north
    99 (I: 109). ten miles north to Brandywine Bridge - In editions prior to 2004 this distance read 'twenty miles'. In The Return of the Shadow Chris­topher Tolkien notes that his father wrote 'twenty miles' (emended from 'fifteen') at a time when the length of the High Hay, and consequently the length of Buckland from north to south, was 'something over forty miles from end to end'. 'In [The Fellowship of the Ring] the High Hay is "well over twenty miles from end to end", yet Merry still says: "They can go twenty miles north to Brandywine Bridge." ... It is in fact an error which my father never observed: when the length of Buckland from north tc south was reduced, Merry's estimate of the distance of the Bridge from the Ferry should have been changed commensurately' (p. 298). For the correction in 2004, Christopher Tolkien suggested to the editors that 'ter miles' would be a good approximate figure.


    101 (I: 111): 'Trust me to arrange things
    101 (I: 111). three tubs, and a copper full of boiling water - The use of
    the more informal tub rather than bath or bath-tub suggests a portable container, probably wooden with a flat bottom.
    A copper is a large vessel, usually made of copper, used to heat water for domestic purposes, especially for laundry. The bathing arrangements described are typical of the nineteenth century and earlier.
    101 (1:111): Merry and Fatty went into the kitchen
    101 (1:111). The voice of Pippin was suddenly lifted up ... - A recording by Tolkien of the final part of this paragraph and the following song is included on Disc 1 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    101 (1:111): Sing hey! for the bath at close of day
    101 (1:111). loon - Informally, a silly or foolish person.
    102 (I: 112): 'Lawks!' said Merry
    102 (1:112). Lawks! - An expression of surprise, possibly a deformation of 'Lord!'
    102 (I: 113): 'Cousin Frodo has been very close
    102 (I: 113). Cousin Frodo has been very close - The various marriages between Tooks, Brandybucks, and Bagginses created multiple relationships between Frodo and Pippin, and Frodo and Merry. Pippin is both Frodo's second and third cousin, once removed in each case, and Merry is his first, second, and third cousin, once removed in each case.
    Close in this context means 'closed, shut, not forthcoming'.
    103 (1:113): Frodo opened his mouth
    103 (1:113). We have constantly heard you muttering: "Shall I ever look down into that valley again, I wonder" - One such instance is given in Chapter 3, not long after the hobbits set out.
    105 (1:115): 'Step forward, Sam!'
    105 (1:115). before he was finally caught. After which ... he seemed to regard himself as on parole, and dried up.' - Before he dried up (ceased to be a source of information) Sam must, however, have made one final report with details of Gandalf 's conversation with Frodo, otherwise Merry would not know about the Ring.
    105 (1:116): 'And after all, sir'
    105 (I: 116). Gildor said you should take them as was willing - Gildor's actual words were: 'do not go alone. Take such friends as are trusty and will­ing' (Book I, Chapter 3, p. 84,1: 94). Gandalf's words in Book I, Chapter 2


    had been similar: 'I don't think you need go alone. Not if you know of anyone you can trust, and who would be willing to go by your side' (p. 63,1: 72).
    106 (1:116): It was made on the model
    106 (I: 116). It was made on the model of the dwarf-song that started Bilbo on his adventure long ago, and went to the same tune: - That song, 'Far over the misty mountains cold', etc., was published in The Hobbit, Chapter 1; it refers to Dwarf history, the coming of the dragon, and the quest the dwarves are about to begin ('We must away ere break of day, / To claim our long-forgotten gold'). The song here is less grim, more hopeful (in the Hobbit manner): the hobbits do not know where their journey will take them.
    106 (1:116): Farewell we call to hearth and hall!
    106 (I: 116). Farewell we call to hearth and hall!... - A recording by Tolkien of this poem is included on Disc 1 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    106-7 (1:117): 'The answer to the second question
    107 (I: 117). I have prepared practically everything - In the preceding chapters the reader has come to know Frodo, Sam, and Pippin. Now Tolkien establishes Merry as a responsible, thoughtful character able to plan and prepare, distinguishing him from the more impulsive, less mature Pippin.
    107 (I: 117). five ponies - As first published these words read 'six ponies', a trace of an earlier version of the story, in which five hobbits were to journey together, requiring a pony each and one for baggage. This changed when it became Fredegar Bolger's task to stay behind, but the extra pony remained. See The Return of the Shadow, pp. 326-7. Although some readers have tried to explain the reading 'six ponies' by suggesting that one was for Fredegar to ride with his friends as far as the hedge, Merry is here answering Frodo's question about preparations, with details of transport and provisions specifically for the four hobbits who are to make the journey - excluding Fredegar.
    107 (1:117). stores and tackle - Provisions and equipment for their travels.
    107 (1:117): 'That all depends on what you think
    107 (1:117). if they were not stopped at the North-gate, where the Hedge runs down to the river-bank, just this side of the Bridge. The gate-guards would not let them through by night - In his unfinished index Tolkien notes that the North-gate is the same as the 'Buckland Gate' and the 'Hay Gate' referred to by Merry in Book VI, Chapters 7 and 8. The present passage makes it clear that anyone wishing to enter Buckland from the north had to pass through a gate and might be questioned by guards.


    107 (1:117). the Master of the Hall - In fact, Merry's father. 108 (I: 118): Fond as he was of Frodo
    108 (I: 118). Budgeford in Bridgefields - In his unfinished index Tolkien describes Budgeford as a 'village by a ford over the Shire-water in Bridgefields (chief dwelling of the Bolgers)'. In Nomenclature he states that 'budge- was an obscured element, having at the time no clear meaning. Since it [Budgeford] was the main residence of the Bolger family ... it [budge-] may be regarded as a corruption of the element bolge, bulge'
    Bridgefields is described in Index simply as a 'district of the Shire, along the Brandywine, north of the main road (largely inhabited by the Bolgers)'.
    108 (I: 118). but he had never been over the Brandywine Bridge - Fatty is now in Buckland, east of the Brandywine, but he has certainly been on the west side of the river, since he was present at Bilbo's party (indicated in Appendix C) as well as Frodo's birthday dinner at Bag End only a few days earlier, and earlier 'often in and out of Bag End' (Book I, Chapter 2, p. 42, I: 51). It seems unlikely that Tolkien meant to suggest that Fatty always crossed the river by the ferry, and not the bridge; presumably these words are meant to convey that he had never travelled further East on the Road than the Brandywine Bridge, beyond which is the wide world.
    108 (1:118-19): When at last he had got to bed
    108 (1:118-19). a vague dream, in which he seemed to be looking out of a high window over a dark sea of tangled trees. Down below among the roots there was sound of creatures crawling and snuffling. He felt sure they would smell him out sooner or later - Frodo's dream seems to anticipate his first night in Lothlorien, when he hears ores pass by the tree in which he is sleeping, and Gollum sniffing and scrabbling at its foot; yet it goes back to the earliest version of the chapter, long before any idea of Lothlorien arose in Tolkien's mind.
    108 (I: 119): Then he heard a noise in the distance
    108 (1:119). the Sound of the Sea far-off.... He was on a dark heath___
    Looking up he saw before him a tall white tower, standing alone on a high ridge. A great desire came over him to climb the tower and see the Sea. He started to struggle up the ridge towards the tower: but suddenly a light came in the sky, and there was a noise of thunder. - The final paragraphs of this chapter are all that remain of a much longer dream which Tolkien introduced into the narrative in autumn 1939 to explain Gandalf's absence. Gandalf has been pursued by Black Riders, and has taken refuge in a tower. Black Riders are watching the tower, but withdraw when summoned by another Rider; then a grey-mantled figure on a white horse makes his escape. Tolkien was uncertain when Frodo should experi­ence this dream: he tried to place it at Bree where, as the dream ended,

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    Chapter 6 THE OLD FOREST
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, chiefly pp. 110-16, 302, 327-8; The Treason oflsengard, p. 36.

    109 (I: 120): Frodo woke suddenly

    109 (I: 120). Frodo woke - It is 26 September 1418.
    109 (1:120): 'What is it!' cried Merry 109 (1:120). sluggard - A lazy, slow-moving person.
    109 (I: 120): Soon after six o'clock
    109 (I: 120). spinney - A small wood, a thicket. (Compare thicket, note for p. 76.)
    109 (1:120): In their shed they found the ponies
    109 (I: 120). the Hedge - The High Hay; see note for p. 99.

    110 (1:121): 'I don't know what stories you mean

    110 (1:121). goblins - See note for p. 5 (Ores).
    110 (I: 121). In fact long ago they attacked the Hedge: they came and planted themselves right by it, and leaned over it. But the hobbits came and cut down hundreds of trees, and made a great bonfire in the
    Forest___After that the trees gave up the attack, but they became very
    unfriendly. - In fact, the trees were naturally propagating. In a letter to the Daily Telegraph, 30 June 1972, Tolkien wrote: Tn all my works I take the part of trees as against all their enemies. Lothlorien is beautiful because there the trees were loved; elsewhere forests are represented as awakening to consciousness of themselves. The Old Forest was hostile to two legged creatures because of the memory of many injuries' {Letters, p. 419).
    111-12 (I: 122-3): The light grew clearer
    112 (I: 123). hemlocks and wood-parsley, fire-weed seeding into fluffy ashes, and rampant nettles and thistles - By hemlocks Tolkien may be referring to Conium maculatum, which Roger Philips in Wild Flowers of Britain (1977) describes as common in England and Wales, growing to a height of two metres, mainly in damp places but also on disturbed ground. But Tolkien often used hemlocks in a wider sense. Christopher Tolkien has said: 'My father used to refer to all the big white umbellifers as "hemlocks", although he was well aware that a lot of them were really cow parsley or


    chervil' (private correspondence). The Oxford English Dictionary'notes that hemlock is 'also in rural use applied to the large Umbelliferae generally'.
    Wood-parsley may be the same as the cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris) mentioned by Christopher Tolkien.
    Fire-weed may be Epilobium angustifolium, a wildflower commonly found in woodland areas that have been cleared or burned off.
    Nettles and thistles are prickly plants of various genera.
    Plant names in The Lord of the Rings are discussed by J.A. Schulp in 'The Flora of Middle-earth', Inklings-Jahrbuch fur Literatur und Asthetik 3 (1985).
    113-14 (1:124-5): On the south-eastern side
    114 (I: 125). the Barrow-downs - In Nomenclature Tolkien describes the Barrow-downs as 'low treeless hills on which there were many "barrows", sc. tumuli and other prehistoric grave-mounds. This barrow is not related to modern barrow "an implement with a wheel"; it is a recent adoption by archaeologists of dialectal barrow (< berrow < Old English beorg, berg "hill, mound").' See further, note for p. 130.
    In Europe the custom of burying the dead in mounds began in the Neolithic period and continued through the Viking period. In the former, many barrows were family graves, but in later times burial mounds were raised mainly over the bodies of kings or chieftains, often interred with rich grave-goods. Tom Shippey points out that Tolkien would have seen many real barrows: 'Barely fifteen miles from Tolkien's study the Berkshire Downs rise from the Oxfordshire plain, thickly studded with Stone Age mounds, among them the famous Wayland's Smithy, from which a track leads to Nine Barrows Down' (J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century (2000), p. 61).
    115 (1:126): After stumbling along for some way
    115 (1:126). a dark river of brown water, bordered with ancient willows, arched over with willows, blocked with fallen willows, and flecked with thousands of faded willow-leaves. The air was thick with them, flutter­ing yellow from the branches - These features are depicted in Tolkien's drawing Old Man Willow (Artist and Illustrator, fig. 147). The large willow in its foreground may have been suggested by tree-drawings by Arthur Rackham. Tom Shippey has pointed out that only a short walk from his home in Northmoor Road, Oxford Tolkien 'would have seen virtually the same sight: the slow, muddy, lazy river fringed with willows. The real river, the one that flows into the Thames at Oxford, is the CherwelP (J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, p. 63). Eilert Ekwall, English River-names, suggests 'winding river' as a possible meaning of Cherwell; cf. 'Withy-windle', note for p. 99.


    115-16 (1:127): There being nothing else for it
    116 (1:127). rills - A rill is a small stream. 117 (I: 128): Half in a dream
    117 (I: 128). dragonets - Small dragons.
    117 (1:128): 'Do you know, Sam'
    117 (I: 128). the beastly tree threw me in! - Verlyn Flieger points out in 'Taking the Part of Trees: Eco-Conflict in Middle-earth', J.R.R. Tolkien ana His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth (2000), that since Tolkien's love of trees is well known
    it may come as something of a shock to be reminded that the first real villain to be met in LR is a tree. I except the Black Riders, since at this point in the narrative we have not met, but only seen and heard them. We do not know who or what they are or what they want. But we know more than enough about Old Man Willow. Huge, hostile, malicious, his trap­ping of Merry and Pippin in his willowy toils, his attempt to drown Frodo, give the hobbits their first major setback, and come uncomfortably close to ending their journey before it has properly started, [p. 148]
    Old Man Willow existed before Tolkien began The Lord of the Rings. He was one of the several adversaries encountered, and overcome, by Tom Bom-badil in the poem The Adventures of Tom Bombadil published in the Oxford Magazine in 1934. Early in the writing of The Lord of the Rings, when Tolkien was trying to think of suitable adventures for the hobbits, he decided to incorporate elements from the poem into the story, among them that the hobbits would have 'Adventure with Willowman and Barrow-wights' (The Return of the Shadow, p. 43). In the poem, Old Man Willow catches Tom in a crack; therefore one or more hobbits were destined to suffer the same fate. Also, Tom is pulled into the river by Goldberry; thus in The Lord of the Rings Old Man Willow throws Frodo into the river. But the light-hearted tone of the poem had to be adapted to the more serious story. Old Man Willow became a much greater menace, and the source even of the hobbits' earlier difficulties in the Old Forest: 'his song and thought ran through the woods on both sides of the river. His grey thirsty spirit drew power out of the earth and spread like fine root-threads in the ground, and invisible twig fingers in the air, till it had under its dominion nearly all the trees of the Forest from the Hedge to the Downs' (Book I, Chapter 7, p. 130,1:141).
    118 (1:129): 'We might try to hurt or frighten this tree
    118 (1:129). tinder-boxes - Equipment for lighting fires, with tinder (a dry substance that readily catches fire from a spark), flint (hard stone which when struck gives off a spark), and steel. This is in keeping with pre-industrial Hobbit society, though Bilbo in The Hobbit has matches. See


    further, Anders Stenstrom (Beregond), 'Striking Matches', Arda 5 (1988, foi 1985).
    119 (1:130): Hey! Come merry dol! derry doll My darling!
    119 (1:130). Hey! Come merry dol! derry dol! My darling!... - A recording by Tolkien of this poem is included on Disc 1 of The J.R.R. Tolkien Audio Collection.
    119 (I: 130). Old Tom Bombadil - Michael and Priscilla, Tolkien's second son and daughter, told members of the Tolkien Society in 1974 that Tom Bombadil was the name of a colourful Dutch doll owned by the Tolkien children, dressed exactly as Tom is described in The Lord of the Rings. (Another report, quoting Tolkien's eldest son, John, agrees; according to Humphrey Carpenter, Biography, the doll belonged to Michael.) As such, it may have been one of the Tolkien sons or daughter who chose its name rather than Tolkien himself; at any rate, the name was devised years before Tolkien began The Lord of the Rings, and the character had already appeared in a story and a poem.
    The story apparently was told first in oral form. A written version was abandoned soon after it gave a description of a 'Tom Bombadil' similar to that in The Lord of the Rings: 'Tom Bombadil was the name of one of the oldest inhabitants of the kingdom; but he was a hale and hearty fellow. Four feet high in his boots he was, and three feet broad. He wore a tall hat with a blue feather, his jacket was blue, and his boots were yellow' (quoted in Biography, p. 162). Tolkien also wrote a poem about Tom Bombadil, published in the Oxford Magazine for 15 February 1934:
    Old Tom Bombadil was a merry fellow, bright blue his jacket was, and his boots were yellow. He lived down under Hill; and a peacock's feather

    nodded in his old hat, tossing in the weather.

    Old Tom Bombadil walked about the meadows gathering the buttercups, a-chasing of the shadows, tickling the bumblebees a-buzzing in the flowers, sitting by the waterside for hours upon hours.

    There his beard dangled long down into the water: up came Goldberry, the Riverwomans daughter; pulled Tom's hanging hair. In he went a-wallowing under the waterlilies, bubbling and a-swallowing.
    'Hey! Tom Bombadil, whither are you going?' said fair Goldberry. 'Bubbles you are blowing, frightening the finny fish and the brown water-rat, startling the dabchicks, drowning your feather-hat!'


    Back to her mother's house in the deepest hollow swam young Goldberry; but Tom, he would not follow. On knotted willow-roots he sat in sunny weather drying his yellow boots and his draggled feather.
    Up woke Willow-man, began upon his singing, sang Tom fast asleep under branches swinging; in a crack caught him tight: quiet it closed together, trapped Tom Bombadil, coat and hat and feather.
    'Ha! Tom Bombadil, what be you a-thinking, peeping inside my tree, watching me a-drinking deep in my wooden house, tickling me with feather, dripping wet down my face like a rainy weather?'
    'You let me out again, Old Man Willow! I am stiff lying here; they're no sort of pillow, your hard crooked roots. Drink your river water! Go back to sleep again, like the River-daughter!'
    Willow-man let him loose, when he heard him speaking;
    locked fast his wooden house, muttering and creaking,
    whispering inside the tree. Tom, he sat a-listening.
    On the boughs piping birds were chirruping and whistling.
    Tom saw butterflies quivering and winking;
    Tom called the conies out, till the sun was sinking.
    Then Tom went away. Rain began to shiver,
    round rings spattering in the running river.
    Clouds passed, hurrying drops were falling helter-skelter;
    old Tom Bombadil crept into a shelter.
    Out came Badger-brock with his snowy forehead
    and his dark blinking eyes. In the hill he quarried
    with his wife and many sons. By the coat they caught him,
    pulled him inside the hole, down their tunnels brought him.
    Inside their secret house, there they sat a-mumbling: 'Ho! Tom Bombadil, where have you come tumbling, bursting in the front-door? Badgerfolk have caught you: you'll never find it out, the way that we have brought you!'
    'Now, old Badger-brock, do you hear me talking? You show me out at once! I must be a-walking.

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    Chapter 7
    For drafts and history of this chapter, see The Return of the Shadow, chiefly pp. 115-24, 303-4, 328-9; The Treason ofhengard, chiefly pp. 36-7.
    123 (1:134): In a chair, at the far side of the room
    123 (1:134). Her long yellow hair rippled down her shoulders; her gown was green, green as young reeds, shot with silver like beads of dew; and her belt was of gold, shaped like a chain of flag-lilies set with the pale-blue eyes of forget-me-nots. - The gown and belt of Goldberry, the 'River-woman's daughter', are described with appropriate water or river imagery. According to the Bombadil poem, at her wedding she wore a garland of forget-me-nots and flag-lilies, and a robe of silver-green.
    Flag-lily or yellow-flag is another name for the same iris that gave its name to the Gladden Fields (see note for p. 52). It is a perennial, native to Britain, growing in marshes and in wet ground by rivers.
    123 (1:134). About her feet in wide vessels of green and brown earthen­ware, white water-lilies were floating, so that she seemed to be enthroned in the midst of a pool - Goldberry may have left the river to become Tom's wife, but she still surrounds herself with her element. Later, 'her gown rustled softly like the wind in the flowering borders of a river', and her shoes are said to be 'like fishes' mail'.
    123 (1:134): 'Enter, good guests!'
    123 (I: 134). a fair young elf-queen - In 'Higher Argument: Tolkien and the Tradition of Vision, Epic and Prophecy', Proceedings oftheJ.R.R. Tolkien Centenary Conference 1992 (1995), Deirdre Greene comments that
    Frodo's first sight of Goldberry in the house of Tom Bombadil tells the reader a great deal about the woman and, by association, her mate.. . . The dwelling has low roofs, indicating simple humility; it is filled with light, suggesting spiritual good; the furnishings and the candles are of natural materials, connoting rural closeness to nature. Goldberry's chair, far opposite the door, suggests a throne in a reception hall. Her yellow hair suggests innocence and goodness; it is yellow rather than gold, emphasizing her unassuming nature. Her gown associates her with lush, young vegetation. Her belt is the gold of purity and sovereignty, but it celebrates in its floral design the eternal, cyclical triumph of nature; she is encircled by water and flowers, symbols of purity and fertility. As a


    whole, the image asserts Goldberry as a queen or a local deity, whose power derives from nature... . [pp. 47-8]
    Goldberry in The Lord of the Rings has stature, and powers, not even hinted at in the 1934 poem. In June 1958 Tolkien wrote to Forrest J. Ackerman that in The Lord of the Rings 'we are ... in real river-lands in autumn. Goldberry represents the actual seasonal changes in such lands' {Letters, p. 272).
    124 (1:135): Frodo looked at her
    124 (I: 135). He is, as you have seen him. ... He is the Master of wood, water, and hill. - Soon after the publication of The Fellowship of the Ring Peter Hastings, the manager of a Catholic bookshop in Oxford, wrote to Tolkien querying Goldberry's description of Tom Bombadil as 'He is'. He said that this seemed to imply that Tom was God. In a draft reply of September 1954 Tolkien wrote:
    As for Tom Bombadil, I really do think you are being too serious, besides missing the point.... Lots of other characters [in The Lord of the Rings] are called Master; and if 'in time' Tom was primeval he was Eldest in Time. But Goldberry and Tom are referring to the mystery of names [see note for p. 131]... . You may be able to conceive of your unique relation to the Creator without a name - can you: for in such a relation pronouns become proper nouns? But as soon as you are in a world of other finites with a similar, if each unique and different relation to the Prime Being, who are you? Frodo has asked not 'what is Tom Bombadil' but 'Who is he'. We and he no doubt often laxly confuse the questions. Goldberry gives what I think is the correct answer. We need not go into the sublimities of T am that I am' [God's words to Moses in Exodus 3:14] - which is quite different from he is. She adds as a concession a statement of part of the 'what'. He is master in a peculiar way: he has no fear, and no desire of possessions or domination at all. He merely knows and understands about such things as concern him in his natural little realm. [Letters, pp. 191-2]
    In notes Tolkien made before drafting this chapter, the emphasis of Goldberry's reply is somewhat different: 'He is not the possessor but the master, because he belongs to himself (The Return of the Shadow, p. 117). This is perhaps a way of saying that Tom is master of himself, and fulfils the precept 'Know thyself attributed to many ancient authorities.
    Many readers of The Lord of the Rings would like fuller answers to the questions of who or what is Tom Bombadil, but Tolkien never provided them. He wrote to Naomi Mitchison on 25 April 1954:
    There is of course a clash between 'literary' technique, and the fascin­ation of elaborating in detail an imaginary mythical Age.... As a story, I think it is good that there should be a lot of things unexplained


    (especially if an explanation actually exists); and I have perhaps from this point of view erred in trying to explain too much, and give too much past history.... And even in a mythical Age there must be some enigmas, as there always are. Tom Bombadil is one (intentionally).... Tom Bombadil is not an important person - to the narrative. I suppose he has some importance as a 'comment'. I mean, I do not really write like that: he is just an invention . .. and he represents something that I feel important, though I would not be prepared to analyze the feeling precisely. I would not, however, have left him in, if he did not have some kind of function. I might put it this way. The story is cast in terms of a good side, and a bad side, beauty against ruthless ugliness, tyranny against kingship, moderated freedom with consent against compulsion that has lost any object save mere power, and so on; but both sides in some degree, conservative or destructive, want a measure of control. But if you have, as it were taken 'a vow of poverty', renounced control, and take your delight in things for them­selves without reference to yourself, watching, observing, and to some extent knowing, then the question of the rights and wrongs of power and control might become utterly meaningless to you, and the means of power quite valueless. It is a natural pacifist view, which always arises in the mind when there is a war. But the view of Rivendell seems to be that it is an excellent thing to have represented, but that there are in fact things with which it cannot cope; and upon which its existence nonetheless depends. Ultimately only the victory of the West will allow Bombadil to continue, or even to survive. Nothing would be left for him in the world of Sauron. [Letters, pp. 174,178-9]
    Tolkien used similar words about Tom Bombadil in his draft letter to Peter Hastings, September 1954:
    I don't think Tom needs philosophizing about, and is not improved by it.... I kept him in, and as he was, because he represents certain things otherwise left out. I do not mean him to be an allegory - or I should not have given him so particular, individual, and ridiculous a name -but 'allegory' is the only mode of exhibiting certain functions: he is then an 'allegory', or an exemplar, a particular embodying of pure (real) natural science: the spirit that desires knowledge of other things, their history and nature, because they are 'other' and wholly independent of the enquiring mind, a spirit coeval with the rational mind, and entirely unconcerned with 'doing' anything with the knowledge: Zoology and Botany not Cattle-breeding or Agriculture. [Letters, p. 192]
    In Amon Hen 173 (January 2002) Christopher Fettes quoted from a letter sent to him by Tolkien in 1961:
    I think there are two answers: (i) External (ii) Internal; according to (i) Bombadil just came into my mind independently and got swept into


    the growing stream of The Lord of the Rings. The original poem about him, in the curious rhythm which characterizes him, appeared in the Oxford Magazine at some time not long before the war. According to (ii), I have left him where he is and not attempted to clarify his position, first of all because I like him and he has at any rate a satisfying geogra­phical home in the lands of The Lord of the Rings; but more seriously because in any world or universe devised imaginatively (or imposed simply upon the actual world) there is always some element that does not fit and opens as it were a window into some other system. You will notice that though the Ring is a serious matter and has great power for all the inhabitants of the world of The Lord of the Rings even the best and the most holy, it does not touch Tom Bombadil at all. So Bombadil is 'fatherless', he has no historical origin in the world described in The Lord of the Rings, [pp. 31-2]
    In an unpublished draft letter in 1968 Tolkien wrote: 'I do not know his [Tom Bombadil's] origin though I might make guesses. He is best left as he is, a mystery. There are many mysteries in any closed/organized system of history/mythology' (private collection; see further, note for p. 131).
    124 (1:135): 'No, indeed!' she answered
    124 (I: 135). No one ever caught old Tom walking in the forest, wading in the water, leaping on the hill-tops, under light and shadow.... He has no fear. Tom Bombadil is master. - Tom's ability to escape from ever} danger is the main theme of the 1934 poem. He is threatened or caught in turn by Goldberry, Old Man Willow, the Badgerfolk, and the Barrow-wight, but at his command each releases him. Goldberry's words echc those of the poem: 'None ever caught old Tom, walking in the meadows / winter and summer-time, in the lights and shadows, / down dale, ovei hill, jumping over water'.
    124 (1:135): 'Here's my pretty lady
    124 (I: 135). I see yellow cream and honeycomb, and white bread, and butter; milk, cheese, and green herbs and ripe berries - In the 1934 poem 'the table is all laden: / yellow cream, honeycomb, white bread anc butter'. Here more foods have been added - but no meats.
    125 (I: 136): He opened the door
    125 (I: 136). The floor was flagged, and strewn with fresh green rushes
    - That is, the floor was constructed of flagstones, flat rectangular ston« slabs used for paving.
    In medieval times and later in the country rushes (slender marsh plant! of the family Juncaceae) or reeds were strewn on floors for warmth anc were regularly replaced.


    127 (1:138): In the dead of night
    127 (1:138). Then he saw the young moon rising - In 'Tolkien's Calendar & Ithildin', Mythlore 9, no. 4, whole no. 34 (Winter 1982), Rhona Beare comments that 'this was a fantastic dream-moon; it was waxing and yet he [Frodo] saw it rise by night . .. the waxing moon always rises by day and sets before sunrise' (p. 23). The young moon in Frodo's dream may derive from Tolkien's first account, later changed, of Gandalf's escape from Orthanc on a night when 'the moon was still young' (The Treason of Isengard, p. 134).
    127 (I: 138). A mighty eagle swept down and bore him away. - Frodo is dreaming of Gandalf's escape from Orthanc in the early hours of 18 September. Gandalf will give a detailed account of the escape in Book II, Chapter 2.
    127 (I: 138). the sound of hoofs, galloping, galloping from the East. 'Black Riders!' - This part of the dream is probably linked in time with that of Gandalf's escape, and with the Riders' journey to the Shire, which they reached on the day Frodo left Bag End.
    127 (1:138): At his side Pippin lay dreaming
    127 (1:138). twig-fingers scraping wall and window... he had a dreadful feeling that he was still ... inside the willow - In the Bombadil poem Old Man Willow 'tapped, tapped at window-pane' on Tom and Goldberry's wedding night.
    128 (1:139): As far as he could remember
    128 (I: 139). Sam slept through the night in deep content, if logs are contented. - An oblique reference to the phrase to sleep like a log, i.e. to sleep soundly.
    128 (I: 139): They woke up, all four at once
    128 (I: 139). They woke - It is the morning of 27 September 1418.
    128 (I: 139-40): 'Good morning, merry friends!'
    128 (1:139). nosing wind and weather - To nose 'to find out, discover by means of scent', but also, in this context, to enjoy a breath of fresh morning air.
    128 (I: 139). naught wakes hobbit-folk - In editions prior to 2004 these words read 'nought wakes hobbit-folk'. On a proof of The Return of the King (Sotheby's catalogue, 21-2 July 1992, lot 183): Tolkien wrote in reply to a printer's query about naught versus nought that he did not mind which was used, since the English language had hesitated between a and 0 in this word for twelve centuries, and he did so himself. It is evident, however, that he decided in favour of naught as there were no instances of

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